Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Prajadhipok, Rama VII, was the seventh monarch of Siam of the House of Chakri. He was the last absolute monarch and the first constitutional monarch of the country and his reign was a turbulent time for Siam due to political and social changes during the Revolution of 1932. He is to date the only Siamese monarch of the Chakri Dynasty to abdicate, somdet Chaofa Prajadhipok Sakdidej was born on 8 November 1893 in Bangkok, Siam to King Chulalongkorn and Queen Saovabha Phongsri. Prince Prajadhipok was the youngest of nine born to the couple. Overall he was the kings second-youngest child, and the 33rd, unlikely to succeed to the throne, Prince Prajadhipok chose to pursue a military career. Like many of the children, he was sent abroad to study, going to Eton College in 1906. He received a commission in the Royal Horse Artillery in the British Army based in Aldershot, in 1910 Chulalongkorn died and was succeeded by Prajadhipoks older brother, Crown Prince Vajiravudh, who became King Rama VI. Prince Prajadhipok was by commissioned in both the British Army and the Royal Siamese Army, once home, Prajadhipok became a high-ranking military official in Siam.
In 1917 he was ordained temporarily as a monk, as was customary for most Buddhist Siamese men, in August 1918 Prince Prajadhipok married his childhood friend and cousin Mom Chao Rambhai Barni, a descendant of King Mongkut and his Royal Consort Piam. They were married at the Bang Pa-In Royal Palace with the blessing of the king, after the war in Europe ended, he attended the École Superieure de Guerre in France, returning to Siam to the Siamese military. During this time, he was granted the additional title Krom Luang Sukhothai, Prajadhipok lived a generally quiet life with his wife at their residence, Sukhothai Palace, next to the Chao Phraya River. Prajadhipok soon found himself rising rapidly in succession to the throne, in 1925, King Vajiravudh himself died at the age of 44. Prajadhipok became absolute monarch at only thirty-two and he was crowned King of Siam on 25 February 1926. The system of referring to Chakri rulers as Rama was instituted by King Vajiravudh to follow European practice, relatively unprepared for his new responsibilities, Prajadhipok was nevertheless intelligent, diplomatic in his dealings with others and eager to learn.
However, he had inherited serious problems from his predecessor, the most urgent of these problems was the economy. The budget was heavily in deficit, and the financial accounts were a nightmare. The entire world was in the throes of the Great Depression, within half a year only three of Vajiravhuds twelve ministers still served the new king, the rest having been replaced by members of the royal family. While the family brought back men of talent and experience
Siamese revolution of 1932
The Siamese revolution of 1932 or the Siamese coup détat of 1932 was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history. The revolution, a coup détat, was a bloodless transition on 24 June 1932. The revolution was brought about by a small group of military and civilians, who formed Siams first political party. It ended 150 years of absolutism under the Chakri Dynasty and almost 800 years of rule of kings over Thai history. It was a product of historical change as well as domestic social and political changes. It resulted in the people of Siam being granted their first constitution, unlike other modern Southeast Asian states, Thailand was never formally colonised by colonial powers. Rama IV opened Siam to European trade and began the process of modernisation and his son, Rama V, consolidated state control over the Thai vassal states and created an absolute monarchy and a centralised state. However, the success of the Chakri monarchs sowed the seeds for the 1932 revolution, modernisation mandated from above had created by the early 20th century a class of Western-educated Thais in the commoner and lower nobility classes.
These were influenced by the ideals of the French and Russian revolutions and staffed the middle and this new elite would eventually form the Peoples Party that provided the nucleus of the 1932 revolution. Recent scholarship has begun raising alternative perspectives to modern Thai history that challenges the conventional perspectives of the 1932 Siamese Revolution, thongchai Winichakuls hypothesis on the emergence of the geo-body of Siam is widely accepted by scholars in Thai and Southeast Asian studies. The East now became increasingly described as barbaric, ignorant, or inferior, the mission to civilise the barbaric Asiatics became the raison dêtre for colonialism and imperialism. Thongchai further argues that the key strategies adopted by the Siamese state were similar to those adopted by Western colonial powers in administering their colonies. Space and power were essentially redefined by the Siamese state and semi-autonomous muangsgs were brought under the direct control of the state by the beginning of the twentieth century.
Cartography was introduced to define the borders, replacing the vague frontiers of the Mandala kingdoms. People were assigned to ethnic groups and these new perspectives created a politically dominant Siamese aristocracy that became increasingly powerful from the modernisation/self-colonisation process it initiated and directed. Thus they could no longer control events and political developments in Siam and were swept aside by activists who advocated democracy, since 1782 the Kingdom of Siam had been ruled by the House of Chakri, founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke. The capital city, was founded by King Rama I. For over a century, the kings of Siam were able to protect the nation from neighbours and other nations, escaping colonialism from European powers such as Britain
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7,1937 to September 9,1945. The First Sino-Japanese War was fought from 1894 to 1895, China fought Japan, with some economic help from Germany, the Soviet Union and the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the war merged into the conflict of World War II as a major front of what is broadly known as the Pacific War. Many scholars consider the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to have been the beginning of World War II, the Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and militarily in order to access to raw material reserves, food. The period after World War One brought about increasing stress on the Japanese polity, leftists sought universal suffrage and greater rights for workers. Increasing textile production from Chinese mills was adversely affecting Japanese production, the Depression brought about a large slowdown in exports.
All of this contributed to militant nationalism, culminating in the rise to power of a militarist fascist faction and this faction was led at its height by the Imperial Rule Assistance Associations Hideki Tojo cabinet under the edict from Emperor Shōwa. Before 1937, China and Japan fought in small, localized engagements, the last of these incidents was the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, which is traditionally seen as the beginning of total war between the two countries. Since 2017 the Chinese Government has regarded the invasion of Manchuria by the Kwantung Army in 1931, initially the Japanese scored major victories, such as the Battle of Shanghai, and by the end of 1937 captured the Chinese capital of Nanjing. After failing to stop the Japanese in Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing in the Chinese interior, by 1939, after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi, and with Japans lines of communications stretched deep into the Chinese interior, the war reached a stalemate.
The Japanese were unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, on December 7,1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the following day the United States declared war on Japan. The United States began to aid China via airlift matériel over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road, in 1944 Japan launched the invasion, Operation Ichi-Go, that conquered Henan and Changsha. However, this failed to bring about the surrender of Chinese forces, in 1945, the Chinese Expeditionary Force resumed its advance in Burma and completed the Ledo Road linking India to China. At the same time, China launched large counteroffensives in South China and retook the west Hunan, the remaining Japanese occupation forces formally surrendered on September 9,1945 with the following International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened on April 29,1946. China was recognized as one of the Big Four of Allies during the war, in the Chinese language, the war is most commonly known as the War of Resistance Against Japan, and known as the Eight Years War of Resistance, simply War of Resistance.
It is referred to as part of the Global Anti-Fascist War, which is how World War 2 is perceived by the Communist Party of China, in Japan, the name Japan–China War is most commonly used because of its perceived objectivity. In Japan today, it is written as 日中戦争 in shinjitai, the word incident was used by Japan, as neither country had made a formal declaration of war
It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance, or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. The term resistance is used to designate a movement considered legitimate. Organizations and individuals critical of foreign intervention and supporting forms of organized movement tend to favor the term, when such a resistance movement uses violence, those favorably disposed to it may speak of freedom fighters. More recently the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes. This phraseology contains many ambiguities that cloud the issue of who is or is not a legitimate combatant, the distinction is a political judgment. The modern usage of the term Resistance originates from the self-designation of many movements during World War II, the term is still strongly linked to the context of the events of 1939–45, and particularly to opposition movements in Axis-occupied countries.
Using the term resistance to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some to be an anachronism. However, such movements existed prior to World War II, and there have been many after it – for example in struggles against colonialism, Resistance has become a generic term that has been used to designate underground resistance movements in any country. Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority and this frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny. Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as terrorism, Resistance during World War II was mainly dedicated to fighting the Axis occupiers. Germany itself had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement in this period, so, resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination.
However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination will not provide us a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what we categorize as “power. ”In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. There are various forms of resistance for various reasons, which can be, different geographical spaces can make different forms of resistance possible or impossible and more effective or less effective. The reason is that these variations can define the nature and outcome of resistance and he compared this accident with a similar fire accident at Triangle Shirtwaist Company, New York,1911, killing 146 workers, which caused a labor resistance by 100,000 people. For an effective resistance, he proposed that four tasks should be undertaken, There are many forms of resistance in relations to different power dominations and actors.
Moreover, some other resistance takes place in order to resist or question the norms or discourse or in order to challenge a global trend called globalization
Khuang Aphaiwong was three times the prime minister of Thailand, from August 1944 to 1945, from January to May 1946, and from November 1947 to April 1948. Khuang was born in Battambang, a son of the Siamese governor Chao Phraya Abhayabhubet, the Aphaiwongs were of royal Khmer lineage. Khuang attended Debsirin School and Assumption College, studying engineering at the Ecole Centrale de Lyon in France, on his return to Thailand, he worked in the telegraph department, finally becoming director of the department. This earned him the feudal title Luang Kowit-aphaiwong and he married Lekha Kunadilok, daughter of Ceylon-born lawyer William Alfred Goone-Tilleke, founder of the law firm Tilleke & Gibbins. Khuang was a member of the faction of Khana Ratsadon, the group that promoted the Siamese revolution of 1932. Afterwards, he served as minister without portfolio in the cabinets of Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena, during World War II he was commissioned a major and joined the Kings Guard. As such he was at the head of the mission to Battambang which in July 1941 took control of the Cambodian territories occupied during the Franco-Thai War and his father had been governor of part of this region before it was ceded to France 1907.
Later he became minister of commerce and communications, on 1 August 1944, the Parliament elected him Prime Minister, after Phibuns plans to move the capital to Phetchabun and to create the Phutthamonthon park failed to get enough approval. He was a candidate, standing between the Phibun supporters and the oppositional Free Thai Movement. Ostensibly he co-operated with the Japanese who had factually occupied Thailand during the war, at the same time, he shielded the Free Thai who actively collaborated with the advancing Allies. After the Japanese retreat he resigned on 31 August 1945, to make way for a new administration by the Free Thai forces, in 1946 he was one of the founders of the conservative Democrat Party, and became its first leader. The fourth national elections on 6 January 1946 were won by the Democratic Party, only 45 days later, on 24 March, his government lost a vote of no-confidence in parliament and he resigned. He became prime minister a third time on 10 November 1947 following a coup led by Field Marshal Phin Chunhawan.
However, the leaders were not pleased with the performance of Khuangs government. This ensured Phibun to become Prime Minister again, khuang continued in politics as the opposition leader and leader of the Democratic Party until all political parties were banned in 1958. His wife, Khunying Lekha Aphaiwong, was appointed Senator in 1949, khuang died on 15 March 1968, at age 66. Goscha, Christopher E. Thailand and the Southeast Asian Networks of The Vietnamese Revolution, 1885-1954, Routledge,1999, ISBN0700706224
The Burmese Independence Army was trained by the Japanese and spearheaded the initial attacks against British Empire forces. The campaign had a number of notable features, the geographical characteristics of the region meant that factors like weather and terrain had a major effect on operations. The lack of transport infrastructure placed an emphasis on engineering and air transport to move and supply troops. The campaign was politically complex, with the British, the United States. It was the land campaign by the Western Allies in the Pacific Theatre which proceeded continuously from the start of hostilities to the end of the war. This was due to its geographical location, the climate of the region is dominated by the seasonal monsoon rains, which allowed effective campaigning for only just over half of each year. Japanese objectives in Burma were initially limited to the capture of Rangoon and this would close the overland supply line to China and provide a strategic bulwark to defend Japanese gains in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies.
The Japanese successfully attacked over the Kawkareik Pass, and captured the port of Moulmein at the mouth of the Salween River after overcoming stiff resistance and they advanced northwards, outflanking successive British defensive positions. Troops of the 17th Indian Infantry Division tried to retreat over the Sittaung River, on 22 February, the bridge was demolished to prevent its capture, a decision that has since been extremely contentious. The loss of two brigades of 17th Indian Division meant that Rangoon could not be defended, although some units arrived, counterattacks failed and the new commander of Burma Army, ordered the city to be evacuated on 7 March after its port and oil refinery had been destroyed. The remnants of Burma Army broke out to the north, narrowly escaping encirclement, with the effective collapse of the entire defensive line, there was little choice left other than an overland retreat to India or to Yunnan. After the fall of Rangoon in March 1942, the Allies attempted to make a stand in the north of the country, having been reinforced by a Chinese Expeditionary Force.
The Japanese had reinforced by two divisions made available by the capture of Singapore, and defeated both the newly organised Burma Corps and the Chinese force. The Allies were faced with growing numbers of Burmese insurgents, with their forces cut off from almost all sources of supply, the Allied commanders finally decided to evacuate their forces from Burma. The retreat was conducted in very difficult circumstances, starving refugees, disorganised stragglers, and the sick and wounded clogged the primitive roads and tracks leading to India. Burma Corps managed to make it most of the way to Imphal, in Manipur in India just before the monsoon broke in May 1942, having lost most of their equipment, they found themselves living out in the open under torrential rains in extremely unhealthy circumstances. The army and civil authorities in India were very slow to respond to the needs of the troops, due to lack of communication, when the British retreated from Burma, almost none of the Chinese knew about the retreat.
After recuperating they were re-equipped and retrained by American instructors, the rest of the Chinese troops tried to return to Yunnan through remote mountainous forests and out of these, at least half died
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Bank of Thailand
The Bank of Thailand is the central bank of Thailand. The Bank of Thailand was first set up as the Thai National Banking Bureau, the Bank of Thailand Act was promulgated on 28 April 1942 vesting upon the Bank of Thailand the responsibility for all central banking functions. The Bank of Thailand started operations on 10 December 1942, the Bank of Thailand Act, B. E. The Bank of Thailand Act, B. E.2551 came into force on 4 March 2008, Thai baht Ministry of Finance Economy of Thailand Bank of Thailand Museum Official website
Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj was three times the prime minister of Thailand and a politician in the Democrat Party. A member of the Thai royal family, he was the great-grandson of King Rama II and he continued his studies at Grays Inn, receiving first honours. After returning to Thailand he studied Thai Law, and following six months as a trainee at the Supreme Court, later, he was transferred to the Foreign Ministry and in 1940 was sent to the United States as Thai ambassador. Japanese forces invaded Thailand early on the morning of 8 December 1941, shortly after the attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor, on 21 December, a formal military alliance with Japan was concluded. The Phibun government declared war on Great Britain and the United States on 25 January 1942, although the Thai ambassador in London delivered Thailands declaration of war to the British administration, Seni refused to do so. Instead, he considered organising a movement in the United States. Following a late morning interview with Secretary Cordell Hull on 8 December, the ambassador and his staff unanimously decided to cast their lot with the Allies.
Late the same afternoon, he returned to the State Department to offer their services to the Allied cause, the State Department decided to act as if Seni continued to represent Thailand. This enabled him to tap into the frozen Thai assets, Seni advanced plans to mobilise Thai volunteers in support of the Allies. Many chose to stay following the Thai declaration of war in January, like Seni, saw their nation as a victim of Japanese aggression. Seni became prime minister on 17 September 1945, the day he returned to Bangkok, however, he found his position as the head of a cabinet packed with Pridis loyalists quite uncomfortable. Northeastern populist politicians like Tiang Sirikhanth and Bangkok newcomers like Sanguan Tularaksa were not people the aristocratic Seni preferred to associate with and they, in turn, viewed Seni as an elitist who was entirely out of touch with Thailands political realities. Pridi continued to wield power behind the scenes as he had done during the Khuang government, the regents looming presence and overarching authority rankled the proud, thin-skinned Seni, fuelling a personal animosity that would poison Thailand’s postwar politics.
The Pramoj brothers subsequently joined the newly formed Democrat Party in 1946, Seni would spend the next two years vigorously carrying out a personal campaign against Pridi. Earlier in the year he had called for an investigation of the use of the US$500,000 in Thai assets unfrozen by the US government that he had turned over to the OSS. Insinuating the money had been transferred to the statesman, he lamented that most of the money had not been spent for what it was intended. An independent investigatory panel, found no mistake, concluding that the Free Thai had performed remarkably well, the outcome left the ex-prime minister looking extremely foolish. Seni soon got his revenge, however, in November 1947 the Democrat Party cooperated with disgruntled army officers to oust the government of Thawan Thamrongnawasawat