The Koenigsegg Agera is a mid-engined sports car produced by Swedish car manufacturer Koenigsegg since 2011. It is a successor to the Koenigsegg CCX/CCXR, the name comes from the Swedish verb agera which means to act or in imperative form act. It was named Hypercar of the Year in 2010 by Top Gear Magazine. In early development the car was fitted with a 4. 7-litre V8 engine with twin turbos. The Agera is powered by an in-house developed 5. 0-litre twin-turbocharged V8 engine which produces 701 kW at 6900 rpm and 1,100 N·m of torque at 4000 rpm. Total weight of the engine is only 197 kg thanks to a carbon fiber inlet manifold, the transmission is a 7-speed dual clutch with paddle shifters. It is the first dual clutch transmission to feature only one input shaft, the second clutch slows down the input shaft during up shifts in order to reduce the time it takes to synchronize the next gear, resulting in faster shift times. Most notably, the transmission weighs only 81 kg, dynamic 0–100 km/h in 3.00 seconds 0–200 km/h in 8.0 seconds 0–200–0 km/h in 13.5 seconds 0–300 km/h in 14.53 seconds Top speed for the production model is 433 km/h.
The Agera has a made from impregnated carbon fiber/kevlar with lightweight reinforcements. The cars hardtop roof is stowable under the front hood lid, the chassis is made out of carbon fiber with an aluminum honeycomb structure that comes with integrated fuel tanks for optimal weight distribution and safety. The rear wing is electronically adjustable with auto setting or manual control in order to have as little compromise as possible between low drag and downforce, depending on situation and mood. The Agera R made its debut at the March 2011 Geneva Motor Show—with a Speed Racer livery theme and it can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 2.8 seconds and reach a theoretical top speed of 439 km/h. The Agera R has a coefficient of Cd=0.37, or Cd=0.33 at high speed due to its adaptive rear wing. This adaptive rear wing system is lighter than conventional hydraulic/electrical adaptive systems, the pylons holding the wing play not only a role in the Agera Rs aerodynamic performance, but assist in extracting hot air from the engine bay.
The Agera R can produce lateral cornering forces of 1.60 G, due to a combination of mechanical balance, the 2013 version of Agera R premiered at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show. Upgrades included carbon fiber wheels, enhanced aerodynamics, and engine upgrades allowing the Agera Rs 5 litre twin turbocharged engine to produce 850 kW on E85. And, thanks to Koenigseggs Flex Fuel Sensor technology, the ECU can respond to varying fuel qualities, on standard low octane fuels, power is reduced to 716 kW. The Agera R was featured prominently in the Need for Speed franchise, prominently in Criterion Games Need for Speed, Most Wanted, Ghost Games Need for Speed Rivals, and it is featured in 2013 mobile video game Real Racing 3
Lemoore is a city in Kings County, United States. Lemoore is located 7.5 miles west-southwest of Hanford, at an elevation of 230 feet and it is part of the Hanford–Corcoran Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 24,531 at the 2010 Census, the California Department of Finance estimated that Lemoores population was 26,199 on January 1,2016. Lemoore is located at 36°18′03″N 119°46′58″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.5 square miles, all of it land. H. Thompson in 1892, shows three high water levels of the giant Tulare Lake in different years. The highest lake level, the one Thompson labeled original lake line skirts or touches the 1892 town of Lemoores south-west corner at the current intersection of State Route 41 and State Route 198. On Thompsons map, Lemoore is on the east bank, the present remaining marshy remnants of Bogg Slough, with its unfarmed oxbow structures may be the last of their kind to avoid the plow in the Kings-San Joaquin river system.
This summit, or spillway is located just a few miles north-west of Lemoore, the spillway was wide and confusing, choked with tall tule rushes, and without observable landmarks. Only one commercial boat is known to have sailed from Tulare Lake to the San Francisco delta, Tulare Lake had huge economic importance in the region, both for the very large population of Indians, and the white pioneers. The lake supported a commercial fishery feeding San Francisco. The receding lake continually opened up new lands for settlement. Because of its source streams being diverted, the last time the lake overflowed was 1878 and this switch point is located just north of Lemoore right off of Highway 41 and Elgin Ave at the New Island Weirs. In many cases the prehistoric Kings River bed has been obliterated, however, as of 2014, in satellite images the remains of many of the old channels can still be detected. Other towns built just above the Tulare Lake high-water shoreline include Kettleman City, satellite maps indicate that highways and property lines are aligned with the historic lake shores.
Also, many of the farms are can be seen to be much larger within its various historic shore lines than in the surrounding areas, the Sarah A. Mooney Memorial Museum is a Victorian house museum that was built in 1893 by Aaron and Sarah Mooney. The home is decorated in the Victorian period, with many of the pieces in the house donated by local families, the city had a local paper called The Lemoore Advance and the Advance Extra, which is now defunct. KGSR,93.3 FM, is a low-power FM radio station operated by Lemoore High School students on the campus of Lemoore High School. Dr. Lovern Lee Moore from France first made his home in what was western Tulare County and it was on the northern shoreline of Tulare Lake, potentially the largest freshwater body of water in the USA, outside of the Great Lakes
Kennedy Space Center
The John F. Kennedy Space Center is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers. Since December 1968, Kennedy Space Center has been NASAs primary launch center of human spaceflight, Launch operations for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs were carried out from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 and managed by KSC. Located on the east coast of Florida, KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the management of the two entities work very closely together, share resources, and even own facilities on each others property. Additionally, the center manages launch of robotic and commercial missions, researches food production and In-Situ Resource Utilization for off Earth exploration. Since 2010, the center has worked to become a multi-user spaceport through industry partnerships, there are about 700 facilities grouped across the centers 144,000 acres. There is a Visitor Complex open to the public on site, the military had been performing launch operations since 1949 at what would become Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
In December 1959, the Department of Defense transferred 5,000 personnel, President John F. Kennedys 1961 goal of a manned lunar landing before 1970 required an expansion of launch operations. On July 1,1962, the Launch Operations Directorate was separated from MSFC to become the Launch Operations Center, the decision was made to build a new LOC site located adjacent to Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island. NASA began land acquisition in 1962, buying title to 131 square miles, the major buildings in KSCs Industrial Area were designed by architect Charles Luckman. Construction began in November 1962, and Kennedy visited the site twice in 1962, on November 29,1963, the facility was given its current name by President Lyndon B. Johnson under Executive Order 11129. Johnsons order joined both the civilian LOC and the military Cape Canaveral station under the designation John F. Kennedy Space Center, spawning some confusion joining the two in the public mind. Located on Merritt Island, the center is north-northwest of Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic Ocean and it is 34 miles long and roughly six miles wide, covering 219 square miles.
KSC is a major central Florida tourist destination and is one hours drive from the Orlando area. The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex offers public tours of the center, Center workers can encounter bald eagles, American alligators, wild boars, eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, the endangered Florida panther and Florida manatees. From 1967 through 1973, there were 13 Saturn V launches, the first of two unmanned flights, Apollo 4 on November 9,1967, was the first rocket launch from KSC. The Saturn Vs first manned launch on December 21,1968 was Apollo 8s lunar orbiting mission, the next two missions tested the Lunar Module, Apollo 9 and Apollo 10. Apollo 11, launched from Pad A on July 16,1969, Apollo 12 followed four months later. From 1970–1972, the Apollo program concluded at KSC with the launches of missions 13 through 17, on May 14,1973, the last Saturn V launch put the Skylab space station in orbit from Pad 39A
A sports car is a small, usually two seater, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the first known use of the term was in 1928, Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious, but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite. The basis for the car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars and roadsters. These raced in rallies, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt. These would shortly be joined by the French DFP and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp DOHC two liter, designed by Ernest Henry, capable of 150 km/h, at most, one hundred were built in four years and this was followed by the SOHC 2LT and 2LTS. The same year, Benz built a supercharged 28/95PS four for the Coppa Florio, duerkopps Zoller-blown two liter in 1924, as well. There was a clear cleavage by 1925, by the end of the 1920s, AC produced a 2-liter six, the 3. Benz introduced the powerful SS and SSK, and Alfa Romeo, hispano-Suizas Alfonso XIII is considered the first sportcar developed between 1911 and 1914.
Two companies would offer really reliable sports cars, Austin with the Seven, the drive train and engine layout significantly influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, and is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, and the Chevrolet Corvette, more specifically, many such sports cars have a FMR layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used, the RMR layout is commonly found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, and powers only the rear wheels. Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout, Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
The motors distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic driving aids to counteract these inherent design shortcomings. The front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout which is the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, its conservative handling effect, particularly understeer, and the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it. The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, and Berkeley cars are cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had added a lot of weight
Michelin is a French tire manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France. It is one of the four largest tire manufacturers in the world along with Goodyear, Continental, in addition to the Michelin brand, it owns the BFGoodrich, Tigar, Riken and Uniroyal tire brands. Michelins numerous inventions include the removable tire, the pneurail and the radial tire, Michelin manufactures tires for space shuttles, automobiles, heavy equipment and bicycles. In 2012, the Group produced 166 million tires at 69 facilities located in 18 countries, in 1889 two brothers, Édouard Michelin and André Michelin, ran a rubber factory in Clermont-Ferrand, France. One day, a cyclist whose pneumatic tire needed repair turned up at the factory, the tire was glued to the rim, and it took over three hours to remove and repair the tire, which needed to be left overnight to dry. The next day, Édouard Michelin took the repaired bicycle into the yard to test. After only a few hundred metres, the tire failed, despite the setback, Édouard was enthusiastic about the pneumatic tire, and he and his brother worked on creating their own version, one that did not need to be glued to the rim.
Michelin was incorporated on 28 May 1889, in 1891 Michelin took out its first patent for a removable pneumatic tire which was used by Charles Terront to win the worlds first long distance cycle race, the 1891 Paris–Brest–Paris. In the 1920s and 1930s, Michelin operated large rubber plantations in Vietnam, conditions at these plantations led to the famous labour movement Phu Rieng Do. In 1934, Michelin introduced a tire which, if punctured, would run on a special foam lining, the radial was initially marketed as the X tire. It was developed with the front-wheel-drive Citroën Traction Avant and Citroën 2CV in mind, Michelin had bought the then-bankrupt Citroën in the 1930s. Because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this quickly spread throughout Europe. In the U. S. the outdated bias-ply tire persisted, in 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of the radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelins competitor technology.
In the U. S. the radial tire now has a share of 100%. In 1989, Michelin acquired the recently merged tire and rubber manufacturing divisions of the American firms B. F. Goodrich Company and Uniroyal, Uniroyal Australia had already been bought by Bridgestone in 1980. This purchase included the Norwood, North Carolina manufacturing plant which supplied tires to the U. S, Michelin controls 90% of Taurus Tire in Hungary, as well as Kormoran, a Polish brand. As of 1 September 2008, Michelin is again the worlds largest tire manufacturer after spending two years as number two behind Bridgestone. Michelin produces tires in France, Germany, the USA, on 15 January 2010, Michelin announced the closing of its Ota, Japan plant, which employs 380 workers and makes the Michelin X-Ice tire
Top Gear (2002 TV series)
Top Gear is a British television series about motor vehicles, primarily cars. It is a version of the original 1977 show of the same name, airing since 2002. Following negative feedback for the series, Evans resigned, with the BBC choosing to retain the other five presenters and assigning LeBlanc, first-run episodes are broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC Two and BBC Two HD. From series 14–19, before the launch of the dedicated BBC Two HD channel, the series is carried on cable television systems in the United States via BBC America, in Latin America via BBC Entertainment and in Europe and South-East Asia via BBC Knowledge. Following the decision by the BBC to cancel Top Gear in 2001, Jeremy Clarkson, Lotus assisted in the design of a race circuit at the site for use by the programme. While the celebrity segment was referred to as Star in a Reasonably Priced Car, addition segments were added in – The Cool Wall, in most of the early series, the presenters regularly destroyed a caravan. As a direct result, the ordered that filming continued at Dunsfold during May of that year, despite having no permit to do so.
Both the BBC and the Health and Safety Executive carried out inquiries into the accident, that summer, on 25 July, the BBC aired a special edition episode entitled Top Gear, Polar Special. Popularity the show rose to levels, that the waiting list to get a ticket for a recording was extensive. Featuring breath-taking stunts, amazing special effects and blockbusting driving sequences featuring some of the worlds best precision drivers, the Live tour began on 30 October 2008 in Earls Court, moving on to Birmingham in November before being performed in at least 15 other countries worldwide. But ironically, that does mean trying new things to the last, even if they screw up, well, it means you never stopped trying. On 1 April 2015, it was announced that the Top Gear Live stage shows were to continue under the banner of Clarkson and May Live, shortly afterwards, Richard Hammond confirmed he would not be returning to the show. On 16 June, that year, the BBC confirmed that the final films would air as a compilation on 28 June, anchored by Hammond.
Production delays and scheduling conflicts led to the series being aired on 29 May 2016. Newspaper articles highlighted that the show struggled with viewing figures, on 4 July, following the series finale, Evans announced that he would be leaving Top Gear after having hosted only six episodes. The most common used in the show are Car Reviews, Power Laps, Star in a Reasonably Priced Car, Cool Wall. One of the segments of Top Gear, Car Reviews focuses on the presenters conducting a road-test of a car, looking at such factors as ride quality, handling, practicality. Their reviews are conducted on and around Top Gears test track, or on the roads of Britain
He is known as the Demon of Screamin due to his high screams and his wide vocal range. He is known for his on-stage acrobatics, during his high-energy performances, Tyler usually dresses in bright, colorful outfits with his trademark scarves hanging from his microphone stand. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Tyler had a drug and alcohol addiction. Tyler and bandmate Joe Perry became known as the Toxic Twins due to their drug abuse, in the wake of this success, Tyler emerged as one of the most enduring rock icons. Since the late 1980s, he has embarked on solo endeavors including guest appearances on other artists music, film and TV roles, authoring a bestselling book. Tyler is included among Rolling Stones 100 Greatest Singers and he was ranked third on Hit Paraders Top 100 Metal Vocalists of All Time. Steven Victor Tallarico was born on March 26,1948, at the Polyclinic Hospital in Manhattan, New York, the family moved to Yonkers when he was about nine years old. The son of Susan Ray, a secretary, and Victor A.
Tallarico and his father was of Italian and German descent, while his mother was of Polish and English ancestry. His maternal grandfather, who was from what is present-day Poland and his paternal grandfather, Giovanni Tallarico, was from Cotronei, Italy. Steven has one sister named Lynda. Steven attended Roosevelt High School in Yonkers, New York, in 1965, aged 17, Tyler spent time in Greenwich Village, New York, the highlight of which was seeing a Rolling Stones concert. Tyler states that his friends and he hung around for a while, a photo in the bands autobiography Walk This Way shows Tyler standing behind Mick Jagger outside a hotel. Before Aerosmith, Tyler wrote what would one of Aerosmiths signature songs. In 1969, Tyler attended a rock show in Sunapee, New Hampshire, where he first saw future bandmates Joe Perry and Tom Hamilton. Tyler stated he was struck by their raw power and attitude, around 1970, Tyler and Hamilton decided to form a band. Tyler, who had played drums in many of his previous bands, insisted that he be the frontman, Joey Kramer, an old acquaintance of Tylers from New York, was recruited to play drums.
Tyler invited his friend, Ray Tabano, to play rhythm guitar. Shortly after relocating to Boston, Tylers dissatisfaction with Tabanos lack of passion and dedication prompted the band to replace Tabano with Brad Whitford
Twin-turbo or biturbo refers to a turbocharged engine in which two turbochargers compress the intake charge. Other kinds of turbocharging include sequential turbocharging, and staged turbocharging, the latter is used in diesel automobile racing applications. Paralleled twin-turbo refers to the configuration in which two identical turbochargers function simultaneously, splitting the turbocharging duties equally. Each turbocharger is driven by half of the engines spent exhaust energy, in most applications, the compressed air from both turbos is combined in a common intake manifold and sent to the individual cylinders. Usually, each turbocharger is mounted to its own individual exhaust/turbo manifold, parallel twin turbos applied to V-shaped engines are usually mounted with one turbo assigned to each cylinder bank, providing packaging symmetry and simplifying plumbing over a single turbo setup. When used on engines, parallel twin turbos are commonly applied with two smaller turbos, which can provide similar performance with less turbo lag than a single larger turbo.
Some examples of parallel twin-turbo inline engines are Nissans RB26DETT, BMWs N54, some examples of V formation engines with parallel twin-turbos include Mitsubishis 6A12TT, 6A13TT and 6G72TT, Nissans VG30DETT and VR38DETT, and Audis 1997-2002 S4, 1997-2005 A6, and 2003-2004 RS6. While a parallel twin-turbo set-up theoretically has less lag than a single turbocharger set up. Some ways to counter this are to use a pressure set up with smaller turbos. While this setup sacrifices some top end power, it still has less lag than an engine with a single turbo set up making the same power. Another system would be the use of variable geometry turbochargers and this system changes the angle of the guide vanes depending on the exhaust pressure, giving the system excellent power throughout the rev range. Once used mainly in turbocharged engines, Chrysler was the first to use it in mass-production gasoline-powered vehicles with the Shelby CSX. It is possible to use parallel operation with more than two turbochargers, two such examples are the Bugatti EB110 and Bugatti Veyron, both of which run four turbochargers in parallel.
The EB110 runs 4 turbos on a 3.5 litre V12 engine, producing 542 hp at 8000 rpm, the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport uses the quad-turbo 8.0 W16 engine that produces 1216 PS. Sequential turbos refer to a set-up in which the motor uses one turbocharger for lower speeds. Typically, larger high-flow turbochargers are not as efficient at low RPM, on the other hand, smaller turbos spool up quickly at low RPM but cannot supply enough air at higher engine speed. During low to mid engine speeds, when available spent exhaust energy is minimal, as RPM increases, the secondary turbocharger is partially activated in order to pre-spool prior to its full utilization. Once a preset engine speed or boost pressure is attained, valves controlling compressor, in this way a full twin-turbocharger setup provides the benefits associated with a large turbo, including maximum power output, without the disadvantage of increased turbo lag
The airfield is located 7 miles south west of Norwich, England and is now owned by Lotus Cars. RAF Hethel was built during 1942 for use by the Americans and was transferred to the USAAF, from 14 September 1943 though to 12 June 1945, RAF Hethel served as headquarters for the 2nd Combat Bombardment Wing of the 2nd Bombardment Division. At the time of their arrival, many of the buildings were still uncompleted. The group used the airfield as a staging and transit point for deploying to La Senia Airfield, in addition, the airfield was used as a training airfield for B-24s by other 2nd Air Division Groups. With the completion of the facility, Hethel was assigned to the 389th Bombardment Group, the 389th was assigned to the 2nd Combat Bombardment Wing, and the group tail code was a Circle-C. Upon its arrival at Hethel, almost immediately a detachment was sent to Libya, the detachment flew missions to Crete, Italy and Romania. The group received a Distinguished Unit Citation for the participation in the famed low-level attack against oil refineries at Ploesti on 1 August 1943.
For his action during the operation, Second Lieutenant Lloyd Herbert Hughes was awarded the Medal of Honor. Refusing to turn back although gasoline was streaming from his plane, Lt Hughes flew at low altitude over the blazing target area. The plane crashed before Hughes could make the landing that he attempted after the bomb run. The detachment returned to England in August and the group flew missions against airfields in France. The unit deployed again temporarily to Tunisia during September and October 1943 with the group supporting Allied operations at Salerno and hit targets in Corsica, resumed operations from England in October 1943 the group concentrated primarily on strategic objectives in France, the Low Countries, and Germany. The group participated in the air campaign against the German aircraft industry during Big Week,20 –25 February 1944. The 389th Bomb Group flew its last combat mission late in April 1945 and it returned to Charleston AAF South Carolina on 30 May 1945 and was inactivated on 13 September 1945.
After the departure of the Americans, RAF Hethel airfield was returned to the RAF for use by Fighter Command, on 25 June RAF Polish manned North American Mustang squadrons flew to the airfield. In mid-1947, Hethel became a Personnel Transit Centre but was transferred to RAF Technical Training Command, with the reduction of the RAF, the station closed in 1948. For many years the airfield was inactive and abandoned until it was sold by the Air Ministry in 1964. In 1948 the Nissen hut buildings around Marsworth airfield became home to around 900 Polish Displace People, the camp was run by the National Assistance Board, The Polish camp as closed in 1960/61
Computational fluid dynamics
Computational fluid dynamics is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the required to simulate the interaction of liquids. With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved, ongoing research yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Initial experimental validation of such software is performed using a tunnel with the final validation coming in full-scale testing. The fundamental basis of almost all CFD problems is the Navier–Stokes equations and these equations can be simplified by removing terms describing viscous actions to yield the Euler equations. Further simplification, by removing terms describing vorticity yields the full potential equations, for small perturbations in subsonic and supersonic flows these equations can be linearized to yield the linearized potential equations.
Historically, methods were first developed to solve the potential equations. Two-dimensional methods, using conformal transformations of the flow about a cylinder to the flow about an airfoil were developed in the 1930s. One of the earliest type of calculations resembling modern CFD are those by Lewis Fry Richardson, in the sense that these calculations used finite differences and divided the physical space in cells. Although they failed dramatically, these calculations, together with Richardsons book Weather prediction by numerical process, set the basis for modern CFD, in fact, early CFD calculations during the 1940s using ENIAC used methods close to those in Richardsons 1922 book. The computer power available paced development of three-dimensional methods, probably the first work using computers to model fluid flow, as governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, was performed at Los Alamos National Lab, in the T3 group. This group was led by Francis H. Harlow, who is considered as one of the pioneers of CFD.
Fromms vorticity-stream-function method for 2D, incompressible flow was the first treatment of strongly contorting incompressible flows in the world, the first paper with three-dimensional model was published by John Hess and A. M. O. Smith of Douglas Aircraft in 1967 and this method discretized the surface of the geometry with panels, giving rise to this class of programs being called Panel Methods. Their method itself was simplified, in that it did not include lifting flows and hence was mainly applied to ship hulls, the first lifting Panel Code was described in a paper written by Paul Rubbert and Gary Saaris of Boeing Aircraft in 1968. In time, more advanced three-dimensional Panel Codes were developed at Boeing, Douglas, McDonnell Aircraft, NASA, some were higher order codes, using higher order distributions of surface singularities, while others used single singularities on each surface panel. The advantage of the lower order codes was that they ran much faster on the computers of the time, today, VSAERO has grown to be a multi-order code and is the most widely used program of this class.
It has been used in the development of submarines, surface ships, helicopters, aircraft
The Lotus Exige /ɛɡˈziːʒ/ is a British two-door, two-seat sports car made by Lotus Cars since 2000. It is essentially a version of the Lotus Elise, a mid-engined roadster in production since 1996. The original Exige was launched in 2000 with a naturally aspirated 1.8 L Rover K Series engine in VHPD tune and it produces 177 bhp at 7,800 rpm in standard form. There was a track spec version with 192 bhp available, the car has a five-speed manual gearbox, and a claimed top speed of 219 km/h. Zero to sixty mph achieved was 4.7 seconds, with 0–100 km/h in 4.9 seconds, the first Exige used the round, less aggressive headlights of the first generation Elise, although the Elise was updated soon after the introduction of the Exige. The Series 1 was built until 2002, in 604 examples, in 2004, the Series 2 Exige was introduced. It features a naturally aspirated 1.8 L 16-valve DOHC Toyota/Yamaha engine that produces 190 bhp with the Toyota engine designation of 2ZZ-GE. Compared to the Series 2 Elise, it has a front splitter, fibreglass hardtop roof with roof scoop, rear engine cover, the sole purpose of these aerodynamic additions to the base Elise is to create more downforce.
In February 2005, Lotus announced a production run of 50 Exiges. This increased the output to 243 bhp. These vehicles were available in yellow or black, representing the colours of Lotus Sport. They have a projected 0-60 mph time of 3.9 seconds and 0-100 mph of 9.9 seconds, power output increased by 9% over the outgoing model to 240 bhp. The S240 received upgraded AP Racing brakes from the Exige Cup 240, 0-60 mph times improved to 4.0 seconds. The S240 base manufacturer suggested retail price was $65,690, the Exige S260 produced an additional 7% power output over the S240 resulting in 257 hp. Even with a fuel tank, extensive use of weight-saving materials such as carbon fiber reduced the vehicles gross weight to 2,020 lb compared to 2,077 lb in the S240. 0–60 mph arrived in 4.0 seconds, after 2009, both the S240 and S260 received distinctively new and enlarged rear spoilers mounted to the rear clam instead of the motor bay cover. The base manufacturer suggested retail price for the S260 was $74,995, the Exige 265E is a factory-built Exige S optimised to run on E85 fuel, which is 85% ethanol.
The higher octane of this allows for a higher compression ratio and/or more supercharger boost