The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg and their decisions marked a turning point between classical international law and contemporary international law. Not included were Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels, all of whom had committed suicide in the spring of 1945, reinhard Heydrich was not included, as he had been assassinated in 1942. The second set of trials of war criminals was conducted under Control Council Law No.10 at the U. S. Nuremberg Military Tribunals, which included the Doctors Trial. This article primarily deals with the IMT, see Subsequent Nuremberg Trials for details on the NMT, at the beginning of 1940, the Polish government-in-exile asked the British and French governments to condemn the German invasion of their country. The British initially declined to do so, however, in April 1940, three-and-a-half years later, the stated intention to punish the Germans was much more trenchant. In order that justice may be done and this intention by the Allies to dispense justice was reiterated at the Yalta Conference and at Berlin in 1945.
British War Cabinet documents, released on 2 January 2006, showed that as early as December 1944 the Cabinet had discussed their policy for the punishment of the leading Nazis if captured. In late 1943, during the Tripartite Dinner Meeting at the Tehran Conference, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt joked that perhaps 49,000 would do. Churchill was vigorously opposed to executions for political purposes, US Secretary of the Treasury, suggested a plan for the total denazification of Germany, this was known as the Morgenthau Plan. The plan advocated the forced de-industrialisation of Germany and the execution of so-called arch-criminals. Roosevelt initially supported this plan, and managed to convince Churchill to support it in a less drastic form, details were leaked generating widespread condemnation by the nations newspapers. Roosevelt, aware of public disapproval, abandoned the plan. The demise of the Morgenthau Plan created the need for a method of dealing with the Nazi leadership. The plan for the Trial of European War Criminals was drafted by Secretary of War Henry L.
Stimson, following Roosevelts death in April 1945, the new president, Harry S. Truman, gave strong approval for a judicial process. After a series of negotiations between Britain, the US, Soviet Union and France, details of the trial were worked out, the trials were to commence on 20 November 1945, in the Bavarian city of Nuremberg. On 20 April 1942, representatives from the nine countries occupied by Germany met in London to draft the Inter-Allied Resolution on German War Crimes, France was awarded a place on the tribunal. The legal basis for the jurisdiction of the court was that defined by the Instrument of Surrender of Germany. Because the court was limited to violations of the laws of war and Luxembourg were briefly considered as the location for the trial
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Nazi crimes against the Polish nation
Historians outside Poland put the number of Jewish victims of the Holocaust in occupied Poland at 3.0 million. The crimes were committed during the course of the 1939 invasion, the genocidal policy of the German Third Reich against the Polish nation was the epicenter of Nazi German war crimes and crimes against humanity. The object of war was to fulfill this territorial policy with the use of Nazi ideology of race. On 22 August 1939, just before the invasion of Poland, Hitler gave explicit permission to his commanders to kill without pity or mercy, all men and children of Polish descent or language. Ethnic cleansing was to be conducted systematically against Polish people, on 7 September 1939 Reinhard Heydrich stated that all Polish nobles, clergy, on 12 September, Wilhelm Keitel added the intelligentsia to the list. On 15 March 1940, Himmler stated, All Polish specialists will be exploited in our military-industrial complex, all Poles will disappear from this world. It is imperative that the great German nation considers the elimination of all Polish people as its chief task, at the end of 1940, Hitler confirmed his pronouncement demanding liquidation of all leading elements in Poland.
The first mass deportation of Polish nationals by Nazi Germany occurred less than a year before the outbreak of war and it was the eviction from Germany of Jews holding Polish citizenship, during the Kristallnacht attack of 9–10 November 1938 carried out by the SA paramilitary forces. Approximately 30,000 Polish Jews were rounded up and sent via rail to prewar concentration camps throughout Germany, the round-up included 2,000 ethnic Poles living and working there. Also, before the attack on Poland, the Nazis prepared a detailed list identifying more than 61,000 Polish targets by name, the list was printed secretly as the 192-page-book called Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen, and composed only of names and birthdates. The first Einsatzgruppen of World War II were formed by the SS in the course of the invasion and they were deployed behind the front lines to execute groups of people considered, by virtue of their social status, to be capable of abetting resistance efforts against the Germans. The most widely used lie justifying indiscriminate killings by the mobile action squads was made-up claim of purported attack on German forces, over 100,000 Poles died in the Luftwaffes terror bombing operations, like those at Wielun.
Massive air raids were conducted on towns which had no military infrastructure, frampol was hit by 70 tonnes of munitions, which destroyed up to 90% of buildings and killed half of its inhabitants. Columns of fleeing refugees were attacked by the German fighter and dive-bomber aircraft. Over 156 towns and villages were attacked by the Luftwaffe, Warsaw suffered particularly severely with a combination of aerial bombardment and artillery fire reducing large parts of the historic centre to rubble, with more than 60,000 casualties. The Soviet Union assisted the Germans by allowing them to use a beacon from Minsk to guide their planes. Summary executions of Poles were conducted by all German forces without exception including Wehrmacht, the mass killings were a part of the secretive Operation Tannenberg, an early measure of the Generalplan Ost settler colonization. Polish Christians as well as Jews were either murdered and buried in hastily dug mass graves or sent to prisons, whatever we find in the shape of an upper class in Poland will be liquidated, Hitler had ordered
Several German occupied countries entered World War II as Allies of the United Kingdom or the Soviet Union. Some were forced to such as Czechoslovakia, others like Poland were conquered in battle. In some cases, the legitimate governments went into exile, in cases the governments-in-exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries. Selected countries occupied by Nazi Germany were officially neutral
Ostarbeiter was a Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II. Deportations of civilians commenced at the beginning of the war and reached unprecedented levels following Operation Barbarossa of 1941, according to Pavel Polian over 50% of Ostarbeiters were formerly Soviet subjects originating from the territory of modern-day Ukraine, followed by Polish women workers, approaching 30%. Among the Eastern workers were ethnic Ukrainians, Belarusians, Tatars, estimates of the number of Ostarbeiter range between 3 million and 5.5 million. The age limit was dropped to 10 in November 1943, since about half of the adolescents were female, Ostarbeiter were often the victims of rape and tens of thousands of pregnancies due to rape occurred. Ostarbeiter were often given rations and were forced to live in guarded camps. Many died from starvation, bombing and execution carried out by their German overseers.
Ostarbeiter were often denied wages but when they did get paid they received payment in a currency which could only be used to buy specific products at the camps where they lived. Following the war, the over 2.5 million liberated Ostarbeiter were often repatriated, American authorities banned the repatriation of Ostarbeiter in October,1945 and some immigrated to the U. S. as well as other non eastern-bloc countries. In 2000 the German government and thousands of German companies paid a one-time payment of just over €5 billion to Ostarbeiter victims of the Nazi regime, they represent roughly a quarter of all registered workers in the entire economy of the German Reich at that time. A class system was created amongst the Fremdarbeiter brought to Germany to work for the Third Reich, the multi-layered system was based on layers of national hierarchies. The Gastarbeitnehmer were the so-called guest workers, Germanic and Italian, the Zwangsarbeiter, or forced workers included Militärinternierte, POWs, and primarily Polish prisoners from the General Government.
The Ostarbeiter were the Eastern workers, primarily from Reichskommissariat Ukraine and they were marked with a badge reading OST and were subject to even harsher conditions than the civilian workers. At the end of the war 5.5 million Ostarbeiter were returned to the USSR, at the end of 1941, a new crisis developed in Nazi Germany. Following the mobilization of men into its armies, the country faced a shortage of labour in support of the war industries. To help overcome this shortage, Göring decreed to bring in people from the territories seized during Operation Barbarossa in Central and these replacement workers were called Ostarbeiter. The crisis deepened as the war in the East went on, the Heuaktion was an acronym for allegedly homeless and unhoused children gathered in in lieu of their guardians. After arriving in Germany, the children were handed over to Reichsarbeitsdienst or the Junkers aircraft works, the secondary purpose of these abductions was to pressure the adult populations further to register in place of children.
Initially a recruiting campaign was launched in January 1942 by Fritz Sauckel for workers to go to Germany, on January 28 the first special train will leave for Germany with hot meals in Kiev and Przemyśl, offered an announcement
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II. The name comfort women is a translation of the Japanese ianfu, a euphemism for prostitute. Estimates vary as to how women were involved, with numbers ranging from as low as 20,000 to as high as 360,000 to 410,000. Most of the women were from occupied countries, including Korea, although women were used for military comfort stations from Burma, Vietnam, Taiwan, East Timor, and other Japanese-occupied territories. Stations were located in Japan, the Philippines, Malaya, Burma, New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, a smaller number of women of European origin were involved from the Netherlands and Australia. According to testimonies, young women were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, in many cases, women were lured with promises of work in factories or restaurants, once recruited, they were incarcerated in comfort stations both inside their nations and abroad.
Since prostitution in Japan was well-organized and open, the Japanese government, the Japanese Army established the comfort stations to prevent venereal diseases and rape by Japanese soldiers, to provide comfort to soldiers and head off espionage. According to Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi, the stations did not solve. Yoshimi has asserted, The Japanese Imperial Army feared most that the simmering discontentment of the soldiers could explode into a riot and that is why it provided women. The first comfort station was established in the Japanese concession in Shanghai in 1932, earlier comfort women were Japanese prostitutes who volunteered for such service. Many women responded to calls for work as factory workers or nurses, in the early stages of the war, Japanese authorities recruited prostitutes through conventional means. In urban areas, conventional advertising through middlemen was used alongside kidnapping, middlemen advertised in newspapers circulating in Japan and the Japanese colonies of Korea, Taiwan and China.
These sources soon dried up, especially from Japan, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs resisted further issuance of travel visas for Japanese prostitutes, feeling it tarnished the image of the Japanese Empire. The military turned to acquiring comfort women outside mainland Japan, mostly from Korea, many women were tricked or defrauded into joining the military brothels. The Japanese forced Hui Muslim girls in China to serve as sex slaves by setting up the Huimin Girls school, the military often directly demanded that local leaders procure women for the brothels along the front lines, especially in the countryside where middlemen were rare. When the locals were considered hostile, Japanese soldiers carried out the Three Alls Policy which included kidnapping and raping local civilians. Many girls enlisted for duty on the basis of these false representations. Only some of these girls who had paid their debt were allowed to return to Korea and these documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial
Oberkommando des Heeres
The Oberkommando des Heeres was the Supreme High Command of the German Army. It was founded in 1935 as a part of Adolf Hitlers re-militarisation of the Third Reich and its commander held the title Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres, Supreme High Commander of the Army. During the war OKH had the responsibility of planning of Armies and Army Groups. Each German Army had an Armeeoberkommando, Army Command, or AOK, until the German defeat at Moscow in December 1941, OKH and its staff was de facto the most important unit within the German war planning. OKW took over this function for other than the Russian front. Hitler had been the head of OKW since January 1938, using it to pass orders to the navy, air force, and army. After a major crisis developed in the Battle of Moscow, Walther von Brauchitsch was dismissed, at the same time, he limited the OKHs authority to the Russian front, giving OKW direct authority over army units elsewhere. Meanwhile, the OKH was subordinated to the OKW of the Wehrmacht, personnel at the sprawling Zossen compound remarked that even if Maybach 2 was completely destroyed, the OKH staff in Maybach 1 would scarcely notice.
The camouflaged facilities were separated physically by a fence maintained structurally different mindsets towards their objectives, on 28 April 1945, Hitler formally subordinated OKH to OKW, giving the latter command of forces on the Eastern Front. Geoffrey Megargee, author of Inside Hitlers High Command, available at the official YouTube channel of the U. S. Army Heritage and Education Center
German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs. This resulted in some 3.3 to 3.5 million deaths, during Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent German–Soviet War, millions of Red Army prisoners of war were taken. It is estimated that at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs died in Nazi custody, out of 5.7 million. This figure represents a total of 57% of all Soviet POWs and may be contrasted with 8,300 out of 231,000 British and U. S. prisoners, about 5% of the Soviet prisoners who died were of Jewish ethnicity. The most deaths took place between June 1941 and January 1942, when the Germans killed an estimated 2, by September 1941, the mortality rate among Soviet POWs was in the order of 1% per day. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, by the winter of 1941, for the Germans, Soviet POWs were expendable, they consumed calories needed by others and, unlike Western POWs, were considered to be subhuman.
The Commissar Order was an order given by the German High Command on 6 June 1941. It demanded that any Soviet political commissar identified among captured troops be shot immediately and those prisoners who could be identified as thoroughly bolshevized or as active representatives of the Bolshevist ideology were to be executed. In the summer and fall/autumn of 1941, vast numbers of Soviet prisoners were captured in about a dozen large encirclements, due to their rapid advance into the Soviet Union and an expected quick victory, the Germans did not want to ship these prisoners back to Germany. Much like comparative occasions such as the Pacific Wars Bataan Death March in 1942, Soviet prisoners of war were stripped of their supplies and clothing by ill-equipped German troops when the cold weather set in. This resulted in fatal consequences for the prisoners, in the case of the Soviet POWs, most of the camps were simply open areas fenced off with barbed wire and watchtowers with no inmate housing.
These meager conditions forced the prisoners to live in holes they had dug for themselves. Beatings and other abuse by the guards were common, and prisoners were malnourished, medical treatment was nonexistent and an International Red Cross offer to help in 1941 was rejected by Hitler. Some of Soviet POWs were experimented on, in one such case, Dr. Heinrich Berning from Hamburg University starved prisoners to death while performing famine experiments. In another instance, a group of prisoners at Zhitomir were shot using dum-dum bullets, the camps established specially for Soviet prisoner-of-war were called Russenlager. The Allied regulars kept by Germany were usually treated in accordance with the 1929 Geneva Convention on Prisoners of War, Russenlager conditions were often even worse than those commonly experienced by prisoners in regular concentration camps. Such camps included, Oflag IV-C, Allied officers at Colditz Castle were barred from sharing Red Cross packages with starving Soviet prisoners, Oflag XIII-D, In July 1941 a new compound was set up in Oflag XIII-A for higher ranking Soviet military officers captured during Operation Barbarossa.
It was closed in April 1942, the officers were transferred to other camps
Recreation and Amusement Association
The RAA recruited 55,000 women and was short-lived, lasting just over four months until January 1946. On August 21,1945, Japanese authorities decided to set up a RAA for the benefit of Allied occupation troops and these facilities were to be staffed by women already involved in the water trade prostitution system for preventing sexual violence to Japanese women and girls. In Okinawa, troops are estimated to have raped 10,000 Japanese women during World War II. ”Japanese authorities set brothels to reduce sexual assault by Allied occupation troops and they thought it would be possible to reduce sexual violence by Allied occupation troops even slightly. At its peak, around 20,000 prostitutes worked for the RAA, on September 20,1945, the first brothel for the 350,000 US troops in Japan was opened. Named Komachi Garden, or Babe Garden, it was closed down on March 27,1946 to stop the spread of VD, miyazawa and Nomoto used their connections to gather together a group of representatives of the nightclub and brothel industries.
These representatives met with the police on the 21st where they were asked to establish comfort facilities. On August 23, these men formed the Special Comfort Facilities Association, the RAA utilized the patriotic language of the war years in its operations, stressing the selfless nature of its employees. We are but offering ourselves for the defense of the national polity, the Okichi referenced was the possibly legendary maid of Townsend Harris, the first American consulate in Japan from 1856 to 1861, who was pressured into becoming his consort. The organization was funded through unsecured loans from the Japan Industrial Development Bank arranged by Hayato Ikeda,33 million yen were loaned to the RAA, which distributed shares to its members. The RAA established its first brothel on August 28, the Komachien in Ōmori, by December 1945, the RAA owned 34 facilities,16 of which were comfort stations. The total number of women employed by the RAA amounted to 55,000 at its peak, the government had cracked down on prostitution late in the war and many women had fled or been evacuated to the countryside following heavy Allied bombing.
Tokyos most famous red light district, had reduced from a prewar population of 2,000 prostitutes to only a few dozen by the end of the war. Therefore, it was inevitable that efforts were made to recruit from the general population, the RAA recruited widely, using carefully worded advertisements posted in front of their offices and in newspapers. These boasted of generous work conditions while avoiding details concerning the nature of the work, given the widespread poverty and food shortages at the time, and the large number of orphaned and widowed young women, the job offers appeared quite attractive. Most women left upon learning of the deception, but some stayed, in addition to prostitutes, the RAA recruited a large number of dancers who were paid to dance with soldiers. Over time, the distinction between dancer and prostitute became blurred, heavy use was made of independent brokers to recruit women. These brokers, many of whom were affiliated with the yakuza, Yuki Tanaka reports that groups of these women would be deceived and delivered, unknowing, to brothels.
Despite these deceptive recruitment practices, most women working in the stations did ultimately consent to work as prostitutes