Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of a munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were work camps or Arbeitskommandos. The camps were liberated by U. S. forces on 29 April 1945, There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented. Approximately 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation, in the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans who had expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement. It was finally closed in 1960, There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site, which is open to the public. After the takeover of Bavaria on 9 March 1933, Heinrich Himmler, Chief of Police in Munich, began to speak with the administration of an unused gunpowder and he toured the site to see if it could be used for quartering protective-custody prisoners.
The Concentration Camp at Dachau was opened 22 March 1933, with the arrival of about 200 prisoners from Stadelheim Prison in Munich and it became the first regular concentration camp established by the coalition government of the National Socialist German Workers Party and the German National Peoples Party. Jehovah’s Witnesses and emigrants were sent to Dachau after the 1935 passage of the Nuremberg Laws which institutionalized racial discrimination, in early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex capable of holding 6,000 prisoners. The construction was completed in mid-August 1938. More political opponents, and over 11,000 German and Austrian Jews were sent to the camp after the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Sinti and Roma in the hundreds were sent to the camp in 1939, the prisoners of Dachau concentration camp originally were to serve as forced labor for a munition factory, and to expand the camp. It was used as a center for SS guards and was a model for other concentration camps.
The camp was about 300 m ×600 m in rectangular shape, the prisoners entrance was secured by an iron gate with the motto “Arbeit macht frei”. This reflected Nazi propaganda, which trivialized concentration camps as labor and re-education camps, as of 1938, the procedure for new arrivals occurred at the Schubraum, where prisoners were to hand over their clothing and possessions. One former Luxembourgian prisoner, Albert Theis, reflected about the room, everything had to be handed over, rings, watches. The camp included a building that contained offices for the Gestapo trial commissioner, SS authorities
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Night and Fog (1956 film)
Night and Fog is a 1956 French documentary short film. Directed by Alain Resnais, it was ten years after the liberation of Nazi concentration camps. The title is taken from the notorious Nacht und Nebel program of forced abductions, the documentary features the abandoned grounds of Auschwitz and Majdanek while describing the lives of prisoners in the camps. Night and Fog was made in collaboration with scriptwriter Jean Cayrol, the music of the soundtrack was composed by Hanns Eisler. Resnais was originally hesitant about making the film and refused the offer to make it until Cayrol was contracted to write the script, the film was shot entirely in the year 1955 and is composed of contemporary shots of the camps, plus stock footage. Resnais and Cayrol found the very difficult to make due to its graphic nature. Night and Fog was released to acclaim, and still receives very high praise today. It was re-shown on French television nationwide in 1990, to remind the people of the horrors of war and Fog is a documentary that alternates between past and present, using both black-and-white and color footage.
The first part of Night and Fog shows remnants of Auschwitz while the narrator Michel Bouquet describes the rise of Nazi ideology, the film continues with comparisons of the life of the Schutzstaffel to the starving prisoners in the camps. Bouquet addresses the sadism inflicted upon the inmates, including torture and medical experiments, executions. The next section is completely in black-and-white, and depicts images of gas chambers. The final topic of the film depicts the liberation of the country, the discovery of the horror of the camps, from 1954 to 1955, a number of activities took place observing the tenth anniversary of the liberation of France and of the concentration camps. One of these was an exhibition curated by Olga Wormser and Henri Michel, Liberation, the exhibit was based on Michel and Wormsers monograph which had appeared earlier in 1954 in a special issue of Revue dhistoire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. The first public notice of a film project was given during a radio broadcast on 10 November 1954.
Michel recognized that this approach would enable broader financing, and both re-envisioned the film as communicating historical research through contemporary media, Michel thought the film could take the form of a montage of news reports. The genocide of the Jews was treated in French remembrance as more of a side issue—something that was in any case supposedly a matter for the Jews themselves and not for the majority of society. Michel and Wormser might have wanted scholarly objectivity instead of the heroism favoured by the deportees association. Film producers Anatole Dauman, Samy Halfton and Philippe Lifchitz were invited to this exhibit and felt that a film should be made on the subject. Anatole Dauman, originally from Warsaw, undertook the production for Argos Films and arranged for co-financing by Films Polski, Dauman approached filmmaker Alain Resnais who had experience with documentary films since 1948
Nazi concentration camp badge
Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily triangles, were part of the system of identification in Nazi camps. They were used in the camps in the Nazi-occupied countries to identify the reason the prisoners had been placed there. The triangles were made of fabric and were sewn on jackets and these mandatory badges of shame had specific meanings indicated by their colour and shape. Someone with an escape suspect mark usually would not be assigned to work operating outside the camp fence. Someone wearing an F could be called upon to help translate guards spoken instructions to a trainload of new arrivals from France, Some historical monuments quote the badge-imagery, the use of a triangle being a sort of visual shorthand to symbolize all camp victims. The modern day use of a triangle emblem to symbolize gay rights is a response to the camp identification patches. The system of badges varied between the camps, and in the stages of World War II, the use of badges dwindled in some camps. The following description is based on the coding system used before and during the early stages of the war in the Dachau concentration camp.
Shape was chosen by analogy with the common triangular road hazard signs in Germany that denote warnings to motorists, here, a triangle is called inverted because its base is up while one of its angles points down. Red triangle—political prisoners, social democrats, trade unionists, communists, purple triangle—primarily Jehovahs Witnesses, and members of other small religious groups. Pink triangle—primarily homosexual men, as well as sexual offenders including rapists, Black triangle—people who were deemed asocial elements and work shy including Roma. They wore the black triangle with a Z notation to the right of the triangles point, Roma males were assigned a brown triangle. Roma females were still deemed asocials as they were stereotyped as petty criminals, the mentally ill and mentally disabled. Their triangles were inscribed with the word Blöd, alcoholics and drug addicts Vagrants and beggars Pacifists and conscription resisters. Prostitutes Some anarchists Brown triangle—Roma males, uninverted red triangle — an enemy POW, a spy or traitor, or a military deserter or criminal.
People who wore the green and pink triangles were convicted in criminal courts, Some period examples of the single triangle design at Nazi camps Double-triangle badges resembled two superimposed triangles forming a Star of David, a Jewish symbol. Yellow inverted triangle superimposed over a black triangle—an Aryan convicted of miscegenation, like those who wore pink and green triangles, people in the bottom two categories would have been convicted in criminal courts. Some period examples of the triangle design at Nazi camps In addition to colour-coding
SS Experiment Camp
SS Experiment Camp is a 1976 Nazi exploitation film directed by Sergio Garrone. It gained infamy in the 1980s for its themes and a public advertising campaign that involved obscene. SS Experiment Camp at the Internet Movie Database
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel, and a leading member of the Nazi Party of Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler briefly appointed him a commander and Commander of the Replacement Army. Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany, as a member of a reserve battalion during World War I, Himmler did not see active service. He studied agronomy in college, and joined the Nazi Party in 1923, in 1929, he was appointed Reichsführer-SS by Hitler. Over the next 16 years, he developed the SS from a mere 290-man battalion into a paramilitary group. He was known to have good skills and for selecting highly competent subordinates. From 1943 onwards, he was both Chief of German Police and Minister of the Interior, overseeing all internal and external police and security forces, on Hitlers behalf, Himmler formed the Einsatzgruppen and built extermination camps. Most of them were Polish and Soviet citizens, realising that the war was lost, he attempted to open peace talks with the western Allies without Hitlers knowledge shortly before the war ended.
Hearing of this, Hitler dismissed him all his posts in April 1945. Himmler attempted to go into hiding, but was detained and arrested by British forces once his identity became known, while in British custody, he committed suicide on 23 May 1945. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was born in Munich on 7 October 1900 into a conservative middle-class Roman Catholic family and his father was Gebhard Himmler, a teacher, and his mother was Anna Maria Himmler, a devout Roman Catholic. Heinrich had two brothers, Gebhard Ludwig and Ernst Hermann, Himmlers first name, was that of his godfather, Prince Heinrich of Bavaria, a member of the royal family of Bavaria, who had been tutored by Gebhard Himmler. He attended a school in Landshut, where his father was deputy principal. While he did well in his schoolwork, he struggled in athletics and he had poor health, suffering from lifelong stomach complaints and other ailments. In his youth he trained daily with weights and exercised to become stronger, other boys at the school remembered him as studious and awkward in social situations.
Himmlers diary, which he kept intermittently from the age of ten, shows that he took a keen interest in current events, dueling, in 1915, he began training with the Landshut Cadet Corps. His father used his connections with the family to get Himmler accepted as an officer candidate. His brother, served on the front and saw combat, receiving the Iron Cross
Buchenwald concentration camp
From 1945 to 1950, the camp was used by the Soviet occupation authorities as an internment camp, known as NKVD special camp number 2. Today the remains of Buchenwald serve as a memorial and permanent exhibition, in 1934, the Nazis constructed Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany. Embedded in the main entrance gate is the slogan Jedem das Seine. The camp was operational until its liberation in 1945, between 1945 and 1950, it was used by the Soviet Union as an NKVD special camp for Germans. On January 6,1950, the Soviets handed over Buchenwald to the East German Ministry of Internal Affairs, the camp was to be named K. L. Quickly the fate of the oak became associated with the fate of Germany, if the one was to fall, between April 1938 and April 1945, some 238,380 people of various nationalities including 350 Western Allied prisoners of war s were incarcerated in Buchenwald. SS-Obersturmbannführer Karl-Otto Koch SS-Standartenführer Hermann Pister Buchenwald’s first commandant was Karl-Otto Koch and his second wife, Ilse Koch, became notorious as Die Hexe von Buchenwald for her cruelty and brutality.
In February 1940 Koch, to his and his wifes delight, had a riding hall built by the prisoners who died in the dozen due to the harsh conditions of the construction site. The hall was built inside the camp, near the canteen, Koch himself was eventually imprisoned at Buchenwald by the Nazi authorities for incitement to murder. The charges were lodged by Prince Waldeck and Dr. Morgen, to which were added charges of corruption, black market dealings, other camp officials were charged, including Ilse Koch. The trial resulted in Karl Koch being sentenced to death for disgracing both himself and the SS, he was executed by firing squad on April 5,1945, Ilse Koch was sentenced to a term of four years imprisonment after the war. Her sentence was reduced to two years and she was set free and she was subsequently arrested again and sentenced to life imprisonment by the post-war German authorities, she committed suicide in Aichach prison in September 1967. The second commandant of the camp was Hermann Pister and he was tried in 1947 and sentenced to death, but 28 September 1948 he died in Landsberg Prison of a heart attack before the sentence could be carried out.
The number of women held in Buchenwald was somewhere between 500 and 1,000, the SS fired the SS woman on duty in the brothel for corruption, her position was taken over by “brothel mothers” as ordered by SS chief Heinrich Himmler. The majority of prisoners, arrived in 1944 and 1945 from other camps, mainly Auschwitz, Ravensbrück. Only one barrack was set aside for them, this was overseen by the female block leader Franziska Hoengesberg, No female guards were permanently stationed at Buchenwald. Many, including van Pels, died sometime between April and May 1945, because the female prisoner population at Buchenwald was comparatively small, the SS only trained female overseers at the camp and assigned them to one of the female subcamps. Twenty-two known female guards had personnel files at the camp, Ilse Koch served as head supervisor of 22 other female guards and hundreds of women prisoners in the main camp
Nazi exploitation is a subgenre of exploitation film and sexploitation film that involves Nazis committing sex crimes, often as camp or prison overseers during World War II. Most follow the formula, only relocated to a concentration camp, death camp, or Nazi brothel, and with an added emphasis on sadism, gore. The most infamous and influential title is a Canadian production and its surprise success and sequels led European film-makers, mostly in Italy, to produce dozens of similar films. While the Ilsa series were profitable, the films were mostly box-office flops. Prominent directors of the genre include Paolo Solvay, Cesare Canevari, Italian directors pioneered a blend of sexual imagery and Nazi themes. This can be found as early as 1945 in Rome, Open City by Roberto Rossellini, another Rossellini film, Germany Year Zero, connects Nazism with homosexuality and pedophilia. The controversial art-house production The Damned, directed by Luchino Visconti, about the rise, other early examples of sexual themes and Nazism combined can be found in the West German productions Des Teufels General by Helmut Käutner and Lebensborn/Ordered to Love.
The critically acclaimed 1964 film The Pawnbroker includes a scene showing nude women kept in a concentration camp brothel. The Italian Giallo thriller In the Folds of the Flesh has a flashback sequence of attractive nude women being sent to a Nazi gas chamber. But the earliest sexploitation film set in a Nazi camp was Love Camp 7 and it was the vanguard of the modern women-in-prison genre that emerged in the early 1970s. Love Camp 7 established the pattern for the films that followed. The story resembles a true adventure pulp yarn from a mens magazine of the period. In order to rescue a Jewish scientist, two female agents infiltrate a Nazi Joy Division camp, where prisoners are kept as sex slaves for German officers. There are scenes of boot-licking humiliation, torture, the stock characters include a cruel and perverse commandant, a lesbian doctor, sadistic guards who freely abuse the prisoners, and a sympathetic German who tries to help the prisoners. Producer David F. Friedman had an acting role in Love Camp 7.
He went on to produce Ilsa, She Wolf of the SS in 1974, Ilsa was unique in that the camp commandant was a sexy, sex-crazed woman played by the busty and frequently nude Dyanne Thorne. Between sex scenes, Ilsa subjects her male and female inmates to horrific scientific tests, some of the tests on hypothermia and pressure-chamber endurance were factual. For example, to prove her theory that women can endure more pain than men, the character is loosely based on The Witch of Buchenwald, Ilse Koch, the wife of the commandant of the Buchenwald concentration camp
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II. The name comfort women is a translation of the Japanese ianfu, a euphemism for prostitute. Estimates vary as to how women were involved, with numbers ranging from as low as 20,000 to as high as 360,000 to 410,000. Most of the women were from occupied countries, including Korea, although women were used for military comfort stations from Burma, Vietnam, Taiwan, East Timor, and other Japanese-occupied territories. Stations were located in Japan, the Philippines, Malaya, Burma, New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, a smaller number of women of European origin were involved from the Netherlands and Australia. According to testimonies, young women were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, in many cases, women were lured with promises of work in factories or restaurants, once recruited, they were incarcerated in comfort stations both inside their nations and abroad.
Since prostitution in Japan was well-organized and open, the Japanese government, the Japanese Army established the comfort stations to prevent venereal diseases and rape by Japanese soldiers, to provide comfort to soldiers and head off espionage. According to Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi, the stations did not solve. Yoshimi has asserted, The Japanese Imperial Army feared most that the simmering discontentment of the soldiers could explode into a riot and that is why it provided women. The first comfort station was established in the Japanese concession in Shanghai in 1932, earlier comfort women were Japanese prostitutes who volunteered for such service. Many women responded to calls for work as factory workers or nurses, in the early stages of the war, Japanese authorities recruited prostitutes through conventional means. In urban areas, conventional advertising through middlemen was used alongside kidnapping, middlemen advertised in newspapers circulating in Japan and the Japanese colonies of Korea, Taiwan and China.
These sources soon dried up, especially from Japan, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs resisted further issuance of travel visas for Japanese prostitutes, feeling it tarnished the image of the Japanese Empire. The military turned to acquiring comfort women outside mainland Japan, mostly from Korea, many women were tricked or defrauded into joining the military brothels. The Japanese forced Hui Muslim girls in China to serve as sex slaves by setting up the Huimin Girls school, the military often directly demanded that local leaders procure women for the brothels along the front lines, especially in the countryside where middlemen were rare. When the locals were considered hostile, Japanese soldiers carried out the Three Alls Policy which included kidnapping and raping local civilians. Many girls enlisted for duty on the basis of these false representations. Only some of these girls who had paid their debt were allowed to return to Korea and these documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial
Love Camp 7
Love Camp 7 is a 1969 U. S. women-in-prison Nazi exploitation B-movie directed by Lee Frost and written by Wes Bishop and Bob Cresse, the latter of whom portrays a sadistic camp commandant. The movie follows two female American officers who volunteer to enter a Nazi camp undercover to gain information from, and possibly rescue, the camps female inmates serve as prostitutes for German officers and are subjected to humiliating treatment and rape. When the two female agents learn that their target is being held in detention, one of them arranges to be punished so that she can make contact. This leads to Lt. Harman being stripped and strung up by her wrists, the target uses her body to free Harman and they attempt their escape. The escape plan ends in a climactic battle, the movie shows female full frontal nudity for a majority of the film. It is the first in the Nazi exploitation genre of concentration camp movies, including Ilsa and it was declined a video certificate by the British Board of Film Classification in 2002 and by the New Zealand Office of Film & Literature Classification.
It was originally banned in Australia, before passing several times in a version with an R18+ rating. It was finally passed uncut in 2005, list of American films of 1969 Love Camp 7 at the Internet Movie Database Love Camp 7 at AllMovie The Bad Movie Report, Love Camp 7 - sarcastic review of the plot