Anatoly Vyacheslavovich Lebed, was a Hero of the Russian Federation, Guards Lieutenant Colonel in Special Airborne Forces, and an officer of the 45th Guards Spetsnaz Regiment. Lebed was born in the city of Valga, Estonia and he joined the Soviet Armed Forces in 1981 starting his military service in Soviet Airborne Troops. He first trained in the 44th Airborne Division in Gaižiūnai in the Lithuanian SSR, opting for a career change, he entered the Lomonosov Military Aviation Technical School graduating as a flight engineer in 1986. He served on operations in Afghanistan in 1986–87 as an aircrew member in a helicopter regiment. His service had earned him the Order For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces 3rd class and he retired to the reserves in 1994 and worked for the Afghan Veterans benevolent fund. He joined a group of Russian veterans who volunteered in the Kosovo War, in 1999, he went to the North Caucasus as a volunteer in the combined militias after purchasing his own equipment and flying to Makhachkala in Dagestan.
In 2003, while engaged in combat in the Ulus-Kert mountains, he stepped on a mine and lost a foot. He refused to resign from the Armed Forces, his physical fitness allowed him to remain in the service, to carry on parachuting. On January 9,2005 his patrol was ambushed, refusing to let his men be captured by the enemy, he single-handedly engaged. In a subsequent battle on January 24,2005, he was injured by multiple fragment wounds in the back while shielding his men from the blast of a rocket propelled grenade. Even wounded, he neutralised the enemy rocket and machine gun post continued leading the patrol leading to the capture. He was awarded the Title of Hero of the Russian Federation on April 6,2005 by Presidential Decree citing for courage and he held the rank of captain. His actions during the 2008 South Ossetia war earned him the honour of becoming only the second Knight of the Order of St. George 4th class and he always led from the front during combat operations, always displaying the epitome of personal courage itself.
On April 27,2012, in Moscow, Lebed was killed in a motorcycle accident
The Chechen Republic, commonly referred to as Chechnya, is a federal subject of Russia. It is located in the North Caucasus, situated in the southernmost part of Eastern Europe, the capital of the republic is the city of Grozny. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into two parts, the Republic of Ingushetia and the Chechen Republic, the latter proclaimed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, which sought independence. Following the First Chechen War with Russia, Chechnya gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Russian federal control was restored during the Second Chechen War. Since there has been a reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues in the mountains. According to Leonti Mroveli, the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, the word Caucasian is derived from the Vainakh ancestor Kavkas, dr. Henry Harpending, University of Utah, supports her claims. People living in prehistoric mountain cave settlements used tools, mastered fire, traces of human settlement that date back to 40,000 BC were found near Lake Kezanoi.
Cave paintings and other evidence indicates continuous habitation for some 8,000 years. 10, 000–8000 BCE Migration of Nakh peoples to the slopes of the Caucasus from the Fertile Crescent, Invention of agriculture and the domestication of animals. Pottery is known to the region, settlements made out of clay bricks discovered in the plains. In the mountains there were discovered settlements made out of stone and surrounded by walls, 4000–3000 BCE Invention of the wheel, horseback riding, metal works, armor, knives, arrow tips. The artifacts were found near Nasare-Cort, Muzhichi, Ja-E-Bortz, Abbey-Gove 900–1200 AD The kingdom in the center of the Caucasus splits into Alania, german scientist Peter Simon Pallas believed that Ingush people were the direct descendants from Alania. The Alan tribes build fortresses and defense walls locking the mountains from the invaders, part of the lowland tribes occupied by Mongols. 1500 AD First Russian involvement in the Caucasus,1558 Temryuk of Kabarda sends his emissaries to Moscow requesting help against Vainakh tribes from Ivan the Terrible.
Ivan the Terrible marries Temryuks daughter Maria Temryukovna, alliance formed to gain the ground in the central Caucasus for the expanding Tsardom of Russia against stubborn Vainakh defenders. Chechnya was a nation in the Northern Caucasus that fought against foreign rule continually since the 15th century, the Chechens converted over the next few centuries to Sunni Islam, as Islam was associated with resistance to Russian encroachment. Notable in Chechen history, this particular Russo-Persian War marked the first military encounter between Imperial Russia and the Vainakh, as the Russians took control of the Caspian corridor and moved into Persian-ruled Dagestan, Peters forces ran into mountain tribes. Peter sent a force to subdue them, but the Chechens routed them
Hero of Belarus
Hero of Belarus is the highest title that can be bestowed on a citizen of Belarus. The title is awarded to those who perform great deeds in the name of freedom, the deed can be for military performance, economic performance or great service to the State and society. The design of the medal is similar to that of its predecessor, similar titles to the Hero of Belarus include the Russian Hero of the Russian Federation, Ukrainian Hero of Ukraine, and Uzbek Hero of Uzbekistan. Since its creation, the title has been awarded to ten people, the title was created by the Belarus Supreme Soviet on April 13,1995, with the passage of Resolution N 3726-XII, titled System of State Awards for the Republic of Belarus. Alongside the Hero of Belarus title, the resolution authorized the creation of medals, the creation of the awards was a way to honor those who have made valuable contributions to Belarus, irrespective of whether they were performed by a citizen or a foreigner. This resolution was outlawed and replaced by Law N 288-З on May 18,2004, to be considered for title, a person must perform a deed that greatly benefits the state and Belarusian society at large.
The title can be awarded to serving in the military. It can only be awarded once to an individual, and can be awarded posthumously, the official criteria are stated in Chapter 2, Article 5 of Law N 288-З. Chapter 3, Article 60 of Law N 288-З allows any group of workers to submit a recommendation for an individual to be awarded the title. Governmental bodies, the National Assembly, the Council of Ministers, cabinet officials and public unions, under the Belarus Constitution, the President of the Republic has the power to bestow state awards. To announce an award, the President issues a decree conferring the title to a person, within two months, the title will be presented by the President in a formal setting, usually at the Presidential Palace in the capital city of Minsk. A certificate will be presented to the recipient, signed by the President of the Republic and these privileges are regulated by Resolution of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus under February 21,1995 N 3599-XII.
Now this question is regulated by Law of the Republic of Belarus under June 14,2007 N 239-З About social privileges, the consumptions, connected with these privileges, are financed from means of republican and local budgets and of governmental social insurance. The recipient of the title is given a medal called the Medal of the Hero of Belarus, the star and suspension are made of gold, and thus it is nicknamed Gold Star, as was its predecessor, the Hero of the Soviet Union. The star has a diameter of 33 millimeters, and is attached to a rectangular suspension device. In the center of the rectangle is a ribbon of two sections of red and one section of green, the red and green bars on the ribbon evoke the design and colors of the national flag. The amount of gold is set at 585–1 Test, with the weight of the medal being 19 grams. The present design was enacted into law by Presidential Decree Number 516 on September 6,1999, the design of the medal is modeled after one used for the Hero of the Soviet Union
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. Originally a supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin emerged under the reforms as one of Gorbachevs most powerful political opponents. During the late 1980s, Yeltsin had been a member of the Politburo, no one had resigned from the Politburo before. This act branded Yeltsin as a rebel and led to his rise in popularity as an anti-establishment figure, on 29 May 1990 he was elected the chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet. However, Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after a series of economic. He vowed to transform Russias socialist economy into a capitalist market economy and implemented economic shock therapy, price liberalization, due to the sudden total economic shift, a majority of the national property and wealth fell into the hands of a small number of oligarchs. The well-off millionaire and billionaire oligarchs likened themselves to 19th century robber barons, in October 1993, troops loyal to Yeltsin stopped an armed uprising outside of the parliament building, leading to a number of deaths.
Yeltsin scrapped the existing Russian constitution, banned political opposition, on 31 December 1999, under enormous internal pressure, Yeltsin announced his resignation, leaving the presidency in the hands of his chosen successor, then-Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Yeltsin left office widely unpopular with the Russian population, Yeltsin kept a low profile after his resignation, though he did occasionally publicly criticise his successor. Yeltsin died of heart failure on 23 April 2007. Boris Yeltsin was born in the village of Butka, Talitsky District, Sverdlovsk, USSR, growing up in rural Sverdlovsk, he studied at the Ural State Technical University, and began his career in the construction industry. In 1934 Nikolai Yeltsin was convicted of anti-Soviet agitation and sentenced to hard labour in a gulag for three years, Nikolai remained unemployed for a period of time and worked again in construction. His mother, Klavdiya Vasilyevna Yeltsina, worked as a seamstress, Boris studied at Pushkin High School in Berezniki.
In 1949 he was admitted to the Ural Polytechnic Institute in Sverdlovsk, majoring in construction, the subject of his degree paper was Construction of a Mine Shaft. From 1955 to 1957 he worked as a foreman with the building trust Uraltyazhtrubstroy, from 1957 to 1963 he worked in Sverdlovsk, and was promoted from construction site superintendent to chief of the Construction Directorate with the Yuzhgorstroy Trust. In 1963 he became chief engineer, and in 1965 head of the Sverdlovsk House-Building Combine, responsible for sewerage and he joined the ranks of the CPSU nomenklatura in 1968 when he was appointed head of construction with the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee. In 1975 he became secretary of the committee in charge of the regions industrial development. In 1976 the Politburo of the CPSU promoted him to the post of the first secretary of the CPSU Committee of Sverdlovsk Oblast, Yeltsin was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 17 March 1961 to 13 July 1990, and a nomenklatura member from 1968
Greco-Roman or Graeco-Roman wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide. It was contested at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has included in every edition of the summer Olympics held since 1908. Two wrestlers are scored for their performance in two periods, which can be terminated early by a pin. This style of wrestling forbids holds below the waist, this is the difference from freestyle wrestling. This restriction results in an emphasis on throws because a wrestler cannot use trips to take an opponent to the ground, arm drags, bear hugs, and headlocks, which can be found in Freestyle, have even greater prominence in Greco-Roman. Even on the mat, a Greco-Roman wrestler must still find ways to turn his opponents shoulders to the mat for a fall without legs, including techniques known as the bodylock. According to United World Wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is one of the six forms of amateur competitive wrestling practised internationally today. The other five forms are Freestyle wrestling, Grappling/Submission wrestling, Beach wrestling, Pankration athlima, Alysh/Belt wrestling, in February 2013, the International Olympic Committee voted to exclude freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling from the 2020 Summer Olympic Games, but shortlisted it to be considered for reinclusion.
In September 2013, at the 125th Session of the International Olympic Committee and it is speculated that many styles of European folk wrestling may have spurred the origins of Greco-Roman wrestling. According to United World Wrestling, a Napoleonic soldier named Jean Exbrayat first developed the style, Exbrayat performed in fairs and called his style of wrestling flat hand wrestling to distinguish it from other forms of hand-to-hand combat that allowed striking. In 1848, Exbrayat established the rule that no holds below the waist were to be allowed, flat hand wrestling or French wrestling developed all throughout Europe and became a popular sport. The Italian wrestler Basilio Bartoletti first coined the term Greco-Roman for the sport to underline the interest in ancient values, many others in the 18th and 20th centuries sought to add value to their contemporary athletic practices by finding some connections with ancient counterparts. The 18th century work Gymnastics for Youth by Johann Friedrich Guts Muths described a form of schoolboy wrestling called orthopale that did not mention any lower-body holds, real ancient wrestling was quite different, see Greek wrestling.
But on the continent, the style was highly promoted, almost all the continental European capital cities hosted international Greco-Roman tournaments in the 19th century, with much prize money given to the place winners. For example, the Czar of Russia paid 500 francs for wrestlers to train and compete in his tournament, with 5,000 francs awarded as a prize to the tournament winner. It has always featured in the Olympic Games, except during the Paris Olympic Games in 1900 and the St. Louis Olympic Games of 1904. Perhaps the most well-known of Greco-Roman wrestlers in the 19th century was Georg Hackenschmidt born in Dorpat, Russian Empire, Hackenschmidt in 1898 at the age of 21 and with 15 months of training defeated the experienced Paul Pons in a match in Saint Petersburg, Russia. In 1900, he won tournaments in Moscow and St. Petersburg
Grozny is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia. The city lies on the Sunzha River, according to the 2010 Census, it had a population of 271,573, up from 210,720 recorded in the 2002 Census, but still only about two-thirds of 399,688 recorded in the 1989 Census. In Russian, Grozny means fearsome, or redoubtable, the word as in Ivan Grozny or Ivan the Terrible. While the official name in Chechen is the same, informally the city is known as Соьлжа-Гӏала, Sölƶa-Ġala, which literally means the city on the Sunzha River. In December 2005, the Chechen parliament voted to rename the city Akhmadkala —a proposition which was rejected by his son Ramzan Kadyrov, the fortress of Groznaya was founded in 1818 as a Russian military outpost on the Sunzha River by general Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov. As the fort was being built the workers were fired upon by the Chechens, the Russians solved the problem by placing a cannon at a carefully chosen point outside the walls. When night fell and the Chechens came out of their places to drag the gun away all the other guns opened up with grapeshot.
When the Chechens recovered their senses and began to carry away the bodies the guns fired again, when it was over 200 dead were counted. Thus did the fort receive its baptism of fire. It was a prominent defense center during the Caucasian War, after the annexation of the region by the Russian Empire, the military use of the old fortress was obsolete and in December 1869 it was renamed Grozny and granted town status. As most of the residents there were Terek Cossacks, the town grew slowly until the development of oil reserves in the early 20th century and this encouraged the rapid development of industry and petrochemical production. In addition to the oil drilled in the city itself, the city became a center of Russias network of oil fields. The result was the population almost doubled from 15,600 in 1897 to 30,400 in 1913, one day after the October Revolution, on November 8,1917, the Bolsheviks headed by N. Anisimov seized Grozny. As the Russian Civil War escalated, the Proletariat formed the 12th Red Army, with the arrival of Denikins armies, the Bolsheviks were forced to withdraw and Grozny was captured on February 4,1919 by the White Army.
Underground operations were carried out, but only the arrival of the Caucasus front of the Red Army in 1920 allowed the city to end up with the Russian SFSR on March 17. Simultaneously it became part of the Soviet Mountain Republic, which was formed on January 20,1921, on November 30,1922, the mountain republic was dissolved, and the national okrug became the Chechen Autonomous Oblast with Grozny as the administrative center. At this time most of the population was still Russian, as Cossacks were viewed as a potential threat to the Soviet nation, Moscow actively encouraged the migration of Chechens into the city from the mountains. In 1934 the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast was formed, becoming the Chechen-Ingush ASSR in 1936, in 1944, the entire population of Chechens and Ingush was deported after rebelling against Soviet rule
The Gold Star medal is a special insignia that identifies recipients of the title Hero in the Soviet Union and some of its allies, and several post-Soviet states. The Gold Star was established by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on August 1,1939, previously, a Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded the Order of Lenin and a special diploma describing the heroic feat. The medal was introduced to distinguish these heroes from other Order of Lenin recipients, the Gold Star was not normally issued for posthumous awards of the title Hero of the Soviet Union. The Soviet medal is a gold star hanging from a suspension device with a red ribbon. It is worn on the side of the chest above all other orders. Although it is described as a medal, it is actually a distinctive badge, worn apart and above any other orders and medals and their associated badges derive from the Soviet medal design, replacing red with the color of the issuing state. An example is one who receives and Commendation Metal in one battle will receive a Gold Star if the soldier receives the same Commendation Metal in a different battle.
The Gold Star, highlights a second level or degree for the same commendation, the Medal of Honor contains a gold star
Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov is the Head of the Chechen Republic and a former member of the Chechen independence movement. He is the son of former Chechen President Akhmad Kadyrov, who was assassinated in May 2004, in February 2007, Kadyrov replaced Alu Alkhanov as President, shortly after he had turned 30, which is the minimum age for the post. He was engaged in violent power struggles with Chechen government warlords Sulim Yamadayev and Said-Magomed Kakiev for overall military authority, Ramzan Kadyrov is an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. He founded the Akhmat Fight Club and established annual freestyle wrestling international tournament Ramzan Kadyrov & Adlan Varayev Cup, since November 2015 he is a member of the Advisory Commission of the State Council of the Russian Federation He was born in Tsentaroy, RSFSR, USSR. He was the son in Akhmat and Aimani Kadyrovs family. He had a brother called Zelimkhan and he has two elder sisters Zargan and Zulay. Kadyrov strove to gain the respect of his father Akhmad Kadyrov and he claims that he always emulated his father.
He enjoys boxing and once met former heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson. In the early 1990s, as the Soviet Union dissolved, the Chechens launched a bid for independence, during the First Chechen War, together with his father, he fought against Russian armed forces. After the war, Ramzan was the driver and bodyguard of his father Akhmad. The Kadyrovtsy were formed during the First Chechen War when Akhmad Kadyrov launched the jihad against Russia, the Kadyrov clan defected to the Moscow side at the beginning of the Second Chechen War in 1999. Since then, Kadyrov led his militia with support from Russias FSB state security service becoming the head of the Chechen Presidential Security Service, the militia became known as the Kadyrovites. He was falsely rumoured to have died of a wound inflicted by his bodyguard on 28 April 2004. After his father, was assassinated on 9 May 2004, when his sister was detained by the Dagestan police in January 2005, Ramzan and some 150 armed men drove to the Khasavyurt City Police building.
In August 2005, Ramzan declared that Europes largest mosque would be built in place of the ruins of Groznys shattered downtown. He claimed that Chechnya is the most peaceful place in Russia and in a few years it would be the wealthiest and the most peaceful place in the world. He said that the war was already over with only 150 bandits remaining, when responding to a question on how he is going to avenge the murder of his father, Ramzan said, He remained the First Deputy Prime Minister until November 2005. Following a car accident in November 2005, in which Chechnyas prime minister Sergey Abramov was injured and he immediately proceeded to implement elements of Sharia law, such as declaring a ban on gambling and alcohol production
Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev is a Russian cosmonaut and mechanical engineer. He retired from spaceflight in 2007 and is working as vice president of Space Corporation Energia. Krikalev was born in Leningrad, Russia and he enjoys swimming, cycling, aerobatic flying, and amateur radio operations, particularly from space. He graduated from school in 1975. In 1981, he received an engineering degree from the Leningrad Mechanical Institute. After graduation in 1981, he joined NPO Energia, the Russian industrial organization responsible for manned space flight activities and he tested space flight equipment, developed space operations methods, and participated in ground control operations. When the Salyut 7 space station failed in 1985, he worked on the mission team, developing procedures for docking with the uncontrolled station. Krikalev was selected as a cosmonaut in 1985, completed his training in 1986. In early 1988, he began training for his first long-duration flight aboard the Mir space station and this training included preparations for at least six EVAs, installation of a new module, the first test of the new Manned Maneuvering Unit, and the second joint Soviet-French science mission.
Soyuz TM-7 was launched on November 26,1988, with Krikalev as flight engineer, Commander Alexander Volkov, the previous crew remained on Mir for another 25 days, marking the longest period a six-person crew had been in orbit. After the previous crew returned to Earth, Polyakov, because arrival of the next crew had been delayed, they prepared the Mir for a period of unmanned operations before returning to Earth on April 27,1989. In December 1990, Krikalev began training for the ninth Mir mission which included training for ten EVAs, Soyuz TM-12 launched on May 19,1991, with Krikalev as flight engineer, Commander Anatoly Artsebarsky, and British astronaut Helen Sharman. Sharman returned to Earth with the crew after one week, while Krikalev. During the summer, they conducted six EVAs to perform a variety of experiments, in July 1991, Krikalev agreed to stay on Mir as flight engineer for the next crew, scheduled to arrive in October because the next two planned flights had been reduced to one.
Both he and Franz Viehböck, the first Austrian astronaut, returned with Artsebarsky on 10 October 1991, Commander Alexander Volkov remained on board with Krikalev. After the crew replacement in October and Krikalev continued Mir experiment operations, throughout his various missions aboard Mir, Krikalev regularly communicated with various amateur HAM radio operators across the globe. A particularly lengthy relationship was formed between Krikalev and amateur HAM radio operator Margaret Iaquinto, at one point during one of his stays in space, he contacted her once a day for an entire year. Krikalev and Iaquinto successfully communicated via radio for the first time in history between an orbiting space station, and an amateur radio operator
Hero of the Soviet Union
The title Hero of the Soviet Union was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society. The award was established on May 5,1934, by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union, earlier heroes were retroactively eligible for these items. A hero could be awarded the title again for a subsequent heroic feat with an additional Gold Star medal, an additional Order of Lenin was not given until 1973. The practice of awarding the title multiple times was abolished by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1988 during perestroika,44 foreign citizens were awarded the title. The title was given posthumously, though often without the actual Gold Star medal given. The title could be revoked only by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the total number of people who were awarded this title is 12,755. The great majority of them received it during World War II, sixty-five people were awarded the title for actions related to the Soviet-Afghan War, which lasted from 1979 until 1989.
Valentina Grizodubova, a pilot, was the first woman to become a Hero of the Soviet Union for her international womens record for a straight-line distance flight. Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, a Soviet partisan, was the first woman to become a Hero of the Soviet Union during World War II, in addition,101 people received the award twice. A second award entitled the recipient to have a bronze bust of his or her likeness with an inscription erected in his or her hometown. Two famous Soviet fighter pilots, Aleksandr Pokryshkin and Ivan Kozhedub were three times Heroes of the Soviet Union. A third award entitled the recipient to have his/her bronze bust erected on a pedestal in Moscow, near the Palace of the Soviets. The only individuals to receive the four times were Marshal Georgy Zhukov. The original statute of the Hero of the Soviet Union, did not provide for a fourth title, both Zhukov and Brezhnev received their fourth titles under controversial circumstances contrary to the statute, which remained largely unchanged until the award was abolished in 1991.
Zhukov was awarded a time for his large accomplishments on the occasion of his 60th birthday on December 1,1956. There is some speculation that Zhukovs fourth Hero medal was for his participation in the arrest of Beria in 1953, brezhnevs four awards further eroded the prestige of the award because they were birthday gifts, on the occasions of his 60th, 70th, 72nd and 75th birthdays. Such practices halted in 1988 due to a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, by the 1970s, the award had been somewhat devalued. Important political and military persons had been awarded on the occasions of their anniversaries rather than for any immediate heroic activity, all Soviet cosmonauts, starting from Yuri Gagarin, as well as foreign citizens who participated in Soviet cosmic program as cosmonauts, received Hero award for each flight