The Wren Building is the signature building of the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. Along with the Brafferton and Presidents House, these form the Colleges Ancient Campus. With a construction dating to 1697, it is the oldest academic building in continuous use in the United States. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960, construction of the first building on this site began August 8,1695 and was completed by 1700. After several fires and rebuildings, the Wren Building was the first major building restored or reconstructed by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. after he, goodwin began Colonial Williamsburgs restoration in the late 1920s. The buildings current state dates to the 20th-century restoration by Boston architects Perry Shaw & Hepburn, Perry Shaw and Hepburns restoration reflects the buildings historic appearance from its reconstruction in 1716 after a 1705 fire to 1859, when it burned again. On the top of the building is a weather vane with the number 1693, in the early 1770s, plans were drawn up to complete the building as a quadrangle.
Alumnus Thomas Jefferson drew up a floorplan submitted to Governor Dunmore, the looming War of Independence halted further construction and the fourth wing was never completed. The Wren Building is the oldest academic building in use in the United States. The campus only began its expansion in the first part of the twentieth century. Students studied, attended services, and lived in the Wren Building. When the Capitol burned in 1747, the legislature moved back into the building until the Capitol was reconstructed in 1754, the building housed a grammar school and an Indian school, which was moved to the Brafferton building, in 1723. The building was used as a hospital by the French during the American Revolutionary War. The Wren Building today has historical and ceremonial importance in addition to its academic use, each year during the opening convocation ceremony, incoming William and Mary freshmen enter the building from the courtyard, pass through the central hall, and exit on the opposite side.
As seniors, students pass through the building in the direction on their way to the graduation ceremony. The Yule Log Ceremony, the Colleges holiday celebration, is every year at the Wren Building. Each fall incoming freshmen take the schools Honor Code Pledge in the buildings Great Hall, the Bishop James Madison Society, the Colleges second-oldest secret society, is rumored to meet in the Wren Building. For nearly one hundred and fifty years, the campus consisted of the three buildings- the Wren Building, the Brafferton, and the Presidents House- proportionally arranged in the College yard
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Houghton Library, on the south side of Harvard Yard adjacent to Widener Library, is Harvard Universitys primary repository for rare books and manuscripts. It is part of the Harvard College Library, the system of Harvards Faculty of Arts. Harvards first special collections library began as the Treasure Room of Gore Hall in 1908, the Treasure Room moved to Widener Library after that library was completed in 1915. Funding for Houghton was raised privately, with the largest portion coming from Arthur A. Houghton Jr. in the form of shares of stock in Corning Glass Works. Construction was largely completed by the fall of 1941, and the library opened on February 28,1942. S, eliot, E. E. Cummings, Henry James, William James, James Joyce, John Updike and many others. Houghton holds the letters of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, who commanded the 54th Massachusetts during the Civil War, Houghton has five main curatorial departments, Early Books and Manuscripts, which includes a large collection of Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts and over 2,500 incunabula.
Modern Books & Manuscripts New Acquisitions Blog Printing & Graphic Arts which documents the history, the Harvard Theatre Collection covering the history of the performing arts. Alices Adventures in Wonderland at 150 Houghton Library Blog Department of Modern Books & Manuscripts new acquisitions blog
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
The stele was presented to the university by the Chinese Harvard Alumni for its Tercentenary in September 1936. The Bixi was created ca.1820 in Beijing, and the stele was originally a gift from the Jiaqing Emperor to Songjun, the governor-general of Jiangsu and Jiangxi. Although the original inscription was unknown, the stele was kept in the Old Summer Palace in Beijing until the complex was destroyed in 1860, during the Second Opium War. The meticulous carvings of dragons chasing pearls on the sides and top of the tablet are the only traces that indicate the stele’s imperial past. In the 1930s there were five Harvard Clubs in China, more than 35 members of the clubs were known to be involved in donating the stele, and at least two of them attended the Tercentennial Ceremony in September 1936. They were Dr. J. Heng Liu, president of Harvard Club of Nanking, and Fred Sze, a banker, new inscriptions were carved on the front of the marble tablet. Shih Hu, who was invited to take part in the Tercentenary Celebration to receive a doctoral degree from Harvard, was believed to be the calligrapher of the inscription.
The Bixis stele is inscribed with Chinese text in which the content commemorates the tercentennial of Harvard University on behalf of Chinese Harvard Alumni. In September 1936 Dr. J. Heng Liu provided an English translation of the inscription which has been the official translation recorded in the Harvard Archives, with this belief, many pioneers have devoted their lives to the promotion of education in all countries. Far-reaching effects in the enhancement of civilization are attained invariably although the results may not be apparent until hundreds of years have elapsed, the truth of this statement is established by the celebration of this tercentennial of Harvard University. Imbued with the spirit of education, John Harvard left England over 300 years ago for the new colony in North America to become a teacher in Boston, subsequently, he was instrumental in founding a college in Cambridge. Today, as we celebrate the tercentennial of our alma mater, we look back with pride to the achievements of the founder, due to acid rain and severe weathering, many of the inscriptions on the stele have become illegible.
In the early 1980s the Fogg Museum Conservation Department examined the condition of the stele, the site chosen was the Holyoke Center Arcade. Due to financial cost the plan was abandoned, in 1998 an informational notice appeared in front of the stele which stated the origin of the stele and that the University was working on a suitable indoor location for the statue. The notice did not offer a translation of the inscription, plans were underway to relocate the stele to the Center for Government and International Studies buildings on Cambridge Street and Sumner Road. The CGIS was completed in 2005 but the stele remained in the Harvard Yard, various groups such as the Harvard Club of Beijing, Harvard Club of Taipei and Harvard-Yenching Institute have expressed interests in preserving or restoring the stele since 2004. In 2009 the University Planning Office began to work on adding information to the base of the stele. A signage designer has been commissioned to study options for creating a sign at the base, a low-resolution preview of the 3D model of the monument is now available in the museums virtual 3D gallery
Lehman Hall is a Georgian-revival building by Charles Coolidge completed in 1925 as part of Harvard President Abbott Lawrence Lowells program to cloister Harvard Yard. Named for donor Arthur Lehman and his wife Adele, its exterior is an example of the early New England counting house. It is the home of Dudley House, the one of Harvards thirteen undergraduate houses serving nonresident students. Lehman Hall occupies the site on which the second, the site became Harvard property in 1833. Its main chamber reaches practically the entire height of the building, is finished in delicately modeled cream plaster, an extraordinarily light, cheerily simple room. A balcony reaches about part of its upper circumference, bainbridge Bunting wrote that its public function is announced by an architectural frontispiece of giant pilasters and arched windows repeated on both major elevations. The buildings mass is sufficient to announce its official role and to define the open space on its east side. The plaza immediately in front of its Yard-facing elevation once had a sculpture by Henry Moore and it provides certain services to the Universitys graduate students
Massachusetts Hall (Harvard University)
As such, it possesses great significance not only in the history of American education but in the story of the developing English Colonies of the 18th century. Massachusetts Hall was designed by Harvard Presidents John Leverett and his successor Benjamin Wadsworth and it was erected between 1718 and 1720 in Harvard Yard. It was originally a dormitory containing 32 chambers and 64 small private studies for the 64 students it was designed to house, during the siege of Boston,640 American soldiers took quarters in the hall. Much of the woodwork and hardware, including brass doorknobs. While designed as a residence for students, the building has served many purposes through the years, after Thomas Hollis donated a quadrant and a 24-foot telescope in 1722, for example, the building housed an informal observatory. Currently, the President of the University, Treasurer, freshmen reside in the fourth floor. Massachusetts Hall, as Harvards oldest extant dormitory, has housed many influential people, founding fathers who lived in Massachusetts Hall include John Adams, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Elbridge Gerry, and James Otis.
Members of the Wigglesworth, Thayer and Lowell families, whose names now grace other dormitories, more recent notable residents of Massachusetts Hall include Alan Jay Lerner, Elliot Richardson and John Harbison
Sever Hall is a notable building designed by famed American architect H. H. Richardson and built in the late 1870s. It is located on the grounds of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts and it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970, recognized as one of Richardsons mature masterpieces. Sever Hall was built from 1878 to 1880 with a gift from Anne Sever in honor of her deceased husband, James Warren Sever. It was designed as a building with classrooms, lecture halls, rooms for professors. The building is 176 feet and 4 inches long, by 74 feet and 4 inches wide, with a height to cornice of about 50 feet and it is three stories tall, with a fourth story set within the roof. The main facade features two bays set symmetrically about an entrance within a deeply recessed semi-circular archway. The east facade is similar but with a simpler, rectangular entrance and south facades are relatively austere expanses punctuated with windows. About 1.3 million bricks were used in its construction, of these, some 100,000 form the exterior facades, which feature 60 different varieties of red molded brick, as well as elaborate brick carvings.
Blood mortar was used as a joiner originally, though polybond compounds have been used in restoration efforts since 1967, the archway admitting entrance into the west facade possesses an acoustical oddity. Whispering directly into the bricks of the archway, while standing close to one side of the arch. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in Sever Hall among architectural historians, and I love Sever Hall for its aesthetic tension deriving from its vital details. I could stand and look at it all day, grossman Library, a non-circulating library serving Extension School students, is located on the third floor. The fourth floor of Sever, unnoticed by many of its students as the central stairwell does not lead to it, in the evenings and on weekends student groups hold meetings or run annual events. One of Severs notable annual events is Vericon, run during the break between semesters by the Harvard-Radcliffe Science-Fiction Association. List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts Moses King, The Harvard Register, Harvard University,1880, roger H.
Clark and Michael Pause, Precedents in Architecture, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold,1985. Jeffrey Karl Ochsner, H. H. Richardson, Complete Architectural Works, Massachusetts, MIT Press,1982
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, and is a part of the Boston metropolitan area. According to the 2010 Census, the population was 105,162. As of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Springfield, Cambridge was one of the two seats of Middlesex County prior to the abolition of county government in 1997, Lowell was the other. The site for what would become Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was located safely upriver from Boston Harbor, Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, and her husband Simon, were among the first settlers of the town. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631, the settlement was initially referred to as the newe towne. Official Massachusetts records show the name capitalized as Newe Towne by 1632, the original village site is in the heart of todays Harvard Square. In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge itself to the city of Boston were pursued and rejected, in 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers.
Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court primarily—according to Cotton Mather—to be near the popular, in May 1638 the name of the settlement was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Hooker and Shepard, Newtownes ministers, and the colleges first president, major benefactor, in 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, which was known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. It was Governor Thomas Dudley who, in 1650, signed the charter creating the corporation which still governs Harvard College, Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Coming up from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3,1775, most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution.
On January 24,1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, a second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts, in the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution when it gave the country a new identity through poetry and literature. Cambridge was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would often be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires, the Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes—were highly popular and influential in their day. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846, the citys commercial center began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city around this time. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge led to three changes in the city, the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave.
For many decades, the citys largest employer was the New England Glass Company, by the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world
John Harvard (clergyman)
Despite a persistent myth to the contrary, John Harvard is properly considered one of the founders of Harvard College. A statue in his honor is a prominent feature of Harvard Yard, Harvard was baptised in the parish church of St Saviours and attended St Saviours Grammar School, where his father was a member of the governing body and a warden of the Parish Church. In 1625, bubonic plague reduced the family to only John, his brother Thomas. Katherine was soon remarried—firstly in 1626 to John Elletson, who died within a few months and she died in 1635, Thomas in 1637. Left with some property, Harvards mother was able to him to Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1636, Harvard married Ann Sadler of Ringmer, sister of his college classmate John Sadlers, at St Michael the Archangel Church, in the parish of South Malling, East Sussex. In 1638, a tract of land was deeded to him there and he built his house on Country Road, next to Gravel Lane, a site that is now Harvard Mall. Harvards orchard extended up the hill behind his house, on 14 September 1638, Harvard died of tuberculosis and was buried at Charlestowns Phipps Street Burying Ground.
The destruction of myths is a sport, but its only justification is the establishment of truth in place of error. But if the founding is to be regarded as a rather than as a single event is clearly entitled to be considered a founder. Acknowledged the fact by bestowing his name on the College and this was almost two years before the first President took office and four years before the first students were graduated. These are all facts and it is well that they should be understood by the sons of Harvard. There is no myth to be destroyed, a figure representing him appears in a stained-glass window in the chapel of Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge. The John Harvard Library in Southwark, London, is named in Harvards honor, John Harvard, St. Saviours and Harvard University, U. S. A. Boston, MA, Brown, and Co, Harvard House The home of Katherine Rogers in Stratford-Upon-Avon Potter, Alfred Claghorn
Massachusetts Avenue (metropolitan Boston)
Massachusetts Avenue, known to locals as Mass Ave, is a major thoroughfare in Boston and several cities and towns northwest of Boston. According to Boston magazine, Its 16 miles of blacktop run from gritty industrial zones to verdant suburbia, passing gentrified brownstones, college campuses, after Harvard Square it turns sharply northward, passes Harvard Law School, passes through Porter Square, where it bears northwestward. It continues through North Cambridge and Lexington, where it enters the Minuteman National Historical Park, the road, by the same name, continues northwest and west, through many different cities and towns. It largely parallels or joins Route 2 and Route 2A, all the way into central Massachusetts, for much of its length, Massachusetts Avenue is a center of commercial activity, especially through the larger towns. Apartments and restaurants fill both sides of it, and there is a lot of pedestrian traffic, a number of linear parks cut across various portions of Mass. Boston Cambridge Arlington Lexington Concord Acton Boxborough Harvard Lunenburg signs Route 2A as Mass Ave, on the night of April 18–19,1775, Paul Revere rode his horse down a portion of this road on his Midnight Ride.
On April 18–19,1775, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott rode on portions of road on their way to Concord. Massachusetts Avenue was formed at the end of the century from what were separate roads. In Boston the road was previously called East Chester Park south of Chester Square, across the river in Cambridge the road follows part of what was once Front Street near the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and follows the former Main Street to Harvard Square. From Harvard Square to the Arlington line at Alewife Brook it follows what had been North Avenue since 1838, and prior to that the Road to Menotomy. In Arlington it follows the former Arlington Avenue, and in Lexington it follows the former Main Street south of the Battle Green, Massachusetts Avenue is served with direct connections for a number of the MBTAs bus and subway routes between Lexington and Boston. An additional stop at Arlington Center was mooted during the 1980s Red Line extension, two MBTA Commuter Rail stations are located on Massachusetts Avenue, Porter in Cambridge and Newmarket at the South Bay Shopping Center in Dorchester.
Fenway Theatre Cyclist places potted plants on Mass