House of Wessex
The House became rulers of a unified English nation after the descendants of Alfred the Great down to Edward the Confessor in 1066. Edward the Elder Alfreds son united under his rule, by conquering the Viking occupied areas and East Anglia with Wessex. Then his son, Æthelstan, extended his authority into the north, above the Mersey and Humber, his son Canute and his successors ruled until 1042. After the Battle of Hastings, a point in English history. Edgars niece Matilda of Scotland married Williams son Henry I, Henry II was a descendant of the House of Wessex in the female line, something that contemporary English commentators noted with approval. These arms appear in a manuscript of the century, and are blazoned as Azure. The assigning of arms to the West Saxon kings is prochronistic as heraldry did not develop until the twelfth century and these arms continued to be used to represent the kingdom for centuries after their invention. List of monarchs of Wessex Wessex List of English monarchs Stephen Friar and John Ferguson, Basic Heraldry, W. W.
Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-03463-9 Naismith, the Origins of the Line of Egbert, King of the West Saxons, 802–839
Kingdom of Strathclyde
The kingdom developed during the post-Roman period. It is known as Alt Clut, a Brittonic term for Dumbarton Castle and it may have had its origins with the Brythonic Damnonii people of Ptolemys Geography. Scottish toponymy and archaeology points to some settlement by Vikings or Norse–Gaels, a small number of Anglian place-names show some limited settlement by Anglo-Saxon incomers from Northumbria prior to the Norse settlement. Due to the series of changes in the area, it is not possible to say whether any Goidelic settlement took place before Gaelic was introduced in the High Middle Ages during the 11th century. After the sack of Dumbarton Rock by a Viking army from Dublin in 870, in the same period, it was referred to as Cumbria, and its inhabitants as Cumbrians. During the High Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the Goidelic speaking Kingdom of Alba in the 11th century, however, it remained a distinctive Brythonic area into the 12th and 13th centuries. As well as the Damnonii, Ptolemy lists the Otalini, whose capital appears to have been Traprain Law, to their west, the Selgovae in the Southern Uplands and, further west in Galloway, the Novantae.
In addition, a known as the Maeatae, probably in the area around Stirling. The capital of the Damnonii is believed to have been at Carman, near Dumbarton, although the northern frontier appears to have been Hadrians Wall for most of the history of Roman Britain, the extent of Roman influence north of the Wall is obscure. Certainly, Roman forts existed north of the wall, and forts as far north as Cramond may have been in long-term occupation, the formal frontier was three times moved further north. In addition to contacts, Roman armies undertook punitive expeditions north of the frontiers. Northern natives travelled south of the wall, to trade, to raid, Roman traders may have travelled north, and Roman subsidies, or bribes, were sent to useful tribes and leaders. The final period of Roman Britain saw an apparent increase in attacks by land and sea, the including the Picts, Scotti. These raids will have targeted the tribes of southern Scotland, no historical source gives any firm information on the boundaries of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, but suggestions have been offered on the basis of place-names and topography.
The Campsie Fells and the marshes between Loch Lomond and Stirling may have represented another boundary, to the south, the kingdom extended some distance up the valley of the Clyde, and along the coast probably extended south towards Ayr. Although often referred to as the Dark Ages, the period after the end of Roman rule in southern Scotland and historians have offered varying accounts of the period over the last century and a half. The written sources available for the period are largely Irish and Welsh, Irish sources report events in the kingdom of Dumbarton only when they have an Irish link. Some are informed by the political attitudes prevalent in Wales in the 9th century, whose prejudice is apparent, rarely mentions Britons, and usually in uncomplimentary terms
Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the Apostle to the English and a founder of the English Church, Kent was probably chosen because Æthelberht had married a Christian princess, daughter of Charibert I the King of Paris, who was expected to exert some influence over her husband. Before reaching Kent, the missionaries had considered turning back, but Gregory urged them on, King Æthelberht converted to Christianity and allowed the missionaries to preach freely, giving them land to found a monastery outside the city walls. Augustine was consecrated as a bishop and converted many of the kings subjects, Roman bishops were established at London and Rochester in 604, and a school was founded to train Anglo-Saxon priests and missionaries. Augustine arranged the consecration of his successor, Laurence of Canterbury, the archbishop probably died in 604 and was soon revered as a saint. After the withdrawal of the Roman legions from their province of Britannia in 410, before the Roman withdrawal, Britannia had been converted to Christianity and produced the ascetic Pelagius.
Britain sent three bishops to the Council of Arles in 314, and a Gaulish bishop went to the island in 396 to help settle disciplinary matters, material remains testify to a growing presence of Christians, at least until around 360. After the Roman legions departed, pagan tribes settled the southern parts of the island while western Britain, beyond the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and this native British Church developed in isolation from Rome under the influence of missionaries from Ireland and was centred on monasteries instead of bishoprics. Other distinguishing characteristics were its calculation of the date of Easter, there is no evidence that these native Christians tried to convert the Anglo-Saxons. The invasions destroyed most remnants of Roman civilisation in the held by the Saxons and related tribes, including the economic. It was against this background that Pope Gregory I decided to send a mission, often called the Gregorian mission, the Kingdom of Kent was ruled by Æthelberht, who married a Christian princess named Bertha before 588, and perhaps earlier than 560.
Bertha was the daughter of Charibert I, one of the Merovingian kings of the Franks, as one of the conditions of her marriage, she brought a bishop named Liudhard with her to Kent. Together in Canterbury, they restored a church dated to Roman times—possibly the current St Martins Church. Æthelberht was a pagan at this point but allowed his freedom of worship. One biographer of Bertha states that under his wifes influence, Æthelberht asked Pope Gregory to send missionaries, the historian Ian N. Wood feels that the initiative came from the Kentish court as well as the queen. Other historians, believe that Gregory initiated the mission, the mission may have been an outgrowth of the missionary efforts against the Lombards who, as pagans and Arian Christians, were not on good relations with the Catholic church in Rome. Aside from Æthelberhts granting of freedom of worship to his wife, Kent was the dominant power in southeastern Britain. Since the eclipse of King Ceawlin of Wessex in 592, Æthelberht was the leading Anglo-Saxon ruler, Kents proximity to the Franks allowed support from a Christian area
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great was King of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest and he is one of only two English monarchs to be given the epithet the Great, the other being the Scandinavian Cnut the Great. He was the first King of the West Saxons to style himself King of the Anglo-Saxons, details of Alfreds life are described in a work by the 10th-century Welsh scholar and bishop Asser. In 2002, Alfred was ranked number 14 in the BBCs poll of the 100 Greatest Britons, Alfred was born in the village of Wanating, now Wantage, historically in Berkshire but now in Oxfordshire. He was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex by his first wife, Osburh. In 853, at the age of four, Alfred is reported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to have sent to Rome, where he was confirmed by Pope Leo IV. Victorian writers interpreted this as a coronation in preparation for his eventual succession to the throne of Wessex. This is unlikely, his succession could not have foreseen at the time.
A letter of Leo IV shows that Alfred was made a consul and it may be based on Alfreds having accompanied his father on a pilgrimage to Rome, where he spent some time at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, around 854–855. On their return from Rome in 856, Æthelwulf was deposed by his son Æthelbald, with civil war looming, the magnates of the realm met in council to hammer out a compromise. Æthelbald would retain the western shires, and Æthelwulf would rule in the east, when King Æthelwulf died in 858, Wessex was ruled by three of Alfreds brothers in succession, Æthelbald, Æthelberht and Æthelred. Bishop Asser tells the story of how as a child Alfred won as a prize a book of Saxon poems, legend has it that the young Alfred spent time in Ireland seeking healing. Alfred was troubled by health problems throughout his life and it is thought that he may have suffered from Crohns disease. Statues of Alfred in Winchester and Wantage portray him as a great warrior, evidence suggests he was not physically strong, and though not lacking in courage, he was noted more for his intellect than as a warlike character.
During the short reigns of the two of his three elder brothers, Æthelbald of Wessex and Æthelberht of Wessex, Alfred is not mentioned. This arrangement may have been sanctioned by Alfreds father, or by the Witan, the arrangement of crowning a successor as royal prince and military commander is well known among other Germanic tribes, such as the Swedes and Franks, to whom the Anglo-Saxons were closely related. In 868, Alfred is recorded as fighting beside Æthelred in an attempt to keep the Great Heathen Army, led by Ivar the Boneless. At the end of 870, the Danes arrived in his homeland, the year which followed has been called Alfreds year of battles
Battle of Brunanburh
The Battle of Brunanburh was fought in 937 between Æthelstan, King of England, and an alliance of Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin, King of Scotland, and Owen, King of Strathclyde. Olaf led Constantine and Owen in the alliance, in August 937, Olaf and his army crossed the Irish Sea to join forces with Constantine and Owen, and the invaders were routed in the subsequent battle against Æthelstan. The poem Battle of Brunanburh in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recounted that there were never yet as many people killed before this with swords edge, since from the east Angles and Saxons came up over the broad sea. Æthelstans victory prevented the dissolution of Englands unity, the historian Æthelweard, perhaps writing sometime around 975, said that he fields of Britain were consolidated into one, there was peace everywhere, and abundance of all things. The battle has been called the greatest single battle in Anglo-Saxon history before Hastings, the site of the battle is unknown, but scholars have proposed many possible locations.
He became King of England, and there was peace until 934, Æthelstan invaded Scotland with a large force, both ground and naval, in 934. Although the motivation for this invasion is uncertain, John of Worcester stated that the cause was Constantines violation of the treaty made in 927. Æthelstan evidently travelled through Beverley and Chester-le-Street, the army harassed the Scots up to Kincardineshire, and the navy up to Caithness. Following Æthelstans invasion of Scotland, it became apparent that he could only be defeated by a force of his enemies. The leader of the alliance was Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin, the other two members were Constantine II, King of Scotland, and Owen, King of Strathclyde. According to Paul Cavill, the invading armies raided Mercia, from which Æthelstan obtained Saxon troops as he travelled north to meet them, Michael Wood notes that no source mentions any intrusion into Mercia. John of Worcester wrote that the invaders entered via the Humber, because of the lack of sources supporting the claim, along with other issues, philologist Paul Cavill argues Johns statement is not true.
According to Symeon of Durham, Olaf had 615 ships, and it is possible, Livingston speculates, that the battle site at Brunanburh was chosen in agreement with Æthelstan, on which there would be one fight, and to the victor went England. Surviving documents that mention the battle include accounts from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the writings of Anglo-Norman historian William of Malmesbury, in Snorri Sturlusons Egils saga, the antihero, mercenary and skald, Egill Skallagrimsson, served as a trusted warrior for Æthelstan. The main source of information about the battle is the praise-poem Battle of Brunanburh in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, after travelling north through Mercia, Æthelstan, his brother Edmund, and the combined Saxon army from Wessex and Mercia met the invading armies and attacked them. In a battle lasted all day, the Saxons fought the invaders and finally forced them to break up. There was probably a period of hard fighting before the invaders were finally defeated. According to the poem, the Saxons split the shield-wall and hewed battle shields with the remnants of hammers, here lay many a warrior by spears destroyed, Northern men shot over shield, likewise Scottish as well, war sated
Edgar the Peaceful
Edgar I, known as Edgar the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 to 975. He was the son of King Edmund I and his Queen. Edgar was the son of Edmund I and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury, upon the death of King Edmund in 946, Edgars uncle, ruled until 955. Eadred was succeeded by his nephew, the son of Edmund, Eadwig was not a popular king, and his reign was marked by conflict with nobles and the Church, primarily St Dunstan and Archbishop Oda. In 957, the thanes of Mercia and Northumbria changed their allegiance to Edgar, a conclave of nobles declared Edgar as king of the territory north of the Thames. Edgar became King of England upon Eadwigs death in October 959, Dunstan remained Edgars advisor throughout his reign. While Edgar may not have been a particularly peaceable man, his reign was peaceful, the Kingdom of England was well established, and Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of his reign, England was sufficiently unified in that it was unlikely to back to a state of division among rival kingships.
Blackstone mentions that King Edgar standardised measure throughout the realm, the Monastic Reform Movement that introduced the Benedictine Rule to Englands monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Æthelwold, and Oswald. In 963, Edgar allegedly killed Earl Æthelwald, his rival in love, near present-day Longparish, the event was commemorated by the Dead Mans Plack, erected in 1825. Edgar was crowned at Bath and anointed with his wife Ælfthryth, Edgars coronation did not happen until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign. This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the symbolic coronation was an important step, other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the King of Scots and the King of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the kings liege-men on sea, chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgars state barge on the River Dee.
Such embellishments may not be factual, and what happened is unclear. Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, Hampshire and he left behind Edward, who was probably his illegitimate son by Æthelflæd, and Æthelred, the younger, the child of his wife Ælfthryth. Edgar had an illegitimate daughter by Wulfthryth, who became abbess of Wilton. She was joined there by her daughter, Edith of Wilton, both women were regarded as saints. Some see Edgars death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, E was extremely small both in stature and bulk
Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons believed that Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric, the two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule, cædwalla conquered Sussex and the Isle of Wight. His successor, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes, the throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew and it was during this period that the system of shires was established. Under Egbert, Sussex, Kent and Mercia and he obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830, during the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated.
When Æthelwulfs son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war, Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by his four sons, the youngest being Alfred the Great. Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, and Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave and they returned in 876, but were forced to withdraw. In 878 they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels, during his reign Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and was able to devote funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs. Alfreds son, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Edwards son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, and England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created the wealthy and powerful earldom of Wessex, modern archaeologists use the term Wessex culture for a Middle Bronze Age culture in this area. Although agriculture and hunting were pursued during this period, there is little archaeological evidence of human settlements.
During the Roman occupation numerous country villas with attached farms were established across Wessex, the Romans, or rather the Romano-British, built another major road that integrated Wessex, running eastwards from Exeter through Dorchester to Winchester and Silchester and on to London. The early 4th century CE was a time in Roman Britain. However, following a previous incursion in 360 that was stopped by Roman forces and they devastated many parts of Britain and laid siege to London. The Romans responded promptly, and Count Theodosius had recovered the land up to the Wall by 368, the Romans temporarily ceased to rule Britain on the death of Magnus Maximus in 388. Stilicho attempted to restore Roman authority in the late 390s, two subsequent Roman rulers of Britain, appointed by the remaining troops, were murdered
Kingdom of Northumbria
The Kingdom of Northumbria was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, which subsequently became an earldom in a unified English kingdom. The name reflects the southern limit to the kingdoms territory. Northumbria was formed by Æthelfrith in central Great Britain in Anglo-Saxon times, at the beginning of the 7th century, the two kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira were unified. At its height, the kingdom extended at least from just south of the Humber to the River Mersey, the earldom came about when the southern part of Northumbria was lost to the Danelaw. The earldom was bounded by the River Tees in the south, much of this land was debated between England and Scotland, but the Earldom of Northumbria was eventually recognised as part of England by the Anglo-Scottish Treaty of York in 1237. On the northern border, Berwick-upon-Tweed, which is north of the Tweed but had changed many times, was defined as subject to the laws of England by the Wales. The local Environment Agency office, located in Newcastle Business Park, the term is not the official name for the UK and EU region of North East England.
See also, List of monarchs of Northumbria and Timeline of Northumbria Northumbria was originally formed from the union of two independent kingdoms and Deira, Bernicia covered lands north of the Tees, while Deira corresponded roughly to modern-day Yorkshire. Bernicia and Deira were first united by Aethelfrith, a king of Bernicia who conquered Deira around the year 604. He was defeated and killed around the year 616 in battle at the River Idle by Raedwald of East Anglia, who installed Edwin, the son of Ælla, a former king of Deira, as king. Edwin, who accepted Christianity in 627, soon grew to become the most powerful king in England, he was recognised as Bretwalda and conquered the Isle of Man and Gwynedd in northern Wales. He was, himself defeated by an alliance of the king of Gwynedd, Cadwallon ap Cadfan. After Edwins death, Northumbria was split between Bernicia, where Eanfrith, a son of Aethelfrith, took power, and Deira, cumbria tended to remain a country frontier with the Britons. Both of these rulers were killed during the year that followed, after the murder of Eanfrith, his brother, backed by warriors sent by Domnall Brecc of Dál Riata and killed Cadwallon at the Battle of Heavenfield in 634.
He incorporated Gododdin lands northwards up to the Firth of Forth and extended his reach westward, encroaching on the remaining Cumbric speaking kingdoms of Rheged. Thus, Northumbria became not only part of modern Englands far north, King Oswald re-introduced Christianity to the Kingdom by appointing St. Aidan, an Irish monk from the Scottish island of Iona to convert his people. This led to the introduction of the practices of Celtic Christianity, a monastery was established on Lindisfarne. In 642, Oswald was killed by the Mercians under Penda at the Battle of Maserfield and this battle marked a major turning point in Northumbrian fortunes, Penda died in the battle, and Oswiu gained supremacy over Mercia, making himself the most powerful king in England
Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the fertile valley of the River Severn. The county town is the city of Gloucester, and other towns include Cheltenham, Stroud. Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe, Gloucestershire originally included Bristol, a small town. The local rural community moved to the city, and Bristols population growth accelerated during the industrial revolution. Bristol became a county in its own right, separate from Gloucestershire and it became part of the administrative County of Avon from 1974 to 1996. Upon the abolition of Avon in 1996, the north of Bristol became a unitary authority area of South Gloucestershire and is now part of the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. The official former postal county abbreviation was Glos, rather than the frequently used but erroneous Gloucs. or Glouc. In July 2007, Gloucestershire suffered the worst flooding in recorded British history, the RAF conducted the largest peace time domestic operation in its history to rescue over 120 residents from flood affected areas.
The damage was estimated at over £2 billion, the county recovered rapidly from the disaster, investing in attracting tourists to visit the many sites and diverse range of shops in the area. This is a chart of trend of gross value added of Gloucestershire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. Gloucestershire has mainly comprehensive schools with seven schools, two are in Stroud, one in Cheltenham and four in Gloucester. There are 42 state secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, all but about two schools in each district have a sixth form, but the Forest of Dean only has two schools with sixth forms. All schools in South Gloucestershire have sixth forms, each has campuses at multiple locations throughout the county. Most of the old market towns have parish churches, at Deerhurst near Tewkesbury, and Bishops Cleeve near Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the pre-Norman work they retain.
These are, adjudged to be of English workmanship, other notable buildings include Calcot Barn in Calcot, a relic of Kingswood Abbey. Thornbury Castle is a Tudor country house, the pretensions of which evoked the jealousy of Cardinal Wolsey against its builder, Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, near Cheltenham is the 15th-century mansion of Southam de la Bere, of timber and stone. Memorials of the de la Bere family appear in the church at Cleeve, the mansion contains a tiled floor from Hailes Abbey