National Assembly Library of Korea
National Assembly Library of Korea is a library in Seoul, South Korea. It is located in Yeouido-dong, Yeoungdeungpo-gu and it is the largest Humanities and Social Sciences Library in Korea functioning as both parliamentary and public libraries. The Library manages and preserves the National Assembly records, the Chief Librarian is a public official in political service under the Speaker of the National Assembly. Opening of the National Assembly Library 1963, enactment of the National Assembly Library Act 1975. Relocation of the Library to the National Assembly building in Yeouido, opening of the National Assembly Library building 1997. Establishment of the plan for the National Digital Library 1998. Opening of the Library to the general public 2000, signing of the first Agreement of Mutual Cooperation with Yonsei University 2002. Opening the Library to users over 18 years of age 2006, hosting of the 22nd IFLA Annual Conference of the Library and Research Services for Parliaments Section 2009.
National Assembly Archives transferred to the Library 2009, extension of opening hours until 10 PM2009. Opening of the Dokdo Island Branch 2010, signing of the 1000th Agreement on Mutual Cooperation with Hasang Braille Library 2010. Hosting of Living Library event 2010, hosting of the 2010 GLIN Seoul Conference 2011. Establishment of the Law Library 2012, opening of the National Assembly Library mobile service 2014. Hosting of a Conference with Guest Speaker Ronni Abergel, Founder of the Human Library 2014, opening of the Legal Information Center 2015. Hosting of the 4th International Conference on Asian Special Libraries 2015, opening of the Parliamentary Information System of the National Assembly and Local Councils 2016
ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. ProQuest provides solutions and products for libraries and its resources and tools support research and learning and dissemination, and the acquisition and discovery of library collections. From its founding as a producer of products and as an electronic publisher. Today, the company provides tools for discovery and citation management and platforms that allow users to discover, use. Content is accessed most commonly through library Internet gateways, the current chief executive officer is Kurt P. Sanford. ProQuest is part of Cambridge Information Group, ProQuest was founded as a microfilm publisher. These are made available through a variety of Web-based interfaces, a recent offering, ProQuest Video Preservation and Discovery Service, allows libraries to preserve and provide access to their proprietary audio and video collections. Ebrary offers access to collections, by subscription or a perpetual archive model, in subject packages tailored for academic, government, public.
Serials Solutions delivers discovery and e-resource access and management services, using a Software-as-a-Service model, Eugene Power, a 1930 M. B. A. graduate of the University of Michigan, founded the company as University Microfilms in 1938, preserving works from the British Museum on microfilm. By June 1938, Power worked in two rented rooms from a downtown Ann Arbor funeral parlor, specializing in microphotography to preserve library collections. In his autobiography Edition of One, Power details the development of the company and this work mainly involved filming maps and European newspapers so they could be shipped back and forth overseas more cheaply and discreetly. Power noticed a market in dissertations publishing. Students were often forced to publish their own works in order to finish their doctoral degree, Dissertations could be published more cheaply as microfilm than as books. ProQuest still publishes so many dissertations that its Dissertations and Theses collection has been declared the official U. S.
off-site repository of the Library of Congress, vaughn Davis Bornet seized on the idea and published Doctoral Dissertations and the Stream of Scholarship and Microfilm Publication of Doctoral Dissertations. As the dissertations market grew, the company expanded into filming newspapers, the companys main newspaper database is ProQuest NewsStand. In 1985 it was purchased from Xerox by Bell & Howell, in the 1980s, UMI began producing CD-ROMs that stored databases of periodicals abstracts and indexes. At a time when modem connections were slow and expensive, it was efficient to mail database CD-ROMs regularly to subscribing libraries. The ProQuest brand name was first used for databases on CD-ROM, an online service called ProQuest Direct was launched in 1995, its name was shortened to just ProQuest
National Library of Poland
The National Library of Poland is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland. The library collects books, journals and audiovisual publications published in the territory of Poland and it is the most important humanities research library, the main archive of Polish writing and the state centre of bibliographic information about books. It plays a significant role as a facility and is an important methodological center for other Polish libraries. The National Library receives a copy of every book published in Poland as legal deposit, the Jagiellonian Library is the only other library in Poland to have a national library status. Parts of the collection were damaged or destroyed as they were mishandled while being removed from the library and transported to Russia, according to the historian Joachim Lelewel, the Zaluskis books, could be bought at Grodno by the basket. Because of that, when Poland regained her independence in 1918, on 24 February 1928, by the decree of president Ignacy Mościcki, the National Library was created in its modern form.
It was opened in 1930 and initially had 200 thousand volumes and its first Director General was Stefan Demby, succeeded in 1934 by Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński. The collections of the library were rapidly extended, initially the National Library lacked a seat of its own. Because of that, the collections had to be accommodated in several places, the main reading room was located in the newly built library building of the Warsaw School of Economics. In 1935 the Potocki Palace in Warsaw became home for the special collections, a new, purpose-built building for the library was planned in what is now the Pole Mokotowskie, in a planned monumental Government District. However, its construction was hampered by the outbreak of World War II, before World War II, the library collections consisted of,6. It is estimated that out of over 6 million volumes in Warsaws major libraries in 1939,3.6 million volumes were lost during World War II, today the collections of the National Library are one of the largest in the country.
Among 7,900,000 volumes held in the library are 160,000 objects printed before 1801, over 26,000 manuscripts, in 2012 the library signed an agreement to add 1.3 million Polish library records to WorldCat. Załuski Library National Library List of libraries damaged during the World War II National Library website Polona - National Digital Library A Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, copy editing, production and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher.
Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title.
An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a self-contained sequence of actions to be performed. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks, an algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic, some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, giving a formal definition of algorithms, corresponding to the intuitive notion, remains a challenging problem. In English, it was first used in about 1230 and by Chaucer in 1391, English adopted the French term, but it wasnt until the late 19th century that algorithm took on the meaning that it has in modern English. Another early use of the word is from 1240, in a manual titled Carmen de Algorismo composed by Alexandre de Villedieu and it begins thus, Haec algorismus ars praesens dicitur, in qua / Talibus Indorum fruimur bis quinque figuris.
Which translates as, Algorism is the art by which at present we use those Indian figures, the poem is a few hundred lines long and summarizes the art of calculating with the new style of Indian dice, or Talibus Indorum, or Hindu numerals. An informal definition could be a set of rules that precisely defines a sequence of operations, which would include all computer programs, including programs that do not perform numeric calculations. Generally, a program is only an algorithm if it stops eventually, but humans can do something equally useful, in the case of certain enumerably infinite sets, They can give explicit instructions for determining the nth member of the set, for arbitrary finite n. An enumerably infinite set is one whose elements can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the integers, the concept of algorithm is used to define the notion of decidability. That notion is central for explaining how formal systems come into being starting from a set of axioms. In logic, the time that an algorithm requires to complete cannot be measured, from such uncertainties, that characterize ongoing work, stems the unavailability of a definition of algorithm that suits both concrete and abstract usage of the term.
Algorithms are essential to the way computers process data, thus, an algorithm can be considered to be any sequence of operations that can be simulated by a Turing-complete system. Although this may seem extreme, the arguments, in its favor are hard to refute. Gurevich. Turings informal argument in favor of his thesis justifies a stronger thesis, according to Savage, an algorithm is a computational process defined by a Turing machine. Typically, when an algorithm is associated with processing information, data can be read from a source, written to an output device. Stored data are regarded as part of the state of the entity performing the algorithm. In practice, the state is stored in one or more data structures, for some such computational process, the algorithm must be rigorously defined, specified in the way it applies in all possible circumstances that could arise. That is, any conditional steps must be dealt with, case-by-case
National Library of Luxembourg
The Bibliothèque nationale de Luxembourg is the legal deposit and copyright library for Luxembourg. It was established in 1899 in place of the library which dated from 1798. It has currently 750,000 books and 3500 periodicals, ISBN 2-87980-053-6 Jean-Marie Reding, Das Bibliothekswesen Luxemburgs, ein Überblick. Forum für Politik, Gesellschaft und Kultur,02.2004, official Website Union catalogue Bibnet. lu eLuxemburgensia digital Library findit. lu
National Library of Korea
The National Library of Korea is located in Seoul, South Korea and was established in 1945. It houses over 10 million volumes, including over 1,134,000 foreign books and it was relocated within Seoul, from Sogong-dong, Jung-gu to Namsan-dong in 1974, and again to the present location at Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, in 1988. It was transferred from the Ministry of Education to the Ministry of Culture in 1991, the library is served by Seoul Subway Lines 3,7 and 9 which all connect at Express Bus terminal Station. Take exit 5 from Express Bus Terminal subway station off of line 7, right at the top of exit 5 turn left and go through the crosswalk. Continue in that direction along the street walking South, past the National Digital Library of Korea, the National Library of Korea is behind this. The library is served by Seoul Subway Line 2, Seocho Station. Walk north from the exit, the library will be on your left
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from substantially the same setting of type, ” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control. The old and new aspects of book edition numbering are discussed below, book collectors generally use the term first edition to mean specifically the first print run of the first edition. Since World War II, books often include a line that indicates the print run. A first edition per se is not a collectible book. A popular work may be published and reprinted over time by many publishers, there will be a first edition of each, which the publisher may cite on the copyright page, such as, First mass market paperback edition. The first edition of a facsimile reprint is the reprint publishers first edition, the classic explanation of edition was given by Fredson Bowers in Principles of Bibliographical Description. ”Publishers often use the same typesetting for the hardcover and trade paperback versions of a book.
These books have different covers, the page and copyright page may differ, and the page margin sizes may differ. From time to time, readers may observe an error in the text, the publisher typically keeps these reprint corrections in a file pending demand for a new print run of the edition, and before the new run is printed, they will be entered. The method of entry, depends on the method of typesetting, for letterpress metal, it typically meant resetting a few characters or a line or two. For linotype, it meant casting a new line for any line with a change in it, with film, it involved cutting out a bit of the film and inserting a new bit. In an electronic file, it means entering the changes digitally, such minor changes do not constitute a new edition, but introduce typographical variations within an edition, which are of interest to collectors. A common complaint of book collectors is that the definition is used in a book-collecting context. For example, J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye as of 2016 remains in print in hardcover, the type is the same as the 1951 first printing, therefore all hardcover copies are, for the bibliographer, the first edition.
Collectors would use the term for the first printing only, the term first trade edition, refers to the earliest edition of a book offered for sale to the general public in book stores. For example, Upton Sinclairs 1906 novel The Jungle was published in two variant forms, a Sustainers Edition, published by the Jungle Publishing Company, was sent to subscribers who had advanced funds to Sinclair. The first trade edition was published by Doubleday, Page to be sold in bookstores and it is true that these are rarer than the production copies, but given that these were not printed from a different setting of type, they are not different editions. Publishers use the term first edition for their own purposes, with little consistency, the first edition of a trade book may be the first edition by the current publisher, or the first edition with a particular set of illustrations or editorial commentary