New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Alexander Hamilton was an American statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration. He took the lead in the funding of the debts by the Federal government, as well as the establishment of a national bank, a system of tariffs. His vision included a central government led by a vigorous executive branch. This was challenged by Virginia agrarians Thomas Jefferson and James Madison who formed a rival party and they favored strong states based in rural America and protected by state militias as opposed to a strong national army and navy. They denounced Hamilton as too friendly toward Britain and toward monarchy in general, Hamilton was born out of wedlock in Charlestown, to a married mother of British and French Huguenot ancestry and a Scottish father. His father, James A. Hamilton, was the son of laird Alexander Hamilton of Grange. Orphaned as a child by his mothers death and his fathers abandonment, Hamilton was taken in by an older cousin and he was recognized for his intelligence and talent, and sponsored by a group of wealthy local men to travel to New York City to pursue his education.
Hamilton attended Kings College, choosing to stay in the Thirteen Colonies to seek his fortune, discontinuing his studies before graduating when the college closed its doors during British occupation of the city, Hamilton played a major role in the American Revolutionary War. At the start of the war in 1775, he joined a militia company, in early 1776, he raised a provincial artillery company, to which he was appointed captain. He soon became the aide to General Washington, the American forces commander-in-chief. Hamilton was dispatched by Washington on numerous missions to convey plans to his generals, after the war, Hamilton was elected as a representative to the Congress of the Confederation from New York. He resigned to practice law, and founded the Bank of New York, Hamilton was among those dissatisfied with the weak national government. He led the Annapolis Convention, which successfully influenced Congress to issue a call for the Philadelphia Convention in order to create a new constitution, Hamilton became the leading cabinet member in the new government under President Washington.
These programs were funded primarily by a tariff on imports, to overcome localism, Hamilton mobilized a nationwide network of friends of the government, especially bankers and businessmen, which became the Federalist Party. A major issue in the emergence of the American two-party system was the Jay Treaty and it established friendly trade relations with Britain, to the chagrin of France and the supporters of the French Revolution. Hamilton played a role in the Federalist party, which dominated national. In 1795, he returned to the practice of law in New York and he tried to control the policies of President Adams
Federal Reserve Note
Federal Reserve Notes, United States banknotes or U. S. banknotes, are the banknotes currently used in the United States of America. Denominated in United States dollars, Federal Reserve Notes are printed by the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing on paper made by Crane & Co. of Dalton, Federal Reserve Notes are the only type of U. S. banknote currently produced. The notes are put into circulation by the Federal Reserve Banks, at which point they become liabilities of the Federal Reserve Banks, Federal Reserve Notes are legal tender, with the words this note is legal tender for all debts and private printed on each note. They have replaced United States Notes, which were issued by the Treasury Department. Federal Reserve Notes are backed by the assets of the Federal Reserve Banks and these assets are generally Treasury securities which have been purchased by the Federal Reserve through its Federal Open Market Committee in a process called debt monetizing. This monetized debt can increase the supply, either with the issuance of new Federal Reserve Notes or with the creation of debt money.
This increase in the base leads to a larger increase in the money supply through fractional-reserve banking as deposits are lent. Prior to centralized banking, each bank issued its own notes. The first institution with responsibilities of a bank in the U. S. was the First Bank of the United States. Its charter was not renewed in 1811, in 1816, the Second Bank of the United States was chartered, its charter was not renewed in 1836, after President Andrew Jackson campaigned heavily for its disestablishment. From 1837 to 1862, in the Free Banking Era there was no central bank. From 1862 to 1913, a system of banks was instituted by the 1863 National Banking Act. The first printed notes were Series 1914, in 1928, cost-cutting measures were taken to reduce the note to the size it is today. The authority of the Federal Reserve Banks to issue notes comes from the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, they are liabilities of the Federal Reserve Banks and obligations of the United States government. Although not issued by the Treasury Department, Federal Reserve Notes carry the signature of the Treasurer of the United States, at the time of the Federal Reserves creation, the law provided for notes to be redeemed to the Treasury in gold or lawful money.
The Emergency Banking Act of 1933 removed the gold obligation and authorized the Treasury to satisfy these redemption demands with current notes of equal face value, under the Bretton Woods system, although citizens could not possess gold, the federal government continued to maintain a stable international gold price. This system ended with the Nixon Shock of 1971, present-day Federal Reserve Notes are not backed by convertibility to any specific commodity, but only by the collateral assets that Federal Reserve Banks post in order to obtain them. Series 1914 FRN were the first of two large-size issues, denominations were $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100 printed first with a red seal and continued with a blue seal
Early American currency
Early American currency went through several stages of development in colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States. Because few coins were minted in the thirteen colonies became the United States in 1776. Colonial governments sometimes issued paper money to facilitate economic activity, the British Parliament passed Currency Acts in 1751,1764, and 1773 that regulated colonial paper money. During the American Revolution, the colonies became independent states, freed from British monetary regulations, the Continental Congress issued paper money during the Revolution, known as Continental currency, to fund the war effort. Both state and Continental currency depreciated rapidly, becoming practically worthless by the end of the war and this depreciation was caused by the government having to over-print in order to meet the demands of war. There were three types of money in the colonies of British America, paper money. Commodity money was used when cash was scarce, commodities such as tobacco, beaver skins, and wampum served as money at various times and places.
Cash in the colonies was denominated in pounds, the value varied from colony to colony, a Massachusetts pound, for example, was not equivalent to a Pennsylvania pound. All colonial pounds were of value than the British pound sterling. The coins in circulation in the colonies were most often of Spanish, the prevalence of the Spanish dollar in the colonies led to the money of the United States being denominated in dollars rather than pounds. One by one, colonies began to issue their own money to serve as a convenient medium of exchange. In 1690, the Province of Massachusetts Bay created the first authorized paper money issued by any government in the Western World and this paper money was issued to pay for a military expedition during King Williams War. Other colonies followed the example of Massachusetts Bay by issuing their own currency in subsequent military conflicts. The paper bills issued by the colonies were known as bills of credit, bills of credit were usually fiat money, they could not be exchanged for a fixed amount of gold or silver coins upon demand.
Bills of credit were usually issued by governments to pay debts. The governments would retire the currency by accepting the bills for payment of taxes, when colonial governments issued too many bills of credit or failed to tax them out of circulation, inflation resulted. This happened especially in New England and the colonies, which. Pennsylvania, was responsible in not issuing too much currency, pennsylvanias paper currency, secured by land, was said to have generally maintained its value against gold from 1723 until the Revolution broke out in 1775
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a predominant wavelength of roughly 495–570 nm, the modern English word green comes from the Middle English and Anglo-Saxon word grene, from the same Germanic root as the words grass and grow. It is the color of living grass and leaves and as a result is the color most associated with springtime, growth, by far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants photosynthesize and convert sunlight into chemical energy. Many creatures have adapted to their environments by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage. Several minerals have a color, including the emerald, which is colored green by its chromium content. In surveys made in Europe and the United States, green is the color most commonly associated with nature, health, spring and envy. In Europe and the U. S. green is associated with death, sickness, or the devil. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, when the color of clothing showed the social status, green was worn by merchants, bankers.
The Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci wears green, showing she is not from a noble family, Green is the traditional color of safety and permission, a green light means go ahead, a green card permits permanent residence in the United States. It is the most important color in Islam and it was the color of the banner of Muhammad, and is found in the flags of nearly all Islamic countries, and represents the lush vegetation of Paradise. It is associated with the culture of Gaelic Ireland. Because of its association with nature, it is the color of the environmental movement, political groups advocating environmental protection and social justice describe themselves as part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties. This has led to campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold green, or environmentally friendly. The word green comes from the Middle English and Old English word grene, like the German word grün, has the same root as the words grass and grow. It is from a Common Germanic *gronja-, which is reflected in Old Norse grænn, Old High German gruoni, ultimately from a PIE root *ghre- to grow.
The first recorded use of the word as a term in Old English dates to ca. Latin with viridis has a genuine and widely used term for green, related to virere to grow and ver spring, it gave rise to words in several Romance languages, French vert, Italian verde. Likewise the Slavic languages with zelenъ, Ancient Greek had a term for yellowish, pale green – χλωρός, cognate with χλοερός verdant and χλόη the green of new growth
Robert Morris (financier)
From 1781 to 1784, he served as the powerful Superintendent of Finance, managing the economy of the fledgling United States. As the central civilian in the government, Morris was, next to General George Washington and his successful administration led to the sobriquet, Financier of the Revolution. At the same time he was Agent of Marine, a position he took without pay and he was one of Pennsylvanias original pair of US senators, serving from 1789 to 1795. After he left prison in 1801, he lived a quiet, Morris was born to Robert Morris, Sr. and Elizabeth Murphet in Liverpool, England, on January 20,1734. At the age of 13, Morris immigrated to Oxford, Maryland, to live with his father, as a youth, Morris was provided a tutor and was a quick learner. His father sent him to Philadelphia to study where he stayed with Charles Greenway, Greenway arranged for young Robert to become an apprentice at the shipping and banking firm of the Philadelphia merchant Charles Willing. A year later, Roberts father died after being wounded in an accident when hit by the wadding of a gun that was fired in his honor.
When Charles Willing died in 1754, his son Thomas Willing made Morris his partner at the age 24 and they established the prominent shipping-banking firm of Willing, Morris & Co. on May 1,1757. The partnership lasted until about 1779, on March 2,1769, at age 35, Morris married 20-year-old Mary White. White was the daughter of a wealthy and prestigious Maryland landholder, together they had five sons and two daughters. White came from a prominent family in Maryland, her brother was the well-known Anglican Bishop William White, Morris worshiped in Philadelphia at St. Peters Church on Pine Street and Christ Church on 2nd Street, both of which were run by his brother-in-law, Bishop William White. Morris remained a constant worshipper and supporter at this Anglican Church for his entire life, both Morris and his brother-in-law William White are buried at Christ Church, Philadelphia in the churchyard located at Second and Market. In 1757 Morris became a partner with Thomas Willing. Their partnership was a merchant firm with interests in shipping, real estate, the partnership was forged just after the Seven Years War began, which hindered attracting the usual supply of new indentured servants to the colony.
Potential immigrants were conscripted in England to fight in Europe, indentured servants could legally break their contracts to join the British forces to fight against the French and their Indian allies. At the same time, the British Crown wanted to encourage the trade which was profitable for the Kings political allies in the African Company of Merchants. While Morris was a partner and Willing was pursuing a political career. Willing, Morris & Co funded its own slave-trading voyage, the ship did not carry enough to be profitable and, during a second trip, was captured by French privateers
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
Obverse and reverse
In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse means the back face. The obverse of a coin is commonly called heads, because it depicts the head of a prominent person. In fields of scholarship outside numismatics, the front is more commonly used than obverse. For prints and drawings with material on both sides the one judged as more significant will be the recto, a convention now exists typically to display the obverse to the left and the reverse to the right in photographs and museum displays, but this is not invariably observed. Following this principle, in the most famous of ancient Greek coins, the tetradrachm of Athens, the obverse is the head of Athena, similar versions of these two images, both symbols of the state, were used on the Athenian coins for more than two centuries. The opposite side may have varied from time to time and this change happened in the coinage of Alexander the Great, which continued to be minted long after his death. The various Hellenistic rulers who were his successors followed his tradition and this script alone style was used on nearly all Islamic coinage until the modern period.
The type of Justinian II was revived after the end of Iconoclasm, without images, therefore, it is not always easy to tell which side will be regarded as the obverse without some knowledge. After 695, Islamic coins avoided all images of persons and usually, the side expressing the Six Kalimas is usually defined as the obverse. The form of currency follows its function, which is to serve as an accepted medium of exchange of value. Traditionally, most states have been monarchies where the person of the monarch, if not provided for on the obverse, the reverse side usually contains information relating to a coins role as medium of exchange. Additional space typically reflects the countrys culture or government, or evokes some aspect of the states territory. Regarding the euro, some regarding the obverse and reverse of the euro coins exists. This rule does not apply to the coins as they dont have a common side. A number of the used for obverse national sides of euro coins were taken from the reverse of the old pre-euro coins of some individual countries.
Several countries continue to use portraits of the monarch and the Republic of Ireland continues to use the State Arms. The Chrysanthemum Crest was no longer used after the war, and so, the side on which the date continues to be regarded as the reverse. Following ancient tradition, the obverse of coins of the United Kingdom almost always feature the head of the monarch
If the promissory note is unconditional and readily saleable, it is called a negotiable instrument. A banknote is frequently referred to as a note, a promissory note made by a bank. Mortgage notes are another prominent example, Promissory notes are a common financial instrument in many jurisdictions, employed principally for short time financing of companies. Often, the seller or provider of a service is not paid upfront by the buyer, but within a period of time, the length of which has been agreed upon by both the seller and the buyer. Depending on the jurisdiction, this deferred payment period can be regulated by law, in countries like France, Italy or Spain, it usually ranges between 30 and 90 days after the purchase. In those cases, the company has the option of asking the bank for a term loan. Once the promissory note reaches its maturity date, its current holder can execute it over the emitter of the note, if the maker fails to pay, the bank retains the right to go to the company that cashed the promissory note in, and demand payment.
In the case of unsecured promissory notes, the lender accepts the promissory note based solely on the ability to repay, if the maker fails to pay. Thus, promissory notes can work as a form of private money, the terms of a note usually include the principal amount, the interest rate if any, the parties, the date, the terms of repayment and the maturity date. Sometimes, provisions are included concerning the rights in the event of a default. Demand promissory notes are notes that do not carry a specific maturity date, usually the lender will only give the borrower a few days notice before the payment is due. For loans between individuals and signing a promissory note are often instrumental for tax and record keeping, a promissory note alone is typically unsecured, but these may be used in combination with security agreements such as mortgage, in which case they are called mortgage notes. Definition and usage of notes are internationally established by the Convention providing a uniform law for bills of exchange and promissory notes.
In the United States, a note that meets certain conditions is a negotiable instrument regulated by article 3 of the Uniform Commercial Code. Negotiable promissory notes called mortgage notes are used extensively in combination with mortgages in the financing of real estate transactions, one prominent example is the Fannie Mae model standard form contract Multistate Fixed-Rate Note 3200, which is publicly available. Promissory notes, or commercial papers, are issued to provide capital to businesses. However, Promissory Notes act as a source of Finance to the companys creditors, promissory notes have acted as a form of privately issued currency. Flying cash or feiqian was a promissory note used during the Tang dynasty, flying cash was regularly used by Chinese tea merchants, and could be exchanged for hard currency at provincial capitals
Edmund Dick Taylor
Colonel Edmund Dick Taylor was an American businessman and soldier from Illinois. He is remembered as the first person to suggest that the United States should issue paper currency during the American Civil War and he was born Edmund Richard Taylor in Lunenburg County, son of Giles Y Taylor and Francine Sina Stokes. In years, he preferred to use his name rather than his first name. Thus he became known as Dick Taylor, and his middle initial was written D in formal documents, in the fall of 1823, he began general merchandising with Colonel John Taylor in Springfield, Illinois. On 18 September 1829, he married Margaret Taylor, the daughter of Col. John Taylor, in 1830, he was elected to the Illinois State Legislature, representing Sangamon County. In 1832 he was re-elected, defeating several challengers including Abraham Lincoln, Taylor was the only man to defeat Lincoln in a direct election. In 1834 he was elected to the Illinois Senate from Sangamon County, in 1835, he was appointed by President Andrew Jackson as Receiver of Public Moneys in Chicago, where he was in charge of substantial sales of federal land.
After holding this position for four years, he returned to the private sector and he continued to play a leading role in Democratic Party politics in Illinois. Taylor was a pioneer of the industry in Illinois. In 1823 he took an interest in coal and opened the West End Shaft, in 1856, he sank a shaft in La Salle County, operating as the Northern Illinois Coal and Iron Company. He owned mines in that area. On 18 February 1863, at a convention in Chicago of the operators in Illinois. Taylor played an important role in Illinois in promoting and bringing about internal improvements, General Usher F. Linder stated If any man deserves more credit than another for the completion of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, it is Col. Edmund D. Taylor. When the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was incorporated on 16 January 1836, Taylor was appointed commissioner, on 18 January 1837, at Russells Saloon in Chicago, supporters of internal improvements held a mass meeting. William H. Brown was called to the chair and William Stuart appointed Secretary, a committee of five was appointed namely, Edmund D.
Taylor, Captain J. B. F. Russell, Francis Payton, John H. Kinzie, and Joseph N. Balestier. The meeting declared in favor of the construction of the Illinois Central Railroad. Pomeroy, Elisha Wadsworth, Walter Loomis Newberry, Hiram Wheeler, Taylor was ruined by the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed 14 stores owned by him. He had insurance, but it was with Chicago firms that were overwhelmed by the disaster, during the Civil War, Taylor had spent considerable sums from his own pocket for travel on government business and in raising and equipping Union troops
Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin was a Swiss-American politician, diplomat and linguist. He served as a Representative, United States Ambassador and was the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury, in 1831, he helped found the University of the City of New York, now New York University. Born in Geneva in present-day Switzerland, Gallatin immigrated to America in the 1780s and was naturalized in Morgantown and he ultimately settled in western Pennsylvania. He was politically active against the Federalist Party program and was elected to the United States Senate in 1793, however, he was removed from office by a 14–12 party-line vote after a protest raised by his opponents suggested he did not meet the required nine years of citizenship. Two years later, he was elected to the House of Representatives and he helped found the House Committee on Finance and often engineered withholding of finances by the House as a method of overriding executive actions to which he objected. He was secretary from 1801 until February 1814, under both Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, holding the longest tenure in office in American history.
Gallatin never wanted the position and was humiliated when forced to withdraw from the race because he lacked popular support, in 1826 and 1827, he served as Ambassador to Great Britain and negotiated several useful agreements, such as a ten-year extension of the joint occupation of Oregon. Gallatin settled in New York City after his return to the US and it was intended to offer university education to the working and merchant classes as well as the wealthy. He became president of the National Bank in New York City and his last great endeavor was founding the American Ethnological Society in 1842 and serving as its president until 1848. With his studies of the languages of Native Americans, he has called the father of American ethnology. At his death in 1849, Gallatin was the last surviving member of the Jefferson Cabinet, Gallatin was born in Geneva, Switzerland, to wealthy Jean Gallatin and his wife, Sophie Albertine Rollaz. Gallatins family had influence in Switzerland, and many family members held distinguished positions in the magistracy, military.
Gallatins father, a merchant, died in 1765, followed by his mother in April 1770. Now orphaned, Gallatin was taken into the care of Mademoiselle Pictet, in January 1773, Gallatin was sent to boarding school. The democratic spirit of the United States attracted him and he decided to emigrate, in April 1780, he secretly left Geneva with his classmate Henri Serre. Carrying letters of recommendation from eminent Colonials that the Gallatin family procured, the men left France in May, sailing on an American ship. They reached Cape Ann on July 14 and arrived in Boston the next day, bored with monotonous Bostonian life, the men set sail with a Swiss female companion, to the settlement of Machias, located on the northeastern tip of the Maine frontier. At Machias, Gallatin operated a bartering venture, in which he dealt with a variety of goods and he enjoyed the simple life and the natural environment surrounding him
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet.
Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparent