Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge
It marked the start of the Jiangqiao Campaign. This bridge had been dynamited earlier by Mas forces during the fighting against the pro-Japanese collaborationist forces of General Chang Hai-Peng, a repair crew, guarded by 800 Japanese soldiers, went to work on 4 November 1931. Nearby were 2,500 Chinese troops under General Ma Zhanshan, each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation. The Japanese claimed the Chinese opened fire using rifles and machine guns late in the day during a fog when Japanese troops started across the span, the Japanese retaliated and the skirmish continued for over three hours. Only 15 Japanese were reported killed and 120 Chinese, as the Japanese advanced, General Ma Zhanshan returned to counterattack with a much larger force. Although dislodging the Japanese from their positions, he was unable to recapture the bridge. Ma was eventually forced to withdraw his troops in the face of Japanese tanks, the repaired bridge made possible the further advance of Japanese forces and their armored trains.
Despite his failure to hold the bridge, General Ma Zhanshan became a hero in China for his resistance at Nenjiang Bridge. The publicity inspired more volunteers to enlist in the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, although often led by army officers and with numbers of former regular troops among their ranks, most volunteers had no previous military experience. These irregular armies were to become the main anti-Japanese force in northeast China during 1932. Jiangqiao Campaign Japanese invasion of Manchuria Coogan, northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932, two War Lords, TIME Magazine, Nov.16,1931 NONNI RIVER BRIDGE The volunteer armies of northeast China
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China is the founding and ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, the CPC is currently the worlds second largest political party with a membership of 88.76 million as of 2016. It controls the worlds largest armed force, the Peoples Liberation Army, the highest body of the CPC is the National Congress, convened every fifth year. The partys leader holds the offices of General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, through these posts the party leader is the countrys paramount leader. The current party leader is Xi Jinping, elected at the 18th National Congress, the CPC is still committed to communist thought and continues to participate in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties each year. The official explanation for Chinas economic reforms is that the country is in the stage of socialism. The planned economy established under Mao Zedong was replaced by the socialist market economy, the CPC has its origins in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, during which radical ideologies like Marxism and anarchism gained traction among Chinese intellectuals.
Other influences stemming from the Bolshevik revolution and Marxist theory inspired the Communist Party of China, Li Dazhao was the first leading Chinese intellectual who publicly supported Leninism and world revolution. In contrast to Chen Duxiu, Li did not renounce participation in the affairs of the Republic of China, both of them regarded the October Revolution in Russia as groundbreaking, believing it to herald a new era for oppressed countries everywhere. The CPC was modeled on Vladimir Lenins theory of a vanguard party, Study circles were, according to Cai Hesen, the rudiments. Several study circles were established during the New Culture Movement, the founding National Congress of the CPC was held on 23–31 July 1921. With only 50 members in the beginning of 1921, the CPC organization, while it was originally planned to be held in Shanghai French Concession, police officers interrupted the meeting on 3 July. Because of that, the congress was moved to a tourist boat on South Lake in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province, only 12 delegates attended the congress, with neither Li nor Chen being able to attend.
Chen sent a representative to attend the congress. The resolutions of the called for the establishment of a communist party. The communists dominated the left wing of the KMT, a party organized on Leninist lines, when KMT leader Sun Yat-sen died in March 1925, he was succeeded by a rightist, Chiang Kai-shek, who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the communists. Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition to overthrow the warlords, Chiang Kai-shek turned on the communists, ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based KMT government, he marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by communist militias. Although the communists welcomed Chiangs arrival, he turned on them, Chiangs army marched on Wuhan, but was prevented from taking the city by CPC General Ye Ting and his troops
Battle of Taierzhuang
The Battle of Taierzhuang was a battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1938, between the armies of the Republic of China and Japan. The battle was the first major Chinese victory of the war and it humiliated the Japanese military and its reputation as an invincible force, while for the Chinese it represented a tremendous morale boost. Taierzhuang is located on the bank of the Grand Canal of China and was a frontier garrison northeast of Xuzhou. It was the terminus of a branch railway from Lincheng. Xuzhou itself was the junction of the Jinpu Railway and the Longhai Railway and these provinces were the area of operations of the KMT 5th War Area. The Japanese planned to fight through the Jinpu Railway from the north and south, from there, they would attack Wuhan and force the KMT into surrender. At this time, the Japanese armies were very powerful, so this operation should have been done with relative ease, as a result, the commanders did not deploy their full forces to complete the task. Eventually, KMT general Liao Leis forces arrived, and the battle became tightly entangled.
The Japanese were forced onto the bank of the Huai River. As a result, it was unable to launch the planned attack on Xuzhou with the Isogai division. In the northeast, the Itagaki division was advancing towards Xuzhou. However, it was halted at Linyi by KMT generals Pang Bingxun and Zhang Zizhong, although insufficiently trained and not very well equipped, the Chinese troops inflicted heavy casualties on the Japanese, who retreated. This engagement not only broke the myth of Imperial Japanese invincibility, even the Tokyo headquarters were shocked. Although the 5th division picked itself back up and tried again, as a result, the Chinese victory at Linyi would have a big impact on the actual battle in Taierzhuang. Of the three Japanese divisions driving into the 5th War Area, the Isogai division was the most successful and this division came from Hebei, crossing the Yellow River and moving southwards along the Jinpu Railway. Because of KMT general Han Fujus desertion, the division occupied Zhoucun, from there, they arrived at Taian.
Here, they were faced with resistance from the forces of KMT generals Sun Tongxuan. Although the Japanese did suffer losses, the Chinese were very poorly equipped, as a result, the Chinese soldiers could only form line after line of defence in a desperate attempt to fight off the Japanese, who were backed up by planes and heavy artillery
Battle of Xinkou
After battles at Nankou, the Chahar Expeditionary Force of the Japanese Kwangtung Army occupied Datong in Shanxi province, and began their assault on the Yenbei area. The Japanese Fifth Division started their attack from Hebei marching westwards and taking the towns of Guanglin, the Commander of the 2nd War Zone, Yan Xishan, ordered Chinese troops to retreat and set up a defense line in Niangziguan and Pingxingguan. On October 1, Japanese central command ordered Itagaki Seishiro to lead the Fifth Division, on the same day, the military commission of the Chinese Nationalist government ordered the 14th Group Army to fight the Japanese at Xinkou. The 34th and 35th Armies were in reserve, commanded by Fu Zuoyi, to control the Dingxiang, the 15th brigade from the Chahar Expeditionary Force marched around Gouxian and attacked Yuanping, and engaged the 34th Army’s 196 brigade, led by Jiang Yuzhen. After intense close-quarter combat, the defending Chinese soldiers were wiped out, by this time, the invading forces were ready to make their move on Xinkou.
Due to the developments on the battlefields, Chinese commander Wei Lihuang had to re-organize the defense line on October 2. Finally, the 33rd, 17th and 15th Armies formed the right flank, on October 13, Itagaki Seishiro led 50,000 Japanese troops on a major assault against Xinkou. The Xinkou battles rages on for days, with the Nanhuahua position changing hands many times. Despite his death, the 61st Army commander Chen Zhangjie and subsequently the 19th Army commander Wang Jingguo continued to lead the defense of Xinkou and successfully held their defensive positions. During this time, the Communists’ Eighth Route Army executed several guerrilla attacks in the Japanese troops rear at Lingqiu, Weixian, Pingxingguan and Yanmenguan. On the evening of October 19, the 769 Regiment of the 120th Division attacked Yangmingbao airbase, By this time the Japanese had suffered close to 20,000 casualties without making much progress on their assault of Xinkou. Therefore, the Japanese Northern China Area Army had to add three additional regiments on October 22,27 and 29, to assist in the attack of Nanhauhua.
However, the Japanese troops still could not take this important position and had to re-direct their attack to Dabaishui, the Chinese commander for this operation was assigned to Huang Shaohong, the deputy commander of the 2nd War Zone. On October 11, the 20th division of the Japanese army captured Jingxing, the Japanese only used some troops to attack Niangziguan, while their main force marched around and captured Jiuguan. On October 21, the 20th division was reinforced by the 109th division and continued their attack on Niangziguan from the south, on October 26, four Japanese commando battalions were able to break through the Chinese 3rd Army defense at Ceyuzhen, and breach the Niangziguan defense line. The Chinese forces were forced to retreat to Taiyuan, and were chased by the Japanese attackers along the Shijiazhuang – Taiyuan railways, on November 11, the Japanese troops captured Shouyang after repelling an ambush by the 41st Army. By this time, all Chinese troops at Xinkou were ordered to retreat to Taiyuan to avoid being encircled by the enemy, the battle of Xinkou marked the first large-scale cooperation between the provincial army, Chinese Communists, and Chiang Kai-shek’s Central Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Although the Chinese defenders fought bravely on a front against the enemy during this campaign, they had a large shortage of firepower. In conclusion, the Chinese forces ultimately lost the battle, paying the price of 100,000 troops dead, injured or missing, hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War 2nd Ed.1971
Peng Dehuai was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, and served as Chinas Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959. When he was sixteen, Peng became a professional soldier, over the next ten years Peng served in the armies of several Hunan-based warlord armies, raising himself from the rank of private second class to major. In 1926 Pengs forces joined the Kuomintang, and Peng was first introduced to communism, Peng participated in the Northern Expedition, and supported Wang Jingweis attempt to form a left-leaning Kuomintang government based in Wuhan. After Wang was defeated, Peng briefly rejoined Chiang Kai-sheks forces before joining the Chinese Communist Party, allying himself with Mao Zedong and Zhu De. Peng was one of the most senior generals who defended the Jiangxi Soviet from Chiangs attempts to capture it, Peng participated in the Long March, and supported Mao Zedong at the Zunyi Conference, which was critical to Maos rise to power. Peng was the commander in the combined Kuomintang-Communist efforts to resist the Japanese occupation of Shanxi in 1937.
In 1940, Peng conducted the Hundred Regiments Offensive, a massive Communist effort to disrupt Japanese logistical networks across northern China, after the Japanese surrendered, in 1945, Peng was given command of Communist forces in Northwest China. He was the most senior commander responsible for defending the Communist leadership in Shaanxi from Kuomintang forces, the rivalry between Peng and Mao culminated in an open confrontation between the two at the 1959 Lushan Conference. Mao won this confrontation, labeled Peng as a leader of an anti-Party clique, Peng lived in virtual obscurity until 1965, when the reformers Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping supported Pengs limited return to government, developing military industries in Southwest China. In 1966, following the advent of the Cultural Revolution, Peng was arrested by Red Guards, in 1970 Peng was formally tried and sentenced to life imprisonment, and he died in prison in 1974. After Mao died in 1976, Pengs old ally, Deng Xiaoping, Deng led an effort to formally rehabilitate people who had been unjustly persecuted during the Cultural Revolution, and Peng was one of the first leaders to be posthumously rehabilitated, in 1978.
In modern China, Peng is considered one of the most successful, Peng was born in 1898 in the village of Shixiang, Xiangtan County, Hunan. His personal name at birth was Dehua, Pengs family lived in a thatched-straw hut and owned approximately 1.5 acres of irrigated land, on which the family grew bamboo, sweet potatoes, tea and various vegetables. His father operated a bean curd shop, the income from the land and shop supported an extended family of eight people, including Peng, his three brothers, his parents, his grandmother, and a grand-uncle. Peng described his own background as lower-middle peasant. From 1905–1907, Peng was enrolled in a traditional Confucian primary school, in 1908 Peng attended a modern primary school, but, at the age of ten, was forced to withdraw from this school due to his familys deteriorating financial situation. In 1905–1906, there was a drought in Hunan. Pengs mother died in 1905, and Pengs six-month-old brother died of hunger, Pengs father was forced to sell most of his family possessions for food, and to pawn most of his familys land
Battle of Nanking
Following the outbreak of war between Japan and China in July 1937 the Japanese government at first attempting to contain the fighting and sought a negotiated settlement to the war. However, after victory in the Battle of Shanghai expansionists prevailed within the Japanese military, Japanese soldiers marched from Shanghai to Nanking at a breakneck pace, rapidly defeating pockets of Chinese resistance. By December 9 they had reached the last line of defense, on December 10 Matsui ordered an all-out attack on Nanking, and after less than two days of intense fighting Chiang decided to abandon the city. Before fleeing, Tang ordered his men to launch a concerted breakout of the Japanese siege, most of Tangs units simply collapsed, their soldiers often casting off their weapons and uniforms in the streets in the hopes of hiding among the citys civilian population. Following the capture of the city Japanese soldiers massacred Chinese prisoners of war, murdered civilians, though Japans military victory excited and emboldened them, the subsequent massacre tarnished their reputation in the eyes of the world.
Contrary to Matsuis expectations, China did not surrender and the Second Sino-Japanese War continued for eight years. China, wanted to avoid a confrontation in the north. The Japanese responded by dispatching the Shanghai Expeditionary Army, commanded by General Iwane Matsui, the city of Nanking is 300 kilometers west of Shanghai. Matsui made clear to his superiors even before he left for Shanghai that he wanted to march on Nanking, Yanagawa was likewise eager to conquer Nanking and both men chafed under the operation restriction line that had been imposed on them by the Army General Staff. On November 19 Yanagawa ordered his 10th Army to pursue retreating Chinese forces across the operation restriction line to Nanking, when Tada discovered this the next day he ordered Yanagawa to stop immediately, but was ignored. Matsui made some effort to restrain Yanagawa, but told him that he could send some advance units beyond the line. Meanwhile, as more and more Japanese units continued to slip past the operation restriction line, Tada flew to Shanghai in person on December 1 to deliver the order, though by his own armies in the field were already well on their way to Nanking.
Here Chiang insisted fervently on mounting a defense of Nanking. He noted that holding onto Nanking would strengthen Chinas hand in peace talks which he wanted the German ambassador Oskar Trautmann to mediate and they argued that the Chinese Army needed more time to recover from its losses at Shanghai, and pointed out that Nanking was highly indefensible topographically. The mostly gently sloping terrain in front of Nanking would make it easy for the attackers to advance on the city, while the Yangtze River behind Nanking would cut off the defenders retreat. Chiang, had become increasingly agitated over the course of the Battle of Shanghai, even declaring that he would stay behind in Nanking alone. Seizing the opportunity Tang had given him, Chiang responded by organizing the Nanking Garrison Force on November 20, the orders Tang received from Chiang on November 30 were to defend the established defense lines at any cost and destroy the enemy’s besieging force. Though both men declared that they would defend Nanking to the last man, they were aware of their precarious situation
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, known by several other names, was a battle between the Republic of Chinas National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army. It is often used as the marker for the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, in English, the battle is usually known as the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. The Marco Polo Bridge is an eleven-arch granite bridge, a significant structure first erected under the Jin. It gained its Western name from its appearance in Marco Polos record of his travels, the name is less often expressed as the Battle of Marco Polo Bridge. It is known as the Lukouchiao, Lugouqiao, or Lugou Bridge Incident from the name of the bridge. This is the name for the event in Japanese and is an alternate name for it in Chinese. The same name is expressed or translated as the Battle of Lugou Bridge, Lugouqiao, in China and Korea, it is more often known as the July 7th Incident or as the July 7th Lugou Bridge Incident. Although the Kuomintang government of China refused to recognize Manchukuo, a truce between Japan and Republican China had been negotiated in 1931, however, at the end of 1932 the Japanese Army invaded Rehe Province.
This was annexed into Manchukuo in 1933 and this was to ensure open communications between the capital and the port. By a supplementary agreement on 15 July 1902, these forces were allowed to conduct maneuvers without informing the authorities of other nations in China. By July 1937, Japan had expanded its forces in China to an estimated 7,000 to 15,000 men, mostly along the railways. This number of men, and amount of concomitant matériel, was several times the size of those deployed by the European powers. By this time, the Imperial Japanese Army had already surrounded Beijing, on the night of 7 July, the Japanese units stationed at Fengtai crossed the border to conduct military exercises. Japanese and Chinese forces outside the town of Wanping—a walled town 10.2 miles southwest of Beijing—exchanged fire at approximately 23,00, the exact cause of this incident still remains a mystery. And, although Private Shimura returned to his unit, by this point both sides were mobilising, with the Japanese deploying reinforcements and surrounding Wanping, in the night, a unit of Japanese infantry attempted to breach Wanpings walled defences and were repulsed.
An ultimatum by the Japanese was issued two hours later, this proved to be fruitless, and the Japanese insisted that they be admitted into the town to investigate the cause of the incident. At around 04,00, reinforcements of both began to arrive. The Chinese rushed an extra division of troops to the area, about an hour or so the Japanese Army opened fire and attacked the Marco Polo Bridge, along with a modern railway bridge
Battle of Pingxingguan
The battle resulted in the loss of 500 to 600 soldiers on either side, but the Chinese captured 100 trucks full of supplies. The victory gave the Communists a tremendous propaganda boost and it was the only division-size battle fought by the Chinese Communists during the entire war. After the capture of Beiping at the end of July, Japanese forces advanced along the Beijing–Baotou Railway to Inner Mongolia, having anticipated the move, Chiang Kai-shek had appointed the Shanxi warlord Yan Xishan as Pacification Director of Taiyuan. In reality these forces operated independently from Yans provincial army, Japanese forces, mainly the 5th Division and 11th Independent Mixed Brigade, moved out from Beiping and advanced on Huailai County in Chahar. A Japanese column advanced quickly into Shanxi, making use of the railway which the Chinese did not attempt to destroy, the Chinese abandoned Datong on September 13, falling back to a line from Yanmenguan on the Great Wall east to the mountain pass of Pingxingguan.
Yan Xishans troops became more demoralised as the Japanese exerted their air supremacy, the main body of the Japanese 5th Division, under the command of Itagaki Seishiro, advanced from Huaili to invade northeastern Shanxi. Although it had a transport column, its rate of advance was limited by the poor roads. By the time reached the Shanxi border, Lin Biaos 115th Division. The pass of Pingxingguan was a narrow defile worn through the loess, lins division were able to ambush two columns of mainly transportation and supply units and virtually annihilate the trapped Japanese forces. On September 25, the 21st brigade of the Japanese 5th Division stationed at Lingqiu received a request from the 21st Regiment that they urgently needed supplies due to falling temperature. The supply troops of the 21st Regiment set out with 70 horse-drawn vehicles with 50 horses, filled with clothes, food and proceeded westwards towards Pingxingguan. Around 10,00, the column passed into a defile with the two sides rising up more than 10 meters, they were heading towards Caijiayu about 3 km away.
At the same time, a column of Japanese supply troops in about 80 trucks left Guangou. Both of these non-combat formations entered into the set by the 115th division after 10 a. m. on the 25th and were largely wiped out. A relief force consisting of the 3rd Battalion of the 21st Regiment was rebuffed by Chinese troops, Lin Biaos troops eventually withdrew from the battlefield, allowing the Japanese to finally reach the site of the ambush on September 28. The total, the Japanese casualties in the battle have been estimated at 400 to 500 and the Chinese at about 400. The Chinese forces destroyed about 70 trucks and an number of horse-drawn carts and captured 100 rifles,10 light machine guns,1 gun,2000 shells as well as some clothing. The Kuomintang official history of the Second Sino-Japanese War deals with it in a sentence, communist accounts, on the other hand, describe Pingxingguan as a typical example of Red guerrilla tactics, inspired by Mao Zedongs conceptualization of Peoples war