Chester W. Nimitz
Chester William Nimitz was a fleet admiral of the United States Navy. Nimitz was the leading U. S. Navy authority on submarines. S, the chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939, Nimitz served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1945 until 1947. He was the United States last surviving officer who served in the rank of fleet admiral and his frail, rheumatic father had died six months earlier, on August 14,1884. The best way to get along with either is to all you can, do your best. His grandfather became a Texas Ranger in the Texas Mounted Volunteers in 1851 and he served as captain of the Gillespie Rifles Company in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. Originally, Nimitz applied to West Point in hopes of becoming an Army officer and his congressman, James L. Slayden, told him that he had one appointment available for the United States Naval Academy and that he would award it to the best qualified candidate. Nimitz felt that this was his opportunity for further education. He was appointed to the United States Naval Academy from Texass 12th congressional district in 1901, Nimitz joined the battleship Ohio at San Francisco, and cruised on her to the Far East.
In September 1906, he was transferred to the cruiser Baltimore, on January 31,1907, remaining on Asiatic Station in 1907, he successively served on the gunboat Panay, destroyer Decatur, and cruiser Denver. The destroyer Decatur ran aground on a bar in the Philippines on July 7,1908 while under the command of Ensign Nimitz. The ship was pulled free the next day, and Nimitz was court-martialed, found guilty of neglect of duty, and issued a letter of reprimand. Nimitz returned to the United States on board USS Ranger when that vessel was converted to a school ship, in May of that year, he was given command of the flotilla, with additional duty in command of USS Plunger, renamed A-1. He commanded USS Snapper when that submarine was commissioned on February 2,1910, in the latter command, he had additional duty from October 10,1911 as Commander 3rd Submarine Division Atlantic Torpedo Fleet. On the monitor Tonopah on March 20,1912, he rescued Fireman Second Class W. J. Walsh from drowning, receiving a Silver Lifesaving Medal for his action.
In the summer of 1913, Nimitz studied engines at the diesel engine plants in Nuremberg, returning to the New York Navy Yard, he became executive and engineer officer of Maumee at her commissioning on October 23,1916. Under his supervision, Maumee conducted the first-ever underway refuelings, on August 10,1917, Nimitz became aide to Rear Admiral Samuel S. Robison, Submarine Force, U. S. On February 6,1918, Nimitz was appointed chief of staff and was awarded a Letter of Commendation for meritorious service as COMSUBLANTs chief of staff. On September 16, he reported to the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, from May 1919 to June 1920, he served as executive officer of the battleship South Carolina
Battle of Kwajalein
The Battle of Kwajalein was fought as part of the Pacific campaign of World War II. It took place from 31 January-3 February 1944, on Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands, employing the hard-learned lessons of the battle of Tarawa, the United States launched a successful twin assault on the main islands of Kwajalein in the south and Roi-Namur in the north. The Japanese defenders put up resistance, although outnumbered and under-prepared. The determined defense of Roi-Namur left only 51 survivors of a garrison of 3,500. For the Japanese, the battle represented the failure of the beach-line defense, Japanese defenses became prepared in depth, and the battles of Peleliu and the Marianas proved far more costly to the US. Kwajalein Atoll is in the heart of the Marshall Islands and it lies in the Ralik Chain,2,100 nmi southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii at 8°43′N 167°44′E. Kwajalein is the worlds largest coral atoll and comprises 93 islands and islets, it has an area of 1,560 acres. The two most significant land masses are Kwajalein Island in the south, and the islands of Roi-Namur in the north.
By the start of World War II, the Marshalls were already a part of the Japanese perimeter of defense. Its facilities were being utilized as outlying bases for submarines and surface warships, as well as for air staging for future advances being planned against Ellice, the Fiji Islands, and Samoa. After the capture of Makin and Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands and these islands had been Imperial German colonies, after their purchase from Spain in 1899. At the end of World War I, they were assigned to Japan in the settlement as the Eastern Mandates. The islands became a mystery because the Japanese closed them to the outside world and it was presumed the Japanese had built illegal fortifications throughout the islands, but the precise extent of such fortifications was unknown. Japan regarded them as part of the ring of their territory. The strategic importance of the Marshalls had been recognized as early as 1921 in Plan Orange, the Marshalls were a key step in the island-hopping march to the Japanese mainland.
After losing the Solomon Islands and New Guinea to the Allies in 1943 and they preferred fighting a decisive battle closer to home. Nevertheless, the Marshalls were reinforced at the end of 1943 to make their capture more costly for the Americans, by January 1944, the regional commander in Truk, Admiral Masashi Kobayashi, had 28,000 troops to defend the Marshalls, although he had very few aircraft. The 6th Base Force, under the command of Rear Admiral Monzo Akiyama, however, had his men spread out over a very wide area, with IJN air bases located on Roi-Namur, Maloelap and Wotje
The raid was planned and led by Lieutenant Colonel James Jimmy Doolittle of the United States Army Air Forces. Sixteen B-25B Mitchell medium bombers were launched without fighter escort from the U. S. Navys aircraft carrier USS Hornet deep in the Western Pacific Ocean, each with a crew of five men. The plan called for them to military targets in Japan. Fifteen aircraft reached China, but all crashed, while the 16th landed at Vladivostok in the Soviet Union, all but three of the 80 crew members initially survived the mission. Eight airmen were captured by the Japanese Army in China, three of those were executed, the B-25 that landed in the Soviet Union was confiscated and its crew interned for more than a year. Fourteen complete crews, except for one crewman who was killed in action, who initially believed that the loss of all his aircraft would lead to his court-martial, received the Medal of Honor and was promoted two steps to brigadier general. The raid had its start in a desire by President Franklin D, an attack on the Japanese homeland would cause confusion in the minds of the Japanese people and sow doubt about the reliability of their leaders.
There was a second, and equally important, psychological reason for this attack, Americans badly needed a morale boost. The concept for the attack came from Navy Captain Francis Low, Assistant Chief of Staff for anti-submarine warfare, the attack was planned and led by Doolittle, a famous military test pilot, civilian aviator and aeronautical engineer before the war. Requirements that the aircraft have a range of 2,400 nautical miles with a 2. The range of the Mitchell at the time was only about 1,300 miles, the B-18, one of the final two types considered by Doolittle, was rejected for the same reason. The B-25 had yet to be tested in combat, but subsequent tests indicated it could fulfill the missions requirements. Doolittles first report on the plan suggested the bombers might land in Vladivostok, negotiations with the Soviet Union for permission to land were fruitless because it had signed a neutrality pact with Japan in April 1941. The raid was approved and the 17th Bomb Group was chosen to provide the pool of crews from which volunteers would be recruited.
The 17th BG had been the first group to receive B-25s, the 17th not only was the first medium bomb group of the Army Air Corps, but in the spring of 1942 had the most experienced B-25 crews. Its first assignment following the entry of the United States into the war was to the U. S, the group officially transferred effective 9 February to Columbia, where its combat crews were offered the opportunity to volunteer for an extremely hazardous, but unspecified mission. On 19 February, the group was detached from the Eighth Air Force, initial planning called for 20 aircraft to fly the mission, and 24 of the groups B-25B Mitchell bombers were diverted to the Mid-Continent Airlines modification center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. With support provided by two senior managers, Wold-Chamberlain Fields maintenance hangar was the first modification center to become operational
Battle of Makin
The Battle of Makin was an engagement of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought from 20 to 23 November 1943, on Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands. The plan was to approach the Japanese home islands by island hopping, establishing naval, the Gilbert Islands were the first step in this chain. The Japanese garrison only posted 83 to 160 men under the command of a warrant officer, the Raiders killed at least 83 Japanese soldiers, annihilating the garrison, and destroyed installations for the loss of 21 killed and 9 captured. The Japanese moved their prisoners to Kwajalein Atoll, where they were beheaded, after Carlsons raid, the Japanese reinforced the Gilberts, which had been left lightly guarded. Makin was garrisoned with a company of the 5th Special Base Force on August 1942. By July 1943 the seaplane base on Makin was completed and ready to accommodate Kawanishi H8K Emily flying boat bombers, Nakajima A6M2-N Rufe hydrofighters and its defenses were completed, although they were not as extensive as on Tarawa Atoll—the main Japanese Navy air base in the Gilberts.
The Chitose and 653rd Air Corps were detached and deployed here, while the Japanese were building up their defenses in the Gilberts, American forces were making plans to retake the islands. In June 1943 the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, initially both Nimitz and Admiral Ernest J. Considering these drawbacks and the combat experience of the U. S. forces and Nimitz decided to take the Marshalls in a step-by-step operation via the Ellice. With those advantages in mind, on 20 July 1943 the joint Chiefs of Staff decided to capture the Tarawa and Abemama atolls in the Gilberts, the operation was codenamed Operation Galvanic. On 4 September the U. S. 5th Fleets amphibious troops were designated the V Amphibious Corps, the V Amphibious Corps had the only two divisions, the 2nd Marine Division based in New Zealand, and the U. S. Armys 27th Infantry Division based in Hawaii. The 27th Infantry Division had been a New York National Guard unit before being called into service in October 1940.
It was transferred to Hawaii and remained there for 1½ years before being chosen by Lt. Gen. Robert C, richardson, Jr. U. S. Army Commanding General in the Central Pacific, for the Gilbert Islands invasion. Smith, a veteran of World War I, who had assumed command in November 1942 and he was one of the most highly respected officers in the U. S. Army of the time. In April 1943, the 27th Infantry Division had begun preparing for amphibious operations, planning for the 27th Infantry Divisions role in Galvanic began in early August 1943, with Nauru Island in the western Gilberts as the original objective. Unlike the other objectives, Nauru was an island, much larger in size. However, in September 1943 the 27ths objective changed, the 27th Infantry Division staff learned the change of target on 28 September, scrapped the original Nauru plan, and began planning to capture Makin. The garrisons at Tarawa and Makin were left to their fate, the invasion fleet, Task Force 52 commanded by Rear Admiral Richmond K.
Turner left Pearl Harbor on 10 November 1943
Operation Hailstone is often referred to as the Japanese equivalent of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Truk was a major Japanese logistical base as well as the home base for the Imperial Japanese Navys Combined Fleet. Some have described it as the Japanese equivalent of the U. S. Navys Pearl Harbor, the base was the key logistical and operational hub supporting Japans perimeter defenses in the central and south Pacific. To ensure air and naval superiority for the invasion of Eniwetok. Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitschers Task Force 58 had five fleet carriers and four light carriers, supporting the carriers was a large fleet of seven battleships, and numerous cruisers, destroyers and other support ships. Fearing that the base was becoming too vulnerable, the Japanese had relocated the aircraft carriers, however, numerous smaller warships and merchant ships remained in and around the anchorage and several hundred aircraft were stationed at the atolls airfields. The U. S. attack involved a combination of airstrikes, surface ship actions, a force of U. S.
surface ships and submarines guarded possible exit routes from the islands anchorage to attack any Japanese ships that tried to escape from the airstrikes. Some of the ships were destroyed in the anchorage and some in the area surrounding Truk lagoon, many of the merchant ships were loaded with reinforcements and supplies for Japanese garrisons in the central Pacific area. Very few of the troops aboard the ships survived and little of their cargoes were recovered. Maikaze, along with support ships, was sunk by U. S. surface ships while trying to escape from the Truk anchorage. Maikaze herself was sunk with all hands on board, the survivors of the sunken Japanese ships reportedly refused rescue efforts by the U. S. ships. The cruiser Agano, a veteran of the Raid on Rabaul, oite rescued 523 survivors from Agano and returned to Truk lagoon to assist in its defense with her anti-aircraft guns. She was sunk soon after by air attack with the Agano survivors still on board, killing all of them, over 250 Japanese aircraft were destroyed, mostly on the ground.
Many of the aircraft were in states of assembly, having just arrived from Japan in disassembled form aboard cargo ships. Very few of the aircraft were able to take off in response to the U. S. attack. Several Japanese aircraft that did take off were claimed destroyed by U. S. fighters or gunners on the U. S. bombers, the U. S. lost twenty-five aircraft, mainly due to the intense anti-aircraft fire from Truks defenses. About 16 U. S. aircrew were rescued by submarine or amphibious aircraft, a nighttime torpedo attack by a Japanese aircraft from either Rabaul or Saipan damaged Intrepid and killed 11 of her crew, forcing her to return to Pearl Harbor and later, San Francisco for repairs. She returned to duty in June,1944, another Japanese air attack slightly damaged the battleship Iowa with a bomb hit
Battle of Eniwetok
The Battle of Eniwetok was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought between 17 February 1944 and 23 February 1944, on Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The invasion of Eniwetok followed the American success in the Battle of Kwajalein to the southeast, capture of Eniwetok would provide an airfield and harbor to support attacks on the Mariana Islands to the northwest. In 1943 the Japanese established light defenses at Eniwetok, they believed that the Americans would strike at the southwestern Marshalls first, the 1st Amphibious Brigade reinforced the defenders in January 1944. Its commander was Major General Yoshimi Nishida, there was a company of nine Type 95 light tanks, led by First Lieutenant Ichikawa. The 1st Amphibious began to construct defenses, but repeated air attacks made this difficult, vice Admiral Raymond Spruance preceded the invasion with Operation Hailstone, a carrier strike against the Japanese base at Truk in the Caroline Islands. This raid destroyed 39 warships and more than 200 planes, Naval bombardment of Eniwetok began on 17 February, and the 22nd Marine Regiment, commanded by Col John T.
Walker, landed on Engebi Island, on 18 February at 08,43 the next day. Resistance was light, and the island was declared secure by 14,50, US losses included 85 dead and missing plus 166 wounded. The island was not secured until 21 February,37 Americans were killed or missing and 94 wounded. The mistake was not repeated at Parry Island, the battleships USS Tennessee and USS Pennsylvania and other ships delivered more than 900 tons of explosive onto the island. The 104th Field Artillery on Eniwetok and the 2nd Separate Pack Howitzer Battalions on Japtan provided additional fire support. The 1/22 and 2/22 Marines landed at 09,00 on 22 February At 19,30, US casualties included 73 dead and missing plus 261 wounded. The vast majority of Japanese soldiers were killed, though 105 survivors were captured, Eniwetok Atoll provided a forward base for the United States Navy for its operations. Aleutians and Marshalls, June 1942-April 1944, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, the Marshall Islands 1944, Operation Flintlock, the capture of Kwajalein and Eniwetok.
US Marine Corps Pacific Theater of Operations 1943-44, US Army Campaigns in World War II. United States Army Center of Military History, breaking the Outer Ring, Marine Landings in the Marshall Islands Heinl, Robert D. and John A. Crown. Historical Division, Division of Public Information, Headquarters U. S. Marine Corps, archived from the original on 16 November 2006. The Amphibians Came to Conquer, The Story of Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner, archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Animated History of The Battle for Eniwetok Soldiers of the 184th Infantry, 7th ID in the Pacific, 1943-1945
Battle of Hong Kong
The Battle of Hong Kong, known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific War in World War II. On the same morning as the attack on Pearl Harbor, forces of the Empire of Japan attacked the British Crown colony of Hong Kong, the attack was in violation of international law as Japan had not declared war against the British Empire. The Japanese attack was met with resistance from the Hong Kong garrison, composed of local troops as well as British. Within a week the defenders abandoned the mainland and less than two weeks later, with their position on the island untenable, the colony surrendered. Britain first thought of Japan as a threat with the ending of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in the early 1920s, on 21 October 1938 the Japanese occupied Canton and Hong Kong was surrounded. British defence studies concluded that Hong Kong would be hard to defend in the event of a Japanese attack. Key sites of the defence of Hong Kong included the Wong Nai Chung Gap, Lye Moon Passage, the Shing Mun Redoubt, by 1940, the British determined to reduce the Hong Kong Garrison to only a symbolic size.
Winston Churchill and the staff named Hong Kong as an outpost. C Force, as it was known, arrived on 16 November on board the troopship Awatea, a total of 96 officers, two Auxiliary Services supervisors and 1,877 other ranks disembarked. Included were two officers and two nurses, two Canadian Dental Corps officers with assistants, three chaplains and a detachment of the Canadian Postal Corps. The Royal Rifles had served only in the Dominion of Newfoundland and Saint John, New Brunswick, prior to posting to Hong Kong, the Japanese attack began shortly after 08,00 on 8 December 1941, fewer than eight hours after the Attack on Pearl Harbor. The colony had no significant air defence, an earlier request for a fighter squadron had been rejected and the nearest fully operational RAF base was in Kota Bharu, nearly 2,250 kilometres away. Hong Kong lacked adequate naval defences, three destroyers were to withdraw to Singapore Naval Base. The Japanese bombed Kai Tak Airport on 8 December, two of the three Wildebeest and the two Walrus were destroyed by 12 Japanese bombers.
The attack destroyed several aircraft including all but two of the aircraft used by the air unit of the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corp. The RAF and air personnel from on fought as ground troops. Two of the Royal Navys three remaining destroyers were ordered to leave Hong Kong for Singapore, only one destroyer, HMS Thracian, several gunboats and a flotilla of motor torpedo boats remained. The crews evacuated 275 persons including Mme Sun Yat-Sen, the widow of Sun Yat-sen, the Commonwealth forces decided against holding the Sham Chun River and instead established three battalions on the Gin Drinkers Line across the hills
Pacific Ocean theater of World War II
The Pacific Ocean theater, during World War II, was a major theater of the war between the Allies and Japan. It officially came into existence on March 30,1942, when US Admiral Chester Nimitz was appointed Supreme Allied Commander Pacific Ocean Areas. In the other theatre in the Pacific region, known as the South West Pacific theatre. Both Nimitz and MacArthur were overseen by the US Joint Chiefs, most Japanese forces in the theater were part of the Combined Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was responsible for all Japanese warships, naval aircraft, and marine infantry units. The Rengō Kantai was led by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, until he was killed in an attack by U. S. fighter planes in April 1943, Yamamoto was succeeded by Admiral Mineichi Koga and Admiral Soemu Toyoda. The General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Army was responsible for Imperial Japanese Army ground and air units in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. The IJN and IJA did not formally use joint/combined staff at the level, and their command structures/geographical areas of operations overlapped each other.
In the Pacific Ocean theater, Japanese forces fought primarily against the United States Navy, US Marine Corps, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and other Allied nations contributed forces. Pacific Crucible, War at Sea in the Pacific, 1941–1942, the Official Chronology of the U. S. Navy in World War II. In the Service of the Emperor, Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army, a History of Us, War and all that Jazz. Kafka, Pepperburg, Roy L. Warships of the World, the Campaigns of the Pacific War
Mitscher was born in Hillsboro, Wisconsin on January 26,1887, the son of Oscar and Myrta Mitscher. Mitschers grandfather, Andreas Mitscher, was a German immigrant from Traben-Trarbach and his other grandfather, Thomas J. Shear, was a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly. During the western land boom of 1889, when Marc was two old, his family resettled in Oklahoma City, where his father. His uncle, Byron D. Shear, would become mayor. Mitscher attended elementary and secondary schools in Washington, D. C and he received an appointment to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland in 1904 through Bird Segle McGuire, U. S. An indifferent student with a sense of military deportment, Mitschers career at the naval academy did not portend the accomplishments he would achieve in life. Nicknamed after Annapoliss first midshipman from Oklahoma, Peter Cassius Marcellus Cade, soon he was referred to as Oklahoma Pete, with the nickname shortened to just Pete by the winter of his youngster year.
Having amassed 159 demerits and showing poorly in his class work, at the insistence of his father, Mitscher re-applied and was granted reappointment, though he had to re-enter the academy as a first year plebe. This time the stoic Mitscher worked straight through, and on June 3,1910, following graduation he served two years at sea aboard USS Colorado, and was commissioned ensign on March 7,1912. In August 1913, he served aboard USS California on the West Coast, during that time Mexico was experiencing a political disturbance, and California was sent to protect U. S. interests and citizens. Mitscher took an early interest in aviation, requesting a transfer to aeronautics while aboard Colorado in his last year as a midshipman, after graduating he continued to make requests for transfer to aviation while serving on the destroyers USS Whipple and USS Stewart. Mitscher was in charge of the room on USS Stewart when orders to transfer to the Naval Aeronautic Station in Pensacola. Mitscher was assigned to the armored cruiser USS North Carolina, which was being used to experiment as a platform for aircraft.
The ship had been fitted with a catapult over her fantail, Mitscher trained as a pilot, earning his wings and the designation Naval Aviator. Mitscher was one of the first naval aviators, receiving No.33 on June 2,1916, almost a year later, on April 6,1917, he reported to the renamed armored cruiser USS West Virginia for duty in connection with aircraft catapult experiments. At this early date the Navy was interested in using aircraft for scouting purposes, lieutenant Mitscher was placed in command of NAS Dinner Key in Coconut Grove, Florida. Dinner Key was the second largest naval air facility in the U. S. and was used to train seaplane pilots, on July 18,1918, he was promoted to lieutenant commander. In February 1919, he transferred from NAS Dinner Key to the Aviation Section in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, on May 10,1919, Mitscher was among a group of naval aviators attempting the first transatlantic crossing by air
Japanese invasion of Thailand
The Japanese invasion of Thailand occurred on 8 December 1941. It was fought between the Kingdom of Thailand and the Empire of Japan, despite fierce fighting in southern Thailand, the resistance lasted only a matter of hours before ending in a ceasefire. The origin of Japanese invasion of Thailand can be traced to the principle of hakkō ichiu as espouced by Tanaka Chigaku in the mid- to late-1800s, Tanaka interpreted the principle as meaning that imperial rule had been divinely ordained to expand until it united the entire world. The concept became expressed in the New Order in East Asia, in 1940, the concept was expanded by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe, who sought to create the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, including Japan, Manchukuo and parts of Southeast Asia. Taiwan Army Unit 82 was formed in 1939 or 1940 to bring this about, in its final planning stages, the unit was commanded by Colonel Yoshihide Hayashi. As part of conquering Southeast Asia, the Japanese military planned to invade Malaya, in order to do this, they needed to make use of Thai ports and airfields.
They did not want conflict with the Thai military, as this would delay the invasion, the Japanese plan was seen by the Nazi government of Germany as helpful in diverting Britains military forces, and thus assisting Germany in its own conflict. Thailand had a military, and after a series of border skirmishes in 1940 had invaded neighbouring French Indochina to recover provinces lost in the Franco-Siamese War of 1893. The Japanese, who wanted to use the Indo-Chinese ports and air-bases, as part of the process, secret discussions were held with Thai Prime Minister Phibun Songkhram, in which the Japanese military sought free passage through Thailand. Phibun had responded positively, but his actions showed he may have been very uncertain. By February, the British were beginning to suspect the Japanese were planning to attack their possessions in Southeast Asia and were concerned Japan might set up bases in Thailand to that end. Phibun could have decided he had little choice, as his own forces would have been unable to defeat the Japanese by themselves, thailands invasion of French Indochina in 1940 made it difficult for the United States government to support Phibun.
Midway through 1941, Phibun sought British and American guarantees of support if Japan invaded Thailand. The United States was unable to support this proposition, and Britain was not prepared to make it alone, by August and the United States had put in place severe sanctions against Japan. The Japanese sought to have the sanctions lifted by promising not to encroach on Thailand and to withdraw their forces from Indochina and this proposal was unacceptable to both Britain and the United States because of its impact on China. In late November, the British had become aware of an attack on Thailand by Japan because of the rapid buildup of Japanese troops in Indochina. Further negotiations took place between the Japanese diplomatic representative and Phibun on 2 December, Phibun was prepared to look the other way if Japan invaded the Kra Peninsula, but wanted them to avoid passing through the Bangkok Plain. On 2 December, the Japanese military issued the order Climb Mount Niitaka, the main invasion fleet for Operation E, the invasion of Malaya and Thailand, sailed from Sanya, Hainan Island, China on 4 December
Indian Ocean in World War II
Axis naval forces gave a high priority to disrupting Allied Indian Ocean trade. Initial anti-shipping measures of unrestricted submarine warfare and covert raiding ships expanded to include airstrikes by aircraft carriers, a Kriegsmarine Monsun Gruppe of U-boats operated from the eastern Indian Ocean after the Persian Corridor became an important military supply route to the Soviet Union. 15 November 1939, Australian and French warships began patrolling the Indian Ocean when the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee sank the tanker Africa Shell south of Madagascar. 23 March 1940, The Royal Navy established the Malaya Force of cruisers, destroyers,11 May 1940, German merchant raider Atlantis entered the Indian Ocean from the South Atlantic. 7 June 1940, Italian warships began minelaying off Massawa and Assab,10 June 1940, Eight Italian submarines began war patrols of the Indian Ocean from Massawa. 10 June 1940, Atlantis captured the freighter Tirranna in the Central Indian Ocean,16 June 1940, Italian submarine Galileo Galilei sank the tanker James Stove.
19 June 1940, Galileo Galilei was captured by the British naval trawler Moonstone,23 June 1940, Italian submarine Torricelli sank HMS Khartoum before being sunk by accompanying destroyers. 24 June 1940, Italian submarine Galvani sank the sloop HMIS Pathan before being sunk by the sloop HMS Falmouth,11 July 1940, Atlantis sank the freighter City of Bagdad south of India. 13 July 1940, Atlantis sank the freighter Kemmendine south of India,2 August 1940, Atlantis sank the freighter Tallyrand in the central Indian Ocean. 17 August 1940, Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy cruisers and destroyers covered the withdrawal of British troops from British Somaliland to Aden,24 August 1940, Atlantis sank the freighter King City in the Central Indian Ocean. 26 August 1940, German merchant raider Pinguin sank the tanker Filefjell south of Madagascar,27 August 1940, Pinguin sank the tanker British Commander and the freighter Morviken south of Madagascar. 6 September 1940, Italian submarine Guglielmotti sank the tanker Atlas in the Red Sea,9 September 1940, Atlantis sank the tanker Athelking in the central Indian Ocean.
10 September 1940, Atlantis sank the freighter Benarty in the central Indian Ocean,12 September 1940, Pinguin sank the freighter Benavon east of Madagascar. 16 September 1940, Pinguin captured the freighter Nordvard in the central Indian Ocean,20 September 1940, Atlantis sank the liner Commissaire Ramel west of Sumatra. 7 October 1940, Pinguin captured the tanker Storstad south of Java,21 October 1940, Italian destroyer Nullo was sunk during the battle of Mumbai to Suez Canal convoy BN7. 22 October 1940, Atlantis captured the freighter Durmitor west of Sumatra,9 November 1940, Atlantis sank the freighter Teddy west of Sumatra. 10 November 1940, Atlantis captured the tanker Ole Jacob west of Sumatra,11 November 1940, Atlantis sank the freighter Automedon west of Sumatra. 18 November 1940, HMS Dorsetshire shelled Italian Somaliland,18 November 1940, Pinguin sank the freighter Nowshera west of Australia
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan