Oswald of Worcester
Oswald of Worcester was Archbishop of York from 972 to his death in 992. He was of Danish ancestry, but brought up by his uncle, after a number of years at Fleury, Oswald returned to England at the request of his uncle, who died before Oswald returned. With his uncles death, Oswald needed a patron and turned to another kinsman and his activity for Oskytel attracted the notice of Archbishop Dunstan who had Oswald consecrated as Bishop of Worcester in 961. In 972, Oswald was promoted to the see of York, as bishop and archbishop, Oswald was a supporter and one of the leading promoters of Dunstans reforms of the church, including monastic reforms. Oswald founded a number of monasteries, including Ramsey Abbey, and reformed other seven, including Winchcombe in Gloucestershire and Pershore, Oswald switched the cathedral chapter of Worcester from secular clergy to monks. While archbishop, he brought the scholar Abbo of Fleury to teach, Oswald died in 992, while washing the feet of the poor. A hagiographical life was shortly after his death, and he was quickly hailed as a saint.
Oswald, of Danish parentage, was brought up by his uncle Oda, Archbishop of Canterbury and he was related to the cniht Osulf, who received land while Oswald was bishop of Worcester. Oswald was instructed by a Frankish scholar Frithegod and he held the office of dean of Winchester, but he was sent by his uncle to France and entered the monastery of Fleury about 950, where he was ordained in 959. While at Fleury he met Osgar of Abingdon and Germanus of Winchester, the influence of Fleury was to be evident in Oswalds life, when it was one of the inspirations for the Regularis Concordia, the English code of monastic conduct agreed to in 970. Oswald returned to England in 958 at the behest of his uncle, lacking a patron, Oswald turned to Oskytel, recently named Archbishop of York. It is possible that Oswald along with Oskytel travelled to Rome for Oskytels pallium, even if he did not travel to Rome, Oswald was active in ecclesiastical affairs at York until Dunstan obtained Oswalds appointment to the see, or bishopric, of Worcester.
He was consecrated as Bishop of Worcester in 961, soon after his consecration, he persuaded Germanus to come back to England and made him head of a small religious community near Westbury-on-Trym. This foundation at Ramsey went on to become Ramsey Abbey, Ramsey was Oswalds most famous foundation, with its church dedicated in 974. Later, Oswald invited Abbo of Fleury to come and teach at Ramsey, Oswald directed the affairs of Ramsey Abbey until his death, when the dean Eadnoth became the first abbot. He gave a magnificent Bible to Ramsey, which was important enough to merit a mention in Oswalds Life, alongside the gift of the book, Oswald contributed wall hangings and other textiles to the abbey. Oswald supported Dunstan and Æthelwold, Bishop of Winchester, in their efforts to purify the Church from secularism, aided by King Edgar, he took a prominent part in the revival of monastic discipline along the precepts of the Rule of Saint Benedict. His methods differed from Æthelwolds, who often violently ejected secular clergy from churches, Oswald organised the estates of his see into administrative hundreds known as the Oswaldslow, which helped stabilise the ecclesiastical revenues
Edgar, King of Scotland
Edgar or Étgar mac Maíl Choluim, nicknamed Probus, the Valiant, was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. He was the son of Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex. Edgar claimed the kingship in early 1095, following the murder of his half-brother Duncan II in late 1094 by Máel Petair of Mearns and his older brother Edmund sided with Donald, presumably in return for an appanage and acknowledgement as the heir of the ageing and son-less Donald. Rufus campaigned in northern England for much of 1095, and during this time Edgar gained control only of Lothian, a charter issued at Durham at this time names him. Son of Máel Coluim King of Scots, possessing the whole land of Lothian and the kingship of the Scots by the gift of my lord William, king of the English, and by paternal heritage. In any event, he did attend the court on occasion, on 29 May 1099, for example, Edgar served as sword-bearer at the great feast to inaugurate Westminster Hall. After William Rufuss death, Edgar ceased to appear at the English court, with Donald and Edmund removed, Edgar was uncontested king of Scots, and his reign incurred no major crisis.
Compared with his rise to power, Edgars reign is obscure, one notable act was his gift of a camel, presumably a souvenir of the First Crusade, to his fellow Gael Muircheartach Ua Briain, High King of Ireland. In 1098, Edgar signed a treaty with Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway, by ceding claims to the Hebrides and Kintyre to Magnus, Edgar acknowledged the practical realities of the existing situation. Edgars religious foundations included a priory at Coldingham in 1098, associated with the Convent of Durham, at Dunfermline Abbey he sought support from Anselm of Canterbury with his mothers foundation from which the monks of Canterbury may have been expelled by Domnall Bán. Edgar died in Edinburgh on 8 January 1107 and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey and childless, he acknowledged his brother Alexander as his successor. Edgars will granted David an appanage in Cumbria, and perhaps in parts of Lothian. David would be known as Prince of the Cumbrians There is an account of his death. According to this account, Edgar was killed by his uncle Donald III and this account reports, On the death of Malcolm, king of the Scots, great divisions rose among them, in reference to the succession to the crown.
Alexander, his brother, slew Donald, and ascended the throne, benjamin Hudson dismisses the story as completely false. But its existence points to the circulation of tales about the monarchs of the late 11th century. A son of the woman of the English, I think it is wretched, that his brother will kill him. The English woman is obviously Saint Margaret, the Anglo-Saxon consort of Malcolm III, but none of her children, male or female, are known to have been killed by one of their own siblings
Bishop of London
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers 458 km² of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the River Thames and a small part of the County of Surrey. The see is in the City of London where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Paul which was founded as a cathedral in 604 and was rebuilt from 1675 following the Great Fire of London. The bishops residence is The Old Deanery, Deans Court, previously, for over 1000 years, Fulham Palace was the residence although, from the 18th century, London House next to the Bishops Chapel in Aldersgate Street was where he had his chambers. The current and 132nd Bishop of London is Richard Chartres, who was installed on 26 January 1996 and it has been announced that Chartres is to retire effective Shrove Tuesday,28 February 2017. The diocesan bishop of London has had direct episcopal oversight in the Two Cities area since the institution of the London area scheme in 1979, according to sources, there had been 16 Romano-British bishops of London.
The location of Londiniums original cathedral is uncertain, in 1995, however, a large and ornate 4th-century church was discovered on Tower Hill, which seems to have mimicked St Ambroses cathedral in the imperial capital at Milan on a still-larger scale. This possible cathedral was built between 350 and 400 out of stone taken from buildings, including its veneer of black marble. It was burnt down in the early 5th century, following the establishment of the archdiocese of Canterbury by the Gregorian mission, its leader St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Saxon kingdom of Essex. Bede records that Augustines patron, King Æthelberht of Kent, built a cathedral for his nephew King Sæberht of Essex as part of this mission and this cathedral was constructed in London and dedicated to St Paul. The diocese was reduced in 1846, when the counties of Essex. The dates and names of early bishops are very uncertain. Diocese of London website Bishop of London refuses to ban gay Bishop from church service The papers of the Bishops of London covering 1423–1945 are held at Lambeth Palace Library
Rule of Saint Benedict
The Rule of Saint Benedict is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot. The spirit of Saint Benedicts Rule is summed up in the motto of the Benedictine Confederation, compared to other precepts, the Rule provides a moderate path between individual zeal and formulaic institutionalism, because of this middle ground it has been widely popular. The Rule of Saint Benedict has been used by Benedictines for fifteen centuries and his Rule was written as a guide for individual, autonomous communities, and to this day all Benedictine Houses remain self-governing. Advantages seen in retaining this unique Benedictine emphasis on autonomy include cultivating models of tightly bonded communities, perceived disadvantages comprise geographical isolation from important activities in adjacent communities. Other perceived losses include inefficiency and lack of mobility in the service of others, Christian monasticism first appeared in the Eastern Roman Empire a few generations before Benedict of Nursia, in the Egyptian desert.
Within a generation, both solitary and communal monasticism became very popular and spread outside of Egypt, first to Palestine, Saint Basil of Caesarea codified the precepts for these eastern monasteries in his Ascetic Rule, or Ascetica, which is still used today in the Eastern Orthodox Church. In time, setting an example with his zeal, he began to attract disciples, after considerable initial struggles with his first community at Subiaco, he eventually founded the monastery of Monte Cassino in 529, where he wrote his Rule near the end of his life. In chapter 73, Saint Benedict commends the Rule of Saint Basil and he was probably aware of the Rule written by Pachomius, and his Rule shows influence by the Rule of St Augustine of Hippo and the writings of Saint John Cassian. Chapter 3 ordains the calling of the brothers to council upon all affairs of importance to the community, Chapter 4 lists 73 tools for good work, tools of the spiritual craft for the workshop that is the enclosure of the monastery and the stability in the community.
These are essentially the duties of every Christian and are mainly Scriptural either in letter or in spirit, Chapter 5 prescribes prompt and absolute obedience to the superior in all things lawful, unhesitating obedience being called the first degree, or step, of humility. Chapter 6 recommends moderation in the use of speech, but does not enjoin strict silence, chapters 8-19 regulate the Divine Office, the Godly work to which nothing is to be preferred, namely the eight canonical hours. Detailed arrangements are made for the number of Psalms, etc. to be recited in winter and summer, on Sundays, Holy Days, Chapter 19 emphasizes the reverence owed to the omnipresent God. Chapter 20 directs that prayer be made with heartfelt compunction rather than many words and it should be prolonged only under the inspiration of divine grace, and in community always kept short and terminated at a sign from the superior. Chapter 21 regulates the appointment of a Dean over every ten monks, each monk is to have a separate bed and is to sleep in his habit, so as to be ready to rise without delay, a light shall burn in the dormitory throughout the night.
Chapters 31 and 32 order the appointment of officials to charge of the goods of the monastery. Chapter 33 forbids the possession of anything without the leave of the abbot. Chapter 34 prescribes a just distribution of such things, Chapter 35 arranges for the service in the kitchen by all monks in turn. Chapters 36 and 37 address care of the sick, the old, and they are to have certain dispensations from the strict Rule, chiefly in the matter of food
Edward the Martyr
Edward the Martyr was King of England from 975 until he was murdered in 978. Edward was the eldest son of King Edgar the Peaceful but was not his fathers acknowledged heir, Edward was chosen as king and was crowned by his main clerical supporters, the archbishops Dunstan and Oswald of Worcester. The great nobles of the kingdom, ealdormen Ælfhere and Æthelwine, Edwards short reign was brought to an end by his murder at Corfe Castle in 978 in circumstances that are not altogether clear. His body was reburied with great ceremony at Shaftesbury Abbey early in 979, in 1001 Edwards remains were moved to a more prominent place in the abbey, probably with the blessing of his half-brother King Æthelred. Edward was already reckoned a saint by this time, a number of lives of Edward were written in the centuries following his death in which he was portrayed as a martyr, generally seen as a victim of the Queen Dowager Ælfthryth, mother of Æthelred. He is today recognized as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church, Edwards date of birth is unknown, but he was the eldest of Edgars three children.
He was likely in his teens when he succeeded his father, Edward was known to be King Edgars son, but he was not the son of Queen Ælfthryth, the third wife of Edgar. This much and no more is known from contemporary charters, sources of questionable reliability address the identity of Edwards mother. The earliest such source is a life of Dunstan by Osbern of Canterbury, Osbern writes that Edwards mother was a nun at Wilton Abbey whom the king seduced. When Eadmer wrote a life of Dunstan some decades later, he included an account of Edwards parentage obtained from Nicholas of Worcester. Additional accounts are offered by Goscelin in his life of Edgars daughter Saint Edith of Wilton and in the histories of John of Worcester, together these various accounts suggest that Edwards mother was probably a noblewoman named Æthelflæd, surnamed Candida or Eneda—the White or White Duck. A charter of 966 describes Ælfthryth, whom Edgar had married in 964, as the lawful wife. Edward is noted as the kings son, Ælfthryth was the widow of Æthelwald, Ealdorman of East Anglia and perhaps Edgars third wife.
However, Barbara Yorke thinks that Æthelflæd was Edgars wife, but Ælfthryth was a consecrated queen when she gave birth to her sons, Æthelwold denied that Edward was legitimate, but Yorke considers this opportunist special pleading. Edmunds full brother Æthelred may have inherited his position as heir, on a charter to the New Minster at Winchester, the names of Ælfthryth and her son Æthelred appear ahead of Edwards name. When Edgar died on 8 July 975, Æthelred was probably nine, secular clergy, many of whom would have been members of the nobility, had been expelled from the new monasteries. While Edgar lived, he supported the reformers, but following his death. The leading figures had all been supporters of the reform, relations between Archbishop Dunstan and Bishop Æthelwold may have been strained
Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, England. Its ruins, a grade I listed building and scheduled ancient monument, are open as a visitor attraction, the abbey was founded in the 7th century and enlarged in the 10th. It was destroyed by a fire in 1184, but subsequently rebuilt. The abbey controlled large tracts of the land and was instrumental in major drainage projects on the Somerset Levels. The abbey was suppressed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII of England, the last abbot, Richard Whiting, was hanged and quartered as a traitor on Glastonbury Tor in 1539. From at least the 12th century the Glastonbury area has been associated with the legend of King Arthur, Christian legends have claimed that the abbey was founded by Joseph of Arimathea in the 1st century. In 1955 Ralegh Radfords excavations uncovered Romano-British pottery at the west end of the cloister, the abbey was founded by Britons and dates at least to the early-7th century. Dark Age occupation of the site is evidenced by pieces of wine jars that were imported from the Mediterranean.
A medieval Christian legend claimed that the abbey was founded by Joseph of Arimathea in the 1st century and this fanciful legend is intimately tied to Robert de Borons version of the Holy Grail story and Glastonburys connection with King Arthur from the early-12th century. Glastonbury fell into Saxon hands after the Battle of Peonnum in 658, saxons under Cenwalh of Wessex conquered Somerset as far west as the River Parrett, perhaps with the intention of gaining control of the abbey. Cenwalh allowed the British abbot, Bregored, to remain in power, after Bregoreds death in 669, he was replaced by an Anglo-Saxon, but British monks remained for many years. A glassworks was established at the site during the 7th century, Glastonbury was ravaged by the Danes in the 9th century. The contemporary reformed soldier Saint Neot was sacristan at Glastonbury before he founded his own establishment in Somerset, Dunstan became Archbishop of Canterbury in 960. In 967, King Edmund was interred at Glastonbury, in 1016 Edmund Ironside, who had lost England to Canute but held onto the title of King of Wessex, was buried there.
Cnuts charter of 1032 was written and promulgated in the church at Glastonbury. The medieval Glastonbury Canal was built about the middle of the 10th century to link the abbey with the River Brue, a distance of about 1.75 kilometres. Its purpose is believed to have been to transport stone to build the abbey, much of the building stone came from the abbeys quarries at Doulting, accessed by way of the River Sheppey at Pilton. In the 13th century, the head boatman transported the abbot in an eight-oared boat on visits to the abbeys nearby manors
Eadwig, spelled Edwy, usually called the All-Fair, was King of England from 955 until his premature death in 959. The elder son of King Edmund I and his Queen Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury, Eadwigs short reign was tarnished by disputes with nobles and men of the church, including Dunstan and Archbishop Oda. Eadwig died in 959, having ruled less than four years and he was buried in the capital Winchester. His brother Edgar the Peaceful succeeded him, according to one legend, the feud with Dunstan began on the day of Eadwigs consecration, when he failed to attend a meeting of nobles. When Dunstan eventually found the young monarch, he was cavorting with a noblewoman named Æthelgifu, infuriated by this, Dunstan dragged Eadwig back and forced him to renounce the girl as a strumpet. Later realizing that he had provoked the king, Dunstan fled to the apparent sanctuary of his cloister, though Dunstan managed to escape, he refused to return to England until after Eadwigs death. The contemporary record of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports Eadwigs accession and Dunstan fleeing England, the cavorting in question consisted of Eadwig being away from the feast with Ælfgifu and her mother Æthelgifu.
He married Ælfgifu, who seems to have been the sister of Æthelweard the Chronicler, Æthelweard describes himself as the grandsons grandson of King Æthelred I. Eadwig was the son of King Edmund the Magnificent, grandson of King Edward the Elder, great-grandson of King Alfred the Great, Eadwig and Ælfgifu were therefore third cousins once removed. The annulment of the marriage of Eadwig and Ælfgifu is unusual in that it was against their will, the Church at the time regarded any union within seven degrees of consanguinity as incestuous. At the time, degree was reached by counting up to the ancestor and back. Dunstan, whilst in exile, became influenced by the Benedictines of Flanders, a pro-Dunstan, pro-Benedictine party began to form around Athelstan Half-Kings domain of East Anglia and supporting Eadwigs younger brother Edgar. Frustrated by the impositions and supported by Archbishop Oda of Canterbury. In 957, rather than see the country descend into civil war, Eadwig is known for his remarkable generosity in giving away land.
In 956 alone, his sixty odd gifts of land make up around 5% of all genuine Anglo-Saxon charters, no known ruler in Europe matched that yearly total before the twelfth century, and his cessions are plausibly attributed to political insecurity. Eadwig died at an age in 959, in circumstances which remain unknown. He was succeeded by his brother Edgar the Peaceful, who reunited the kingdom, the history of Eadwigs reign caught the British imagination in the 18th century, and was represented in paintings and drama, in particular, by numerous works to 1850. Artists who tackled the subjects it suggested included William Bromley, William Hamilton, William Dyce, Richard Dadd, literary works were written by Thomas Sedgwick Whalley, Thomas Warwick and Frances Burney
Winchcombe is a Cotswold town in the local authority district of Tewkesbury, in Gloucestershire, England. Its population according to the 2011 census was 4,538, the Belas Knap Neolithic long barrow on a hilltop above Winchcombe, was constructed from about 3000 BC. Later, during Anglo-Saxon times, Winchcombe was a city of Mercia favoured by Coenwulf. Subsequently, during the 11th century, the town was briefly the county town of Winchcombeshire, the Anglo-Saxon saint St. Kenelm is believed to be buried in the town. It has been suggested however, that it was to the south of St Peters Church, in the Restoration period, Winchcombe was noted for cattle rustling and other lawlessness, caused in part by poverty. In an attempt to earn a living, local people grew tobacco as a cash crop, soldiers were sent in on at least one occasion to destroy the illegal crop. There is nothing left of the now-vanished Winchcombe Abbey, St Peters Church in the centre of the town is noted for its grotesques. The Michelin star restaurant 5 North Street is in Winchcombe, Winchcombe sits on six long-distance footpaths, The Cotswold Way, the Gloucestershire Way, the Wychavon Way, St Kenelms Trail, St Kenelms Way, the Wardens Way and the Windrush Way.
Winchcombe became a member of the Walkers are Welcome network of towns in July 2009, a bus service connects the town to Cheltenham, Broadway and further afield on special services. Winchcombe was once served by a line, a relative latecomer in British railway history. The line ran from Stratford-upon-Avon to Cheltenham and was part of a line from Birmingham to the South West. Winchcombe railway station and most others on the closed in March 1960. Through passenger services continued on line until March 1968. It was decided not to bring the back into use. The stretch between Toddington and Cheltenham Racecourse, including Winchcombe, has since been reconstructed and reopened as a railway called the Gloucestershire Warwickshire Railway. A new railway station has been erected at Winchcombe, on its original site, nearby is the 693 yard Greet Tunnel, the second longest on any preserved line in Britain. An electoral ward in the name exists. This ward stretches from Alderton in the north to Hawling in the south, the total ward population at the 2011 census was 6,295
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Edward Augustus Freeman
Edward Augustus Freeman was an English historian, architectural artist, liberal politician during the late-19th-century heyday of William Gladstone, and a one-time candidate for Parliament. After the marriage of his daughter Margaret to Evans, he and he was a prolific writer, publishing 239 distinct works. One of his best known is his magnum opus, the 6-volume The History of the Norman Conquest of England, both he and Margaret died before Evans purchased the land from which he would excavate the Palace of Knossos. Freeman was born at Metchley Abbey in Harborne, now a suburb of Birmingham and his parents, John Freeman and Mary Ann, used the Latin name of the month in which he was born as his middle name. They were a family of modest means, the grandfather, Joseph Freeman, had been a wealthy man. On his death, his will was disputed, and lawyers fees consumed the bulk of the estate, edwards father, the oldest son, and his two paternal uncles and Joseph, received little to sustain them. Mary Annes family still displayed the coat-of-arms given to them, the family was never in good health.
They delayed baptising Edward for a year, hoping to avoid exposure to contagious diseases. Emma died in 1826 when Edward was three years old, Freeman was educated at private schools and by a private tutor. Even as a boy, he was interested in matters, history. He won a scholarship to Trinity College, and a class in the degree examination. While at Oxford he was influenced by the High Church movement, and thought seriously of taking orders. He married Eleanor Gutch daughter of his tutor, the Reverend Robert Gutch, on 13 April 1847 at Segrave, England. He lived in Llanrumney Hall, Cardiff in the mid 19th century, Freeman bought a house called Somerleaze, near Wells and settled there in 1860. From 1886 Freeman was forced by ill health to spend much of his time abroad, in February 1892 he visited Spain in company with his wife and two younger daughters. He fell ill at Valencia on 7 March, but on the 9th went on to Alicante and he died at Alicante on the 16th, and was buried in the Protestant cemetery there.
He left two sons and four daughters, the inscription on his gravestone was written by his son-in-law Sir Arthur Evans. Freeman involved himself in politics, was a follower of Gladstone, and approved the Home Rule Bill of 1886, to enter Parliament was one of his ambitions, and in 1868 he unsuccessfully contested Mid-Somerset
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a government district. It is situated 61 miles south-west of London and 13.6 miles from Southampton, at the time of the 2011 Census, Winchester had a population of 45,184. The wider City of Winchester district which includes such as Alresford. Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age oppidum. Winchesters major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe. The city is home to the University of Winchester and Winchester College, the area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Orams Arbour, St. Catherines Hill, and Worthy Down all in the nearby vicinity. In the Late Iron Age, an urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum. It was overrun by the confederation of Gaulish tribes known as the Belgae sometime during the first century BCE and it seems to have been known as Wentā or Venta, from the Brittonic for town or meeting place.
After the Roman conquest of Britain, the settlement served as the capital of the Belgae and was distinguished as Venta Belgarum, Venta of the Belgae. Although in the years of the Roman province it was of subsidiary importance to Silchester and Chichester. At the beginning of the century, Winchester was given protective stone walls. At around this time the city covered an area of 144 acres, there was a limited suburban area outside the walls. Like many other Roman towns however, Winchester began to decline in the fourth century. Ford identifies the community as the Cair Guinntguic listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britains, amid the Saxon invasions of Britain, cemeteries dating to the 6th and 7th centuries suggest a revival of settlement. The city became known as Wintan-ceastre in Old English, in 648, King Cenwalh of Wessex erected the Church of SS Peter and Paul, known as the Old Minster. This became a cathedral in the 660s when the West Saxon bishopric was transferred from Dorchester-on-Thames, the citys first mint appears to date from this period.
In the early tenth century there were two new establishments, the convent of Nunnaminster, founded by Alfreds widow Ealhswith
Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859, Bath is in the valley of the River Avon,97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site in 1987, the city became a spa with the Latin name Aquæ Sulis c. AD60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre, the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the properties of water from the springs. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, and in the 18th century the city became fashionable, Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century. Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II, the city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a centre for tourism with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year.
There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, Victoria Art Gallery, Museum of East Asian Art, the city has two universities, the University of Bath and Bath Spa University, with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C. while TeamBath is the name for all of the University of Bath sports teams. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century, solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, and the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down, messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists. The tablets were written in Latin, and cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them, for example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, and a complex was built up over the next 300 years.
Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, in the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls, probably in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, in March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig