The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is the worlds largest museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the citys 1st arrondissement, approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. The Louvre is the second most visited museum after the Palace Museum in China. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built as a fortress in the late 12th century under Philip II, remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the expansion of the city, the fortress eventually lost its defensive function and. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace, in 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nations masterpieces.
The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum renamed Musée Napoléon, the collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and bequests since the Third Republic, whether this was the first building on that spot is not known, it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den, in the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris to a monastery. This territory probably did not correspond exactly to the modern site, the Louvre Palace was altered frequently throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvres holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa.
After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed, however, on 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. Under Louis XVI, the museum idea became policy. The comte dAngiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the French Museum, many proposals were offered for the Louvres renovation into a museum, none was agreed on. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution, during the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences, on 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection in the Louvre became national property
San Francisco City Hall
San Francisco City Hall is the seat of government for the City and County of San Francisco, California. The structures dome is taller than that of the United States Capitol by 42 feet, the present building replaced an earlier City Hall that was destroyed during the 1906 earthquake, which was two blocks from the present one. It was bounded by Larkin Street, McAllister Street, and City Hall Avenue, largely where the current Public Library and U. N. Plaza stand today. The principal architect was Arthur Brown, Jr. of Bakewell & Brown, whose attention to the finishing details extended to the doorknobs, browns blueprints of the building are preserved at the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Brown designed the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House, Veterans Building, Temple Emanuel, Coit Tower, the buildings vast open space is more than 500,000 square feet and occupying two full city blocks. It is 390 ft between Van Ness Avenue and Polk Street, and 273 ft between Grove and McAllister Streets and its dome, which owes much to Mansarts Baroque domes of the Val-de-Grâce and Les Invalides in Paris, rises 307.5 ft above the Civic Center Historic District.
It is 19 ft higher than the United States Capitol, and has a diameter of 112 ft, resting upon 4 x 50 ton and 4 x 20 ton girders, each 9 ft deep and 60 ft. The building as a whole contains 7,900 tons of steel from the American Bridge Company of Ambridge. It is faced with Madera County granite on the exterior, and Indiana sandstone within, together with finish marbles from Alabama, Vermont, much of the statuary is by Henri Crenier. The Rotunda is a space and the upper levels are public. Opposite the grand staircase, on the floor, is the office of the Mayor. A bust of former county supervisor Harvey Milk, who was assassinated in the building was unveiled on May 22,2008, MAYOR1931 The words were written by the previous Mayor Edward Robeson Taylor, and dedicated by Mayor James Rolph. The medallions in the vaults of the Rotunda are of Equality, Strength, Learning and, as memorialized in the South Light Court display, Progress. The current City Hall building is a replacement for a building which was completed in 1899 after 27 years of planning.
The original city hall was a larger building which contained a smaller extension which contained the citys Hall of Records. The building was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, after Arthur Brown Juniors design was selected, construction started in 1913 and was completed by 1915, in time for the Exposition. The main rotunda had served as the location of prominent state funerals. General Fredrick Funston, hero of the Spanish–American War, Philippine–American War, joe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe were married at City Hall in 1954
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, the newspaper is published in the broadsheet format and online. The Wall Street Journal is the largest newspaper in the United States by circulation, according to the Alliance for Audited Media, the Journal had a circulation of about 2.4 million copies as of March 2013, compared with USA Todays 1.7 million. The newspaper has won 39 Pulitzer Prizes through 2015 and derives its name from Wall Street in the heart of the Financial District of Lower Manhattan. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8,1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, the Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ. They were aggregated in a daily summary called the Customers Afternoon Letter. In 1896, The Dow Jones Industrial Average was officially launched and it was the first of several indices of stock and bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange.
In 1899, the Journals Review & Outlook column, which still today, appeared for the first time. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902, circulation was around 7,000, Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism. In 1921, Americas premier financial weekly, was founded, Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that greatly affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barrons descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007, the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, under Kilgore, in 1947, that the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize, for William Henry Grimess editorials. In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies, the name was changed to Dow Jones Local Media Group.
In 2007 News Corp. acquired Dow Jones, a luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996, in 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journals print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web. Since then, online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, in May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually
Jack Kerouac Alley
Jack Kerouac Alley is a one-way alleyway in Chinatown, San Francisco, that connects Grant Avenue and Columbus Avenue. The alley is named after Jack Kerouac, a Beat Generation writer who used to frequent the pub, the alley was a common place for garbage dumping and a shortcut for trucks. In 1988, poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, who is the co-founder of City Lights Bookstore, the project involved repaving the alley, banning motor vehicles from entering, and installing new street lights. The new look alley was reopened to the public in March 2007, the alley is now known for its engraved Western and Chinese poems, including poets such as John Steinbeck, Maya Angelou, and Kerouac himself. A ceremony was held in April 2007 to celebrate the reopening of the alley, a picture of Jack Kerouac Alley on Flickr
Grace Cathedral, San Francisco
Grace Cathedral is an Episcopal cathedral on Nob Hill, San Francisco, California. It is the church of the Episcopal Diocese of California. There is an adult choir. The director of music and choirmaster is Ben Bachmann, the Very Reverend Alan Jones retired as dean in 2009. He was the moderator of The Forum at Grace Cathedral, canon Jane Shaw was installed as the eighth dean of Grace Cathedral. The cathedrals ancestral parish, Grace Church, was founded in 1849 during the California Gold Rush, the cathedral is the daughter of the historic Grace Church. The first little chapel was built in the gold rush year of 1849, the family of a railroad baron and banker, William Henry Crocker, gave their ruined Nob Hill property for a diocesan cathedral, which took its name and founding congregation from the nearby parish. In 1865, Mark Twain published purported private correspondence between himself and potential short-term rectors, satirizing the churchs efforts to find a short-term rector in the 1860s and 1870s, dean J.
Wilmer Gresham nurtured the young cathedral and work began on the present structure in 1928. Designed in French Gothic style by Lewis P. Hobart, it was completed in 1964 as the third largest Episcopal cathedral in the nation. On March 28,1964, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a sermon at Grace Cathedral as part of the festival celebrating its completion and consecration, the service took place on the fourth Sunday of Lent. Approximately 5,000 people were present to hear Kings sermon and it was the largest gathering at the cathedral for the next 37 years, until the September 11,2001, memorial service took place. Grace Cathedral has a significant collection of varied works by Jan Henryk De Rosen, among these are a faux-tile mural behind the Chapel of Grace reredos from 1932, the mural in the Chapel of the Nativitys Adoration from 1946 showing the Holy Family with the magi and shepherds. At the donors request, the original angels hovering above were removed by the artist, De Rosen included a little image of his boyhood home in Warsaw in the mural.
On a smaller scale, De Rosen painted exquisite panels for the old high altar which is now in the Chapel of St. Francis columbarium. The cathedral entrance has a pair of doors, often called the Ghiberti doors. They are reproductions of the doors of the Florence Baptistery by Lorenzo Ghiberti and they were hidden in a disused railway tunnel until 1944, and latex casts were made after their rediscovery. The doors now in the baptistery are modern replicas installed in 1991, laid out on the floor of Grace Cathedral is a labyrinth that is based on the famous medieval labyrinth of Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres located in Chartres, France. It is said if a visitor walks the pattern of the labyrinth it will bring them to a meditative state
Fort Mason served as an Army post for more than 100 years, initially as a coastal defense site and subsequently as a military port facility. During World War II, it was the port for the Pacific campaign. Today it is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and it is a National Historic Landmark District with over 49 buildings of historic significance, spread over 1,200 acres. Fort Mason can be split into two distinct areas, the upper area, sometimes called Fort Mason, is situated on a headland and was the site of the original coastal fortifications. The lower area, Fort Mason Center, is situated close to level to the west of Upper Fort Mason. The Marina Green lies to the west of Fort Mason, while Aquatic Park is to the east, the nucleus of Fort Mason was a private property owned by John C. Frémont, the explorer of the US west, who spearheaded the conquest of California from Mexico. Appointed a Major General in the Union army at the start of the Civil War, in 1863, the government seized the property without payment, by executive order of Lincoln, on the grounds it was needed for the war effort.
Frémont would again contest the US presidency in 1864, running as the candidate of radical Republicans, the 1968 lawsuit was perhaps the last shot of a century-long legal struggle to obtain compensation for the seized realty. In 1870, the government returned property to 49 parties in the vicinity, but not to Frémont, but in 1968 the Frémont heirs complained it had failed to carry out this direction, with John Frémont recently dead and his widow Jessie nearly 70 years old. The Civil War prompted the construction of coastal defense batteries located inside the Golden Gate. A breast-high wall of brick and mounts for six 10-inch Rodman cannons, excavation in the early 1980s uncovered the well-preserved remains of the western-half of the temporary battery, and it has now been restored to its condition during the Civil War. The fort was named Fort Mason in 1882, after Richard Barnes Mason, President Grover Cleveland established the Endicott Board in 1885 for the purpose of modernizing the nations coastal fortifications.
Chaired by Secretary of War William Endicott, the board recommended new defenses at 22 U. S. seaports, as a result, an extensive series of forts and guns were built on the harbor, including Fort Mason. The piers and sheds of Lower Fort Mason were originally built from 1912 to warehouse army supplies, by this time, the US Army began to build new bases in Hawaii, the Philippines, and various other Pacific islands. Most of the materiel for those bases was shipped through San Francisco, by 1915, the three piers together with their associated warehouse had been completed, and Fort Mason Tunnel driven under Upper Fort Mason to connect with the railroad network along the Embarcadero. With these new facilities, Fort Mason was transformed from a defense post into a logistical. The Army ferry USAT General Frank M. Coxe provided scheduled transportation from Fort Mason to the center at Fort McDowell on Angel Island up to eight times per day during the war
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
In American architecture, painted ladies are Victorian and Edwardian houses and buildings painted in three or more colors that embellish or enhance their architectural details. The term was first used for San Francisco Victorian houses by writers Elizabeth Pomada, about 48,000 houses in the Victorian and Edwardian styles were built in San Francisco between 1849 and 1915, and many were painted in bright colors. As one newspaper noted in 1885. red, chocolate, orange. They are painted up into uncouth panels of yellow and brown, during World War I and World War II, many of these houses were painted battleship gray with war-surplus Navy paint. Another sixteen thousand were demolished, and many others had the Victorian decor stripped off or covered with tarpaper, stucco, in 1963, San Francisco artist Butch Kardum began combining intense blues and greens on the exterior of his Italianate-style Victorian house. His house was criticized by some, but other neighbors began to copy the bright colors on their own houses.
Kardum became a designer, and he and other artists / colorists such as Tony Canaletich, Bob Buckter. By the 1970s, the colorist movement, as it was called, had changed entire streets and this process continues to this day. One of the groups of Painted Ladies is the row of Victorian houses at 710–720 Steiner Street, across from Alamo Square park. It is sometimes known as Postcard Row, the houses were built between 1892 and 1896 by developer Matthew Kavanaugh, who lived next door in the 1892 mansion at 722 Steiner Street. Terraced house Michael Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada, Painted Ladies- San Franciscos Resplendent Victorians E. P, New York,1978 Michael Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada, Daughters of Painted Ladies, E. P. Dutton, New York,1987 Michael Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada, New York Michael Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada, Americas Painted Ladies, E. P. Dutton, New York,1992 Terry Way, Victorian Homes Of San Francisco, Schiffer, PA2009 ISBN9780764332128 John Clarke Mills, Restoration of an 1890s San Francisco Victorian, Blog,2008
The Sutro Baths were a large, privately owned public saltwater swimming pool complex in the Lands End area of the Outer Richmond District in western San Francisco, California. Built in 1896, it was located near the Cliff House, Seal Rock, the facility burned down in June 1966 and is now in ruins. The site is within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Sutro Historic District, on March 14,1896, the Sutro Baths were opened to the public as the worlds largest indoor swimming pool establishment. The baths were built on the side of San Francisco by wealthy entrepreneur. The structure was situated in a small beach inlet below the Cliff House, both the Cliff House and the former baths site are now a part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, operated by the United States National Park Service. The baths struggled for years, mostly due to the high operating. Shortly after closing, a fire in 1966 destroyed the building while it was in the process of being demolished, all that remains of the site are concrete walls, blocked off stairs and passageways, and a tunnel with a deep crevice in the middle.
The cause of the fire was determined to be arson, shortly afterwards, the developers left San Francisco and claimed insurance money. Media is stored by the Library of Congress as part of the American Memory collection and available for viewing online, Sutro Baths, no.1 and Sutro Baths,2, filmed in 1897 by Thomas A. Edison, Inc. Panoramic view from an engine on the Ferries and Cliff House Railroad line route along the cliffs of Lands End, starting at the Sutro Baths depot, filmed in 1902 by Thomas A. Edison. Panoramic view from the beach below Cliff House at Sutro Baths, filmed in 1903 by American Mutoscope, the following statistics are from a 1912 article written by J. E. Van Hoosear of Pacific Gas and Electric. Materials used in the structure included 100,000 sq ft of glass,600 tons of iron,3,500,000 board feet of lumber, and 10,000 cu yd of concrete. The baths were once serviced by a line, the Ferries and Cliff House Railroad. The route ran from the baths to a terminal at California Street, during high tides, water would flow directly into the pools from the nearby ocean, recycling the two million US gallons of water in about an hour.
Facilities included, Six saltwater pools and one freshwater pool, the baths were 499.5 feet long and 254.1 feet wide for a capacity of 1,805,000 US gallons. They were equipped with 7 slides,30 swinging rings, and 1 springboard, a museum displaying an extensive collection of stuffed and mounted animals, historic artifacts, and artwork, much of which Sutro acquired from the Woodwards Gardens estate sale in 1894. A 2700-seat amphitheater, and club rooms with capacity for 1100, nPS-GGNRA, Sutro Bath and Cliff House webpage
Cliff House, San Francisco
The Cliff House is a restaurant perched on the headland above the cliffs just north of Ocean Beach, on the western side of San Francisco, California. It overlooks the site of the former Sutro Baths and is now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, on the terrace of the Cliff House is a room-sized camera obscura. Cliff House has had five major incarnations since its beginnings in 1858 and that year, Samuel Brannan, a prosperous ex-Mormon elder from Maine, bought for $1,500 the lumber salvaged from a ship that foundered on the basalt cliffs below. With this material he built the first Cliff House, the second Cliff House was built in 1863, and leased to Captain Junius G. Foster. It was a trek from the city and hosted mostly horseback riders. With the opening of the Point Lobos toll road a year later, the builders of the toll road constructed a two-mile speedway beside it where well-to-do San Franciscans raced their horses along the way. On weekends, there was room at the Cliff House hitching racks for tethering the horses for the thousands of rigs.
Soon, omnibus and streetcar lines made it to near Lone Mountain where passengers transferred to stagecoach lines to the beach. The growth of Golden Gate Park attracted beach travellers, in search of meals, in 1877, the toll road, now Geary Street, was purchased by the city for around $25,000. After a few years of management by J. M. Wilkens. The blast was heard a hundred miles away and demolished the north wing of the tavern. The building was repaired, but was completely destroyed by fire on Christmas night 1894 due to a defective flue. Wilkens was unable to save the guest register, which included the signatures of three Presidents and dozens of illustrious world-famous visitors and this incarnation of the Cliff House, with its various extensions, had lasted for 31 years. In 1896, Adolph Sutro built a new Cliff House, a seven story Victorian Chateau, called by some the Gingerbread Palace and this was the same year work began on the famous Sutro Baths in a small cove immediately north of the Restaurant.
The baths included six of the largest indoor swimming pools, a museum, great throngs of San Franciscans arrived on steam trains, bicycles and horse wagons on Sunday excursions. Sutro purchased some of the collection of stuffed animals, the 1896 Cliff House survived the 1906 earthquake with little damage, but burned to the ground on the evening of September 7,1907, after existing for only 11 years. Dr. Emma Merritt, Sutros daughter, commissioned a rebuilding of the restaurant in a style that was completed within two years and is the basis of the structure seen today. In 1914, the guidebook Bohemian San Francsco described it as one of the great Bohemian restaurants of San Francisco, while you have thought you had good breakfasts before this, you know that now you are having the best of them all