Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in an armed forces. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, the use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. These in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command combat, combat support and combat support formations. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work, in most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services, army and air force. Many countries have a variation on the model of three or four basic Armed Services. Some nations organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services, a nations coast guard may be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons, most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question.
Third-world armies tend to consist primarily of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and it is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of power from two or more branches of the military. It is common, at least in the European and North American militaries, to refer to the blocks of a military as commands, formations. In a military context, a command is a collection of units and it is not uncommon for a nations services to each consist of their own command, but this does not preclude the existence of commands which are not service-based. A formation is defined by the US Department of Defense as two or more aircraft, ships, or units proceeding together under a commander. The formations only differ in their ability to achieve different scales of application of force to achieve different strategic and tactical goals and it is a composite military organization that includes a mixture of integrated and operationally attached sub-units, and is usually combat-capable.
Example of formations include, brigades, wings, formation may refer to tactical formation, the physical arrangement or disposition of troops and weapons. Examples of formation in such usage include, panzerkeil, testudo formation, any unit subordinate to another unit is considered its sub-unit or minor unit. It is not uncommon for unit and formation to be used synonymously in the United States, in Commonwealth practice, formation is not used for smaller organizations like battalions which are instead called units, and their constituent platoons or companies are referred to as sub-units. In the Commonwealth, formations are divisions, etc, different armed forces, and even different branches of service of the armed forces, may use the same name to denote different types of organizations
Commodore is a naval rank used in many navies that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. Non-English-speaking nations often use the rank of flotilla admiral or counter admiral or senior captain as an equivalent, as an official rank, a commodore typically commands a flotilla or squadron of ships as part of a larger task force or naval fleet commanded by an admiral. A commodores ship is typically designated by the flying of a Broad pennant and it is often regarded as a one-star rank with a NATO code of OF-6, but whether it is regarded as a flag rank varies between countries. The rank of commodore derives from the French commandeur, which was one of the highest ranks in orders of knighthood, and in military orders the title of the knight in charge of a commenda. The Dutch Navy used the rank of commandeur from the end of the 16th century for a variety of temporary positions, the Royal Netherlands Air Force has adopted the English spelling of commodore for an equivalent rank.
The rank of commodore was at first a position created as a title to be bestowed upon captains who commanded squadrons of more than one vessel. In many navies, the rank of commodore was merely viewed as a senior captain position, Commodore is the highest rank in the Irish Naval Service held by the Chief of Naval Operations. This is because Ireland, despite having the largest part of EU waters to patrol, has among the smallest navies and thus the rank of admiral for flag officers seemed inappropriate. In the Royal Navy, the position was introduced to combat the cost of appointing more admirals—a costly business with a fleet as large as the Royal Navys at that time. In 1899, the rank of commodore was discontinued in the United States Navy. To correct this inequity, the rank of commodore as a single star flag officer was reinstated by both services in the early 1980s. As a result of confusion, the services soon renamed the new one-star rank as commodore admiral within the first six months following the ranks reintroduction.
The title of commodore continues to be used in the U. S, although not flag officers, modern day commodores in the U. S. In the Argentine Navy, the position of commodore was created in the late 1990s, and is usually and it is not a rank but a distinction and, as such, can be issued by the chief of staff without congressional approval. Its equivalents are colonel-major in the Army and commodore-major in the Air Force and it is usually—but incorrectly—referred to as navy commodore, to avoid confusion with the air force commodore, which is equivalent to the navys captain and armys colonel. The sleeve lace is identical to that of the Royal Navy, the following articles deal with the rank of commodore as it is employed OF-6 one-star flag officer rank in various countries. Commodore, in Spanish comodoro, is a rank in the Argentine Air Force and this rank is the equivalent of a colonel in the Argentine Army, and a colonel or group captain in other air forces of the world. The Argentine rank below commodore is the rank of vice-commodore equivalent to a lieutenant-colonel in the Argentine Army, Commodore is a rank in the Royal Netherlands Air Force
Lieutenant commander is a commissioned officer rank in many navies. The rank is superior to a lieutenant and subordinate to a commander, the corresponding rank in most armies and air forces is major, and in the Royal Air Force and other Commonwealth air forces is squadron leader. The NATO rank code is mostly OF-3, a lieutenant commander is a senior department officer or the executive officer on many warships and smaller shore installation, or the commanding officer of a smaller ship/installation. They are senior department officers in naval aviation squadrons, most Commonwealth and other navies address lieutenant commanders by their full rank or the positions they occupy. The United States Navy, addresses officers by their rank or the higher grade of the rank. For example, oral communications in formal and informal situations, a Lieutenant is abbreviated as Lieutenant, Lieutenants were commonly put in command of smaller vessels not warranting a commander or captain. Such a lieutenant was called a lieutenant commanding or lieutenant commandant in the United States Navy, the USN settled on lieutenant commander in 1862 and made it a distinct rank.
The RN followed suit in March 1914, the insignia worn by a Royal Navy lieutenant commander is two medium gold braid stripes with one thin gold stripe running in between, placed upon a navy blue/black background. The top stripe has the ubiquitous loop used in all RN officer rank insignia, the RAF follows this pattern with its equivalent rank of squadron leader. This distinction was abolished when the rank of lieutenant commander was introduced, throughout much of its existence, the British Royal Observer Corps maintained a rank of observer lieutenant commander. The ROC wore a Royal Air Force uniform and their rank insignia appeared similar to that of an RAF squadron leader except that the stripes were shown entirely in black, prior to the renaming, the rank had been known as observer lieutenant. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank is the naval rank equal to Major in the army or air force and is the first senior officer rank, Lieutenant Commanders are senior to Lieutenants and to army and air force Captains, and are junior to Commanders and Lieutenant Colonels.
There are two insignia used by USN and USCG Lieutenant Commanders, in all dress uniforms, they wear sleeve braid or shoulder boards bearing a single gold quarter-inch stripe between two gold half-inch strips. Above or inboard of the stripes, they wear their speciality insignia and this rank is used on in Pakistan Navy. The rank of lieutenant commander is used in the Irish Naval Service. The majority of commanders in the Irish Naval Service hold the rank of lieutenant commander, with a commander being a senior. The corresponding rank in the German Navy, Italian Navy, Argentine Navy, Brazilian Navy, French Navy, Spanish Navy and most other French and Spanish-speaking countries is corvette captain. The insignia of kapteeniluutnantti, the rank immediately below the former, is one thin stripe between two wider ones, which could cause confusion among the naval personnel of other nations
Group captain is a senior commissioned rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force. It ranks above wing commander and immediately below air commodore, the name of the rank is the complete phrase, and is never shortened to captain. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-5, and is equivalent to a captain in the Royal Navy or a colonel in the British Army or the Royal Marines, Group captain is the rank usually held by the station commander of a large RAF station. The equivalent rank in the Womens Auxiliary Air Force, Womens Auxiliary Australian Air Force, Womens Royal Air Force, the equivalent rank in the Royal Observer Corps was observer captain, which had a similar rank insignia. On 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service captains and Royal Flying Corps colonels becoming colonels in the RAF. In response to the proposal that the RAF should use its own titles, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navys officer ranks.
For example, the rank that became group captain would have been air captain and it was suggested that RAF colonels might be entitled bannerets or leaders. However, the title based on the Navy rank was preferred. The rank of group captain has been used continuously since 1 August 1919, although in the early years of the RAF groups were normally commanded by group captains, by the mid-1920s they were usually commanded by an air officer. In the post-World War II period the commander of an RAF flying station or a ground training station has typically been a group captain. More recently, expeditionary air wings have commanded by group captains. The rank insignia is based on the four bands of captains in the Royal Navy. This is worn on both the sleeves of the tunic or on the shoulders of the flying suit or the casual uniform. Group captains are the first rank in the RAF hierarchy to wear gold braid on the peak of their cap, informally known as scrambled egg, they still wear the standard RAF officers cap badge.
The command pennant for a captain is similar to the one for a wing commander except that there is one broad red band in the centre. Only the wing commander and group captain command pennants are triangular in shape and it is used in the Egyptian Air Force, Hellenic Air Force, Royal Air Force of Oman and the Royal Thai Air Force. The Royal Canadian Air Force used the rank until the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968, a Canadian group captain became a colonel. In official French Canadian usage, a captains rank title was colonel daviation
Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in the armed forces of several countries. It is a rank in some police services. In origin certain senior sergeants were assigned to administrative, supervisory, as such they held seniority over sergeants who were members of a battalion or company, and were paid correspondingly increased wages. Their seniority was indicated by a crown worn above the three stripes on their uniform rank markings. In the Australian Army and Cadets, the rank of sergeant is being phased out. It was usually held by the quartermaster sergeant or the holders of other administrative roles. Staff sergeants are addressed as Staff Sergeant or Staff, never as Sergeant as it degrades their rank. Chief is another nickname though this is used for the company chief clerk. A staff sergeant ranks above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2, for further information, see Israel Defense Forces ranks. Soldiers who take a course may become staff sergeants earlier. The rank insignia is composed of three stripes with an embroidered fig leaf, a biblical motif, in the center of the rank insignia.
Staff sergeants get a pay raise. A staff sergeant in the Singapore Armed Forces ranks above first sergeant and it is the second most senior specialist rank. Staff sergeants are addressed as Staff Sergeant or Staff, but never Sergeant, Staff sergeants may be appointed as company sergeant major if they are due for promotion to master sergeant. They are usually addressed as CSM in camp, although in the past they were referred to as Encik, the rank insignia consists of two chevrons pointing up and three chevrons pointing down, with the Singapore coat of arms in the middle. However, all three grades of Sergeants all don the same three chevrons insigna, the rank of Staff Sergeant exists in the Army, Air Force and the Marine Corps, and is equivalent to the Petty officer 2nd Class in the Navy. In the British Army, staff sergeant ranks above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2, the rank is given a NATO code of OR-7. The insignia is the crown above three downward pointing chevrons
Section (military unit)
A section is a military sub-subunit. It usually consists of six and 20 personnel, and is usually an alternate name for, and equivalent to. As such two or more sections usually make up a platoon or an air force flight. However, in the French Army and in armies based on the French model, under the new structure of the infantry platoon, Australian Army sections are made up of eight men divided into two four-man fireteams. Each fireteam consists of a leader, a marksman with enhanced optics, a grenadier with an M203. Typical fire team structure, At the start of World War I, the Australian Army used a section that consisted of 27 men including the section commander, during World War II, a rifle section comprised ten soldiers with a corporal in command and a lance-corporal as his second-in-command. The corporal used an M1928 Thompson submachine gun, while one of the privates used a Bren gun, the other eight soldiers all used No.1 Mk.3 Lee–Enfield rifles with a bayonet and scabbard. They all carried two or three No.36 Mills bomb grenades, post–World War II, and during the Vietnam War, a rifle section consisted of ten personnel comprising, a command & scout group, a gun group and a rifle group.
The British Army section now consists of eight soldiers made up of a Corporal as the section commander, three sections together form a platoon. In conventional warfare, the section is split into two four-man fireteams, commanded by the corporal and lance-corporal respectively. With the switch from.303 to 7. 62mm NATO in the 1950s until the introduction of 5.56 mm calibre weapons in the late 1980s, the section was typically divided into two groups, a rifle group and a gun group. The gun group was commanded by the section 2IC with an L1A1, and comprised the gunner with the GPMG and this organization was abandoned in favour of fireteams when 5.56 mm assault rifles and SAWs were introduced in the late 1980s. These were the L85 IW and the longer-barrelled L86 LSW, the firepower of the team has now been extended by the L110A1 LMG. The LSW is now used as a designated marksmans rifle. Each fire team has two IW, one with a grenade launcher, one LSW and one LMG. An infantry section now consists of, Charlie Fireteam, rifleman, armed with an L85A25. 56mm rifle with 40mm underslung grenade launcher.
Rifleman, armed with an L110A15. 56mm light machine gun, armed with an L129A17. 62x51 mm sharpshooter rifle. Delta Fireteam, Lance Corporal, armed with an L85A25. 56mm rifle, armed with an L85A25. 56mm rifle with 40mm underslung grenade launcher
A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nations military forces or significant elements of those forces. In the latter case, the element is those forces within a particular region. Often, a given countrys commander-in-chief need not be or have been an officer or even a veteran. This follows the principle of civilian control of the military, the role of commander-in-chief derives from the Latin, imperator. Imperatores of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire possessed imperium powers, in its modern use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639. It continued to be used during the English Civil War, a nations head of state usually holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as commander, which is sometimes used as a specific term.
The term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch. According to the Constitution of Albania, The President of the Republic of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces, the incumbent Commander-in-chief is President Bujar Nishani. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the President in the management of the armed forces, the Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. The Constitution states, in Article 80, that the President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Armed Forces. e, the cabinet under the chairmanship of the Federal Chancellor, as defined in Article 69. The commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister and he retired on 7 April 1972 and relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the command of the President of the Republic. The Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces, the powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, and are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office. According to the National Defence Act, the Minister of National Defence is responsible and accountable to parliament for all related to national defence
Military districts are formations of a states armed forces which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are often responsible for administrative than operational matters, and in countries with conscript forces. Navies have used a model, with organizations such as the United States Naval Districts. A number of navies in South America used naval districts at various points in time, Library of Congress Country Study,1993, 258-260 Algeria is divided into six numbered military regions, each with headquarters located in a principal city or town. Regional commanders control and administer bases and housing, commanders of army divisions and brigades, air force installations, and naval forces report directly to the Ministry of National Defence and service chiefs of staff on operational matters. Previously Algeria had formed Frances tenth military region, Military region commanders in 2003 included Brahim Fodel Chérif, Kamel Abderrahmane (2nd Military Region, Abcène Tafer, Abdelmadjid Sahed (4th Military Region, Chérif Abderrazak and Ali Benali.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War the National Revolutionary Army eventually organized itself into twelve Military Regions, the military regions of the Peoples Liberation Army were divided into military districts, usually contiguous with provinces, and military sub-districts. For many years up to 21 military regions were active, with the evolution of administrative organization, France was divided into regional administrative districts. The military organisation combined the administrative organization and in each CAR corresponded a territorial military division, on the defence side, these military divisions have been grouped into military regions. Their number varied depending on the period, the method they adopted was to separate the Field Army from the Home Command and to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription and equipment to that command. The Commander of the Infantry Corps with the number commanded the Wehrkreis in peacetime. In peace time, the Wehrkreis was the home to the Infantry Corps of the same number, todays German Armed Forces have four military districts – Wehrbereichskommando as part of the Streitkräftebasis or Joint Service Support Command.
Each WBK controls several Landeskommandos due to the structure of Germany. Previously this function was carried out by the Verteidigungsbezirkskommandos or Military Region Commands and these command authorities are in charge of all military facilities in their area of responsibility and of several supporting regiments. The Indonesian Army uses military districts, known as Komando Daerah Militer or KODAM and it was created by General Soedirman as a system initially called Wehrkreise, adapted from the German system during World War II. The system was ratified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1. Military area command functioned as a means of circles of defense, or regional defense, each MAC commander had full authority to begin operations with assets available in the district. MAC commanders had a command and an autonomy over its military structures, Poznań Military District, HQ in Poznań Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warszawa
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to an admiral and junior to an admiral. The rank insignia for a vice admiral often involves three stars, but this is not always the case, in the navy of Iraq, vice admiral insignia involves one star. Vice admiral is the equivalent of air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force, in the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of vice-admiral is equivalent to lieutenant-general of the Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force. A vice-admiral is an officer, the naval equivalent of a general officer. A vice-admiral is senior to a rear-admiral and major general, two rows of gold oak leaves are located on the black visor of the white service cap. Vice-admirals are addressed by rank and name, thereafter by subordinates as Sir or Maam, vice-admirals are normally entitled to a staff car, the car will normally bear a flag, dark blue with three gold maple leaves arranged one over two.
A vice-admiral generally holds only the most senior command or administrative appointments, barring only Chief of Defence Staff, Prince of Wales holds the honorary rank of vice admiral in the Royal Canadian Navy. The vice-amiral rank used to be an OF-8 rank in NATO charts, the rank of vice-amiral descadre equals a NATO OF-8 rank. In the ancien régime Navy, between 1669 and 1791, the office of Vice-Admiral of France was the highest rank, the supreme office of Admiral of France being purely ceremonial. Distinct offices were, 1669-1791 Vice-admiral of the West, 1778-1791 Vice-admiral of the Asian and American Seas. 1784-1788 Vice-admiral of the Indian Seas, vizeadmiral is an OF-8 three-star rank equivalent to the German Heer and Luftwaffe rank of Generalleutnant. In India, vice admiral is a three star admiral, in Italy, the equivalent to vice admiral is the ammiraglio di squadra or squadron admiral. In the Philippines, the vice admiral is the highest-ranking official of the Philippine Navy. He is recognized as the flag officer in-charge of the Navy, the rank vice-admiral in the Philippines, has the same ranking in the U.
S Navy. In Vietnam, the equivalent to vice admiral is the phó đô đốc
Field marshal is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is and it is considered as a five-star rank in modern-day armed forces in many countries. The origin of the dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the kings horses. Promotion to the rank of marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general. However, the rank has used as a divisional command rank. The traditional attribute distinguishing a field marshal is a baton, the baton nowadays is purely ornamental, and as such may be richly decorated. That said, it is not necessary for the insignia to be a baton, the exact wording of the titles used by field marshals varies, examples include marshal and field marshal general. The air force equivalent in Commonwealth and many Middle Eastern air forces is marshal of the air force. Navies, which usually do not use the nomenclature employed by armies or air forces, use titles such as fleet admiral, Field marshal Mohammad Qasim Fahim was a politician in Afghanistan who served as Vice President from June 2002 until December 2004 and from November 2009 until his death.
Between September 2001 and December 2004, he served as Defense Minister under the Afghan Transitional Administration. As military commander of the Northern Alliance, Fahim captured the Afghan capital Kabul in the fall of 2001 from the Taliban government, in 2004 President Hamid Karzai provided Fahim the honorary title Marshal and a year he became member of the House of Elders. He became a recipient of the Ahmad Shah Baba Medal, Fahim was a member of Afghanistans Tajik ethnic group. He was affiliated with the Jamiat Islami party of Afghanistan, Sir Thomas Blamey was the first and is the only Australian-born field marshal. He was promoted to the rank on the insistence of the Australian prime minister, Sir Robert Menzies, Blamey was, at the time of his promotion, seriously ill and mostly bed-ridden in the Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital. He was presented with his marshals baton at a ceremony held in the sunroom at the Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital by the Governor-General of Australia. Blameys field marshals baton is on display in the Second World War galleries at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.
Currently, the only Australian field marshal is HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, during Imperial rule in China, different dynasty gave different titles to generals. A very similar title is 司馬 in Eastern Han dynasty, which means master of horse
Air chief marshal
Air chief marshal is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank. Air chief marshal is an air officer rank and has a NATO ranking code of OF-9. An air chief marshal is equivalent to an admiral in the Royal Navy or a general in the British Army or the Royal Marines, in other forces, such as the United States Armed Forces and the Canadian Armed Forces, the equivalent four-star rank is general. The rank of air marshal is immediately senior to the rank of air marshal. Air chief marshals are sometimes considered to be air marshals. Prior to the adoption of RAF-specific rank titles in 1919, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navys officer ranks, for example, the rank that became air chief marshal would have been air admiral. However, air marshal was preferred and was adopted on 1 August 1919. The rank was first used on 1 April 1922 with the promotion of Sir Hugh Trenchard, with Trenchards promotion to marshal of the RAF on 1 January 1927, no officer held the rank until Sir John Salmond was promoted on 1 January 1929.
It has been used ever since. In the RAF, the rank of air marshal is held by the serving Chief of the Air Staff. Throughout the history of the RAF,139 RAF officers have held the rank and it has awarded in an honorary capacity to senior members of the British Royal Family. Additionally, Lord Stirrup was granted a promotion to marshal of the Royal Air Force in 2014. The marshals are still to be found on the RAFs active list even though they have for all practical purposes retired, the rank insignia consists of three narrow light blue bands over a light blue band on a broad black band. This is worn on the sleeves of the service dress jacket or on the shoulders of the flying suit or working uniform. The command flag for an RAF air chief marshal is defined by the two red bands running through the centre of the flag. The vehicle star plate for an RAF air chief marshal depicts four stars on an air force blue background. The rank of air marshal is used in the air forces of many countries which were under British influence around the time their air force was founded.
This includes many the air forces of many Commonwealth countries and it is instituted as a rank in the Ghana Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force as member of the Commonwealth of Nations, however not in practice