Karlsruhe Palace was erected in 1715 by Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach. The city of Karlsruhe has since grown around it and it is now home to the main museum of the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe. The first building was constructed by Jakob Friedrich von Batzendorf, originally partially made of wood, the palace had to be rebuilt in 1746, using stone. In 1785, Wilhelm Jeremias Müller shortened the tower, adding a cupola, during the Revolutions of 1848, Grand Duke of Baden was expelled in 1849 for some time. In 1918, the last monarch Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden had to move out, the former residence of the Rulers of Baden is since used as Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe. Much of the city centre, including the palace, was reduced to rubble by Allied bombing during World War II but was rebuilt after the war. Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe City wiki about Karlsruhe Palace
In heraldry, a fess or fesse is a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running horizontally across the centre of the shield. Writers disagree in how much of the surface is to be covered by a fess or other ordinary. The fess or bar, termed fasce in French heraldry, should not be confused with fasces. In English heraldry, two or more such charges appearing together on a shield are termed bars, though there are no definitive rules setting the width of the fess, a shield of horizontal stripes of alternating colour is called barry. Narrower versions of the bar are called barrulets, and when a shield of horizontal stripes alternating colour is composed of ten or more stripes, it is called barruly or burely instead of barry. A cotise, defined as half the width of a barrulet, may be alongside a fess. This is often termed a fess cotised, another diminutive of the fess called a closet is said to be between a bar and barrulet, but this is seldom found. A fess when couped can be called humetty, but this term is rare in the Anglophone heraldries and is most often used of the cross. A shield party per fess is divided in half horizontally, a charge placed horizontally may be termed fesswise or fessways, and two or more charges arranged in a horizontal row are blazoned in fess or in bar. A mural fess, that is an embattled and masoned of the field.
The arms of Baroness Fritchie provide an example of three Barrulets fracted and there conjoined to a Chevronel, Heraldry and Modern, Including Boutells Heraldry. LCCN 81-670212 Woodcock and John Martin Robinson, LCCN 88-23554 Woodward and George Burnett. Woodwards a treatise on heraldry and foreign, edinburgh, W. & A. K. Johnson
Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden
Charles Frederick, 1st Grand Duke of Baden was Margrave and Grand Duke of Baden from 1738 until his death. Born at Karlsruhe, he was the son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Baden-Durlach and Amalia of Nassau-Dietz and he succeeded his grandfather as Margrave of Baden-Durlach in 1738 and ruled personally from 1746 until 1771, when he inherited Baden-Baden from the Bernhard Line. Upon inheriting the latter margraviate, the land of Baden was reunited. He was regarded as a example of an enlightened despot, supporting schools, jurisprudence, civil service, culture. He outlawed torture in 1767, and serfdom in 1783 and he was elected a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society in 1747 In 1803, Charles Frederick became Elector of Baden, and in 1806 the first Grand Duke of Baden. In 1806, Baden joined the Confederation of the Rhine, together with his architect, Friedrich Weinbrenner, Charles Frederick was responsible for the construction of the handsome suite of classical buildings that distinguish Karlsruhe.
He died in the city in 1811, being one of the few German rulers to die during the Napoleonic era. Charles Frederick married Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt on 28 January 1751 and she was the daughter of Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt, was born on 11 July 1723 and died on 8 April 1783. Prince Frederick of Baden, married on 9 December 1791 Louise of Nassau-Usingen, Prince Louis of Baden, married Countess Katharina Werner of Langenstein in 1818. Louis succeeded his nephew Charles as Louis I, 3rd Grand Duke in 1818, Charles Frederick married Louise Caroline, Baroness Geyer of Geyersberg as his second wife on 24 November 1787. She was the daughter of Lt. Col. Louis Henry Philipp, Baron Geyer of Geyersberg and his wife Maximiliana Christiane and she was born on 26 May 1768 and died on 23 July 1820. This was a marriage, and the children born of it were not eligible to succeed. Louise was created Baroness of Hochberg at the time of her marriage and Countess of Hochberg in 1796 and they had the following children, Prince Leopold of Baden, succeeded as HRH Leopold I, Grand Duke of Baden.
Married on 25 July 1819 in Karlsruhe his half-grand-niece, HRH Princess Sophie of Sweden, eldest daughter of the former King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, by 1817, the descendants of Charles Frederick by his first wife were dying out. To prevent Baden from being inherited by the heir, the reigning Grand Duke, Charles. They thus became Princes and Princesses of Baden with the style Grand Ducal Highness and their succession rights were reinforced when Baden was granted a constitution in 1818, and recognised by Bavaria and the Great Powers in the Treaty of Frankfurt,1819. Leopolds descendants ruled the Grand Duchy of Baden until 1918, the current pretenders to the throne of Baden are descendants of Leopold. Leopold, the eldest son from the marriage, succeeded as Grand Duke in 1830
Order of the Black Eagle
The Order of the Black Eagle was the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia. The order was founded on 17 January 1701 by Elector Friedrich III of Brandenburg, in his Dutch exile after World War I, deposed Emperor Wilhelm II continued to award the order to his family. He made his wife, Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz. The statutes of the order were published on 18 January 1701, membership in the Order of the Black Eagle was limited to a small number of knights, and was divided into two classes, members of reigning houses and capitular knights. Before 1847, membership was limited to nobles, but after that date, capitular knights were generally high-ranking government officials or military officers. The Order of the Black Eagle had only one class, by statute, members of the order held the Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle, and wore the badge of that order from a ribbon around the neck. From 1862, members of the Prussian royal house, upon award of the Order of the Black Eagle, the badge of the Order was a gold Maltese cross, enameled in blue, with gold-crowned black eagles between the arms of the cross.
The gold center medallion bore the monogram of Friedrich I. This badge was worn either a broad ribbon or a collar. The ribbon of the Order was an orange moiré sash worn from the shoulder to the right hip. The sash color was chosen in honor of Louise Henriette of Nassau, daughter of the prince of Orange, the star of the Order was a silver eight-pointed star, with straight or faceted rays depending on the jewelers design. The center medallion displayed a black eagle on a background, surrounded by a white enamelled ring bearing a wreath of laurels. At meetings of the chapter of the Order of the Black Eagle and at certain ceremonies, embroidered on the left shoulder of each cape was a large star of the Order. From its founding in 1701 to 1918, the Order of the Black Eagle was awarded 407 times, subjects of the Prussian King receiving the order which was only given in one class were promoted to the peerage and received hereditary title. The Order was conferred upon Prussian queens, though other members of the royal family usually received the Order of Louise instead.
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn – Kaiser Wilhelm IIs uncle, Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland – Prince of Sweden Carol I of Romania – King of Romania, member of the Princely House of Hohenzollern. Louis XVIII – King of France, ludwig II of Bavaria – King of Bavaria. Emperor Meiji – Emperor of Japan, mozaffar al-Din Shah – Shah of Persia –29 May 1902 – during the visit to Berlin of the Shah Naser al-Din Shah Qajar – Shah of Persia
Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden
Frederick I was the Grand Duke of Baden from 1856 to 1907. Frederick was born in Karlsruhe, on 9 September 1826 and he was the third son of Grand Duke Leopold and of his wife, Grand Duchess Sophie, who was born Princess of Sweden, daughter of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden. He became the heir presumptive to the Grand Duchy upon the death of his father in 1852, due to his brothers mental ill-health, he was Regent ad interim of Baden in 1852–1855, and took the title of Grand Duke in 1856. His brother, Louis II, died in 1858 and he was considered a relatively liberal supporter of a constitutional monarchy. During his reign the option of civil marriages was introduced in Baden as well as elections to the Lower House of the Parliament of Baden in 1904. In 1856, he married Princess Louise, daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia and his wife, the Grand Duke had a pivotal role in the history of the Zionist Movement. In 1896 the Grand Duke met Theodor Herzl via their mutual acquaintance the reverend William Hechler, and helped Herzl in obtaining an audience with his nephew, the German Emperor.
Frederick I was present at the proclamation of the German Empire at Versailles in 1871, as he was the only son-in-law of the Emperor and he died at his summer residence at the island of Mainau in southern Germany on 28 September 1907. Today, Mainau is owned by the Lennart Bernadotte-Stiftung, created by Fredericks great-grandson Count Lennart Bernadotte
Prussia was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centred on the region of Prussia. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership, in November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, from 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. Prussia existed de jure until its liquidation by the Allied Control Council Enactment No.46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians, in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them.
In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk and their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany and in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a Lesser Germany which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleons defeat, Prussia acquired a section of north western Germany.
The country grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians. In the Weimar Republic, the state of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. East Prussia lost all of its German population after 1945, as Poland, the main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white colours were already used by the Teutonic Knights. The Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a cross with gold insert
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov, was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family. He has a reputation as one of the most influential. Gorchakov was born at Haapsalu, Governorate of Estonia, and was educated at the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum and he became a good classical scholar, and learned to speak and write in French with facility and elegance. Pushkin in one of his poems described young Gorchakov as Fortunes favoured son, on leaving the lyceum Gorchakov entered the foreign office under Count Nesselrode. His first diplomatic work of importance was the negotiation of a marriage between the grand duchess Olga and the crown prince Charles of Wurttemberg and he remained at Stuttgart for some years as Russian minister and confidential adviser of the crown princess. He foretold the outbreak of the spirit in Germany and Austria. When the German Confederation was re-established in 1850 in place of the parliament of Frankfurt and it was here that he first met Prince Bismarck, with whom he formed a friendship which was afterwards renewed at St Petersburg.
The emperor Nicholas found that his ambassador at Vienna, Baron Meyendorff, was not an instrument for carrying out his schemes in the East. He therefore transferred Gorchakov to Vienna, where the remained through the critical period of the Crimean War. At the same time, although he attended the Paris conference of 1856, he abstained from affixing his signature to the treaty of peace after that of Count Orlov. The Prussian support was assured by the Alvensleben Convention, in July 1863 Gorchakov was appointed Chancellor of the Russian Empire expressly in reward for his bold diplomatic attitude towards an indignant Europe. The appointment was hailed with enthusiasm in Russia, a rapprochement now began between the courts of Russia and Prussia, and in 1863 Gorchakov smoothed the way for the occupation of Holstein by the Federal troops. This seemed equally favourable to Austria and Prussia, but it was the power which gained all the substantial advantages. When conflict arose between Austria and Prussia in 1866, Russia remained neutral and permitted Prussia to reap the benefits arising from the conflict, in 1867 Russia and the US concluded the sale of Alaska, a process which began as early as 1854 during the Crimean War.
Gorchakov was not against the sale but always advocated for careful and secret negotiations, seeing the eventuality of the sale, when the Franco-German War of 1870-71 broke out, Russia argued for the neutrality of Austria. An attempt was made to form a coalition, but it failed because of the cordial understanding between the German and Russian chancellors. This was justly regarded by him as an important service to his country and one of the triumphs of his career, the cordial relations between the cabinets of St Petersburg and Berlin did not last much longer. He had the satisfaction of seeing the lost portion of Bessarabia restored to his country by the Berlin treaty, Gorchakov considered the Berlin treaty the greatest failure of his official career