Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father and he captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of Æthelflæd, his sister. All but two of his charters give his title as Anglorum Saxonum rex, a title first used by his father, Alfred. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde and the rulers of Northumbria chose as father and lord in 920, Edwards cognomen the Elder was first used in Wulfstans Life of St Æthelwold to distinguish him from the King Edward the Martyr. Mercia was the dominant kingdom in southern England in the eighth century, thereafter the two kingdoms became allies, which was to be an important factor in English resistance to the Vikings. In 865 the Danish Viking Great Heathen Army landed in East Anglia, the East Anglians were forced to buy peace and the following year the Vikings invaded Northumbria, where they appointed a puppet king in 867.
They moved on Mercia, where spent the winter of 867–868. The following year, the Danes conquered East Anglia, and in 874 they expelled King Burgred, in 877 the Vikings partitioned Mercia, taking the eastern regions for themselves and allowing Ceolwulf to keep the western ones. The situation was transformed the following year when Alfred won a victory over the Danes at the Battle of Edington. He was thus able to prevent the Vikings from taking Wessex and western Mercia, although they still occupied Northumbria, East Anglia, Alfred the Great married his Mercian queen Ealhswith in 868. Her father was Æthelred Mucel, Ealdorman of the Gaini, and her mother and Ealhswith had five children who survived childhood. Their first child was Æthelflæd, who married Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, Edward was next, and the second daughter, Æthelgifu, became abbess of Shaftesbury. The third daughter, Ælfthryth, married Baldwin, Count of Flanders, and this would usually suggest that he was intended for the church, but it is unlikely in Æthelweards case as he had sons.
There were a number of children who died young. Æthelflæd was probably born about a year after her parents marriage, yorke argues that he was therefore probably nearer in age to Ælfthryth than Æthelflæd. However, he led troops in battle in 893, and he must have been of age in that year as his oldest son Æthelstan was born about 894. They were taught the courtly qualities of gentleness and humility, and Asser wrote that they were obedient to their father and this is the only known case of an Anglo-Saxon prince and princess receiving the same upbringing. As a son of a king, Edward was an ætheling, even though he had the advantage of being the eldest son of the reigning king, his accession was not assured, as he had cousins who had a strong claim to the throne
John of Worcester
John of Worcester was an English monk and chronicler who worked at Worcester Priory. He is usually held to be the author of the Chronicon ex chronicis, the Chronicon ex chronicis is a world wide history which begins with the creation and ends in 1140. The chronological framework of the Chronicon was presented by the chronicle of Marianus Scotus, a great deal of additional material, particularly relating to English history, was grafted onto it. In this view, the other Worcester monk, merely wrote the part of the work. However, there are two objections against the ascription to Florence. The prevalent view today is that John of Worcester was the principal author and he is explicitly named as the author of two entries for 1128 and 1138, and two manuscripts were written in his hand. He was seen working on it at the behest of Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester, the principal manuscript, working copy used by John. In addition, there is the chronicula, a minor chronicle based on the Chronicon proper, MS503, John may have shared a lost source with William of Malmesbury, whose Gesta regum anglorum includes similar material not found in other works.
Darlington, Reginald R. and P. McGurk, P. McGurk, the Chronicle of John of Worcester, The Annals from 450-1066. The Chronicle of John of Worcester, The Annals from 1067 to 1140 with The Gloucester Interpolations, florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis. Download available from Google Books Stevenson, J. Church Historians of England, the Chronicle of Florence of Worcester. The Chronicle of John of Worcester, 1118-1140, being the continuation of the Chronicon ex chronicis of Florence of Worcester, John of Worcester and his contemporaries. In The Writing of History in the Middle Ages, Essays Presented to R. W. Southern, Martin, monk of Worcester. In The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. Michael Lapidge, historical writing in England c.550 to 1307. Orderic Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica, ed. and tr, marjorie Chibnall, The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis
Most of the works for which he is best known were created while he was a patient in a psychiatric hospital. Dadd was born at Chatham, England, the son of a chemist and he was educated at Kings School, Rochester where his aptitude for drawing was evident at an early age, leading to his admission to the Royal Academy of Arts at the age of 20. He was awarded the medal for drawing in 1840. With William Powell Frith, Augustus Egg, Henry ONeil and others, he founded The Clique and he was trained at William Dadsons Academy of Art. Among his best-known early works are the illustrations he produced for The Book of British Ballads, and a frontispiece he designed for The Kentish Coronal. In July 1842, Sir Thomas Phillips, the mayor of Newport, chose Dadd to accompany him as his draftsman on an expedition through Europe to Greece, Southern Syria. In November of that year they spent a two weeks in Southern Syria, passing from Jerusalem to Jordan and returning across the Engaddi wilderness. His condition was initially thought to be sunstroke, on his return in the spring of 1843, he was diagnosed to be of unsound mind and was taken by his family to recuperate in the countryside village of Cobham, Kent.
In August of that year, having become convinced that his father was the Devil in disguise, Dadd killed him with a knife, en route to Paris, Dadd attempted to kill another tourist with a razor but was overpowered and arrested by police. Dadd confessed to killing his father and was returned to England and subsequently at the newly created Broadmoor Hospital, Dadd was cared for in an enlightened manner by Drs William Wood, William Orange and Sir W. Charles Hood. Dadd probably suffered from paranoid schizophrenia, two of his siblings were similarly afflicted, while a third had a private attendant for unknown reasons. Also dating from the 1850s are the 33 watercolour drawings titled Sketches to Illustrate the Passions, which include Grief or Sorrow, like most of his works these are executed on a small scale and feature protagonists whose eyes are fixed in a peculiar, unfocused stare. Dadd produced many shipping scenes and landscapes during his incarceration and these are executed with a miniaturists eye for detail which belie the fact that they are products of imagination and memory.
After 20 years at Bethlem, Dadd was moved to Broadmoor Hospital, here he remained, painting constantly and receiving infrequent visitors until 7 January 1886, when he died from an extensive disease of the lungs. A number of his works remain on display at Broadmoor, the Fairy Fellers Master-Stroke inspired a song of the same name by the British rock band Queen. The painting is an element in The Witches of Chiswick by Robert Rankin. The Wee Free Men, a novel by Terry Pratchett, published in 2003, was inspired by it as well. The Hum and the Shiver by Alex Bledsoe includes references to a lost version of the painting, the painting and the artist are referenced in Elizabeth Hands novel Mortal Love
For the playwright Frances Burney, niece of the novelist, see Frances Burney. Frances Burney, known as Fanny Burney and after her marriage as Madame dArblay, was an English satirical novelist and playwright. She was born in Lynn Regis, now Kings Lynn, England, on 13 June 1752, to the musician and music historian Dr Charles Burney and his first wife, Esther Sleepe Burney. The third of six children, she was self-educated and began writing what she called her scribblings at the age of ten, in 1793, aged 41, she married a French exile, General Alexandre DArblay. Their only son, was born in 1794, after a lengthy writing career, and travels during which she was stranded in France by warfare for more than ten years, she settled in Bath, where she died on 6 January 1840. Frances Burney was a novelist and playwright, in all, she wrote four novels, eight plays, one biography and twenty volumes of journals and letters. She has gained respect in her own right, but foreshadows such novelists of manners with a satirical bent as Jane Austen.
She published her first novel, anonymously in 1778, when the books authorship was revealed, it brought her almost immediate fame due to its unique narrative and comic strengths. She followed it with Cecilia in 1782, Camilla in 1796, all Burneys novels explore the lives of English aristocrats, and satirise their social pretensions and personal foibles, with an eye to larger questions such as the politics of female identity. The exception was Edwy and Elgiva, which unfortunately was not well received by the public, today critics are returning to her novels and plays with renewed interest in her outlook on the social lives and struggles of women in a predominantly male-oriented culture. Scholars continue to value Burneys diaries as well for their depictions of English society in her time. Her early novels were read and enjoyed by Jane Austen, whose own title Pride, william Makepeace Thackeray is reported to have drawn on the first-person account of the Battle of Waterloo, recorded in her diaries, while writing Vanity Fair.
Frances Burneys early career was affected by her relationship with her father. Many feminist critics thus see her as an author whose natural talent for satire was somewhat stifled by the pressures exerted on female authors of the age. But Burney persisted in writing despite the setbacks, when her comedies were poorly received, she returned to novel writing, and tried her hand at tragedy. She supported both herself and her family with the proceeds of her novels and The Wanderer. Frances was the child in a family of six. Her elder siblings were Esther and James, the younger Susanna Elizabeth, Charles, of her brothers, James became an admiral and sailed with Captain James Cook on his second and third voyages
History of Christianity in Britain
The history of Christianity in Britain covers the religious organisations, policies and popular religiosity since ancient times. The early history of Christianity in Britain is highly obscure, the Saxon invasions of Britain destroyed most of the formal church as they progressed, replacing it with a form of Germanic polytheism. There seems to have been a lull traditionally attributed to the Battle of Badon but, following the arrival of Justinians Plague around 547, by the time Cornwall was subjugated by Wessex at Hingston Down in 838, however, it was largely left to its native people and practices. Christianity was largely reintroduced to Britain by the Gregorian Mission, c. 600, early English Christian documents surviving from this time include the 7th-century illuminated Lindisfarne Gospels and the historical accounts written by the Venerable Bede. By the 11th century, the Normans had overrun England and begun the annexation of Wales, although John quickly reneged on his payments, Innocent thereafter took his side and roundly condemned the Magna Carta, calling it not only shameful and demeaning but illegal and unjust.
A major reform movement or heresy of the 14th century was Lollardy, led by John Wycliffe, posthumously condemned, his body was exhumed and burnt and its ashes thrown into the River Swift. Even before the Conquest, Edward the Confessor had returned from Normandy with masons who constructed Westminster Abbey in the Romanesque style, the cruciform churches of Norman architecture often had deep chancels and a square crossing tower, which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. England has many cathedrals, most notably York Minster, Durham Cathedral. After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174, Norman masons introduced the Gothic style and Cambridge began as religious schools in the 11th and 13th centuries, respectively. Henry VIII was named Defender of the Faith for his opposition to Luthers Reformation, a law passed the same year made it an act of treason to publicly oppose these measures, SS John Fisher and Thomas More and many others were martyred for their continued Catholicism.
Religious rebellions in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire in 1536, in Cumberland in 1537, laws in 1535 and 1542 fully merged Wales with England. For the next 150 years, religious policy varied with the ruler, Edward VI and his regents favored greater Protestantism, including new books of Common Prayer and Common Order. His sister Mary restored Catholicism after negotiations with the pope ended Romes claims to the church lands. The vicissitudes of the clergy during the period were satirized in The Vicar of Bray, Charles I provoked the Bishops Wars in Scotland and ultimately the Civil War in England. The victorious Long Parliament restructured the church at the 1643 Westminster Assembly, following the Restoration, onerous Penal Laws were enacted against nonconformists, including the Clarendon Code. The religious settlement of 1689 shaped policy down to the 1830s, the Church of England was not only dominant in religious affairs, but it blocked outsiders from responsible positions in national and local government, business and academe.
In practice, the doctrine of the right of kings persisted Old animosities had diminished. Restrictions on Nonconformists were mostly ignored or slowly lifted
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a government district. It is situated 61 miles south-west of London and 13.6 miles from Southampton, at the time of the 2011 Census, Winchester had a population of 45,184. The wider City of Winchester district which includes such as Alresford. Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age oppidum. Winchesters major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe. The city is home to the University of Winchester and Winchester College, the area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Orams Arbour, St. Catherines Hill, and Worthy Down all in the nearby vicinity. In the Late Iron Age, an urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum. It was overrun by the confederation of Gaulish tribes known as the Belgae sometime during the first century BCE and it seems to have been known as Wentā or Venta, from the Brittonic for town or meeting place.
After the Roman conquest of Britain, the settlement served as the capital of the Belgae and was distinguished as Venta Belgarum, Venta of the Belgae. Although in the years of the Roman province it was of subsidiary importance to Silchester and Chichester. At the beginning of the century, Winchester was given protective stone walls. At around this time the city covered an area of 144 acres, there was a limited suburban area outside the walls. Like many other Roman towns however, Winchester began to decline in the fourth century. Ford identifies the community as the Cair Guinntguic listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britains, amid the Saxon invasions of Britain, cemeteries dating to the 6th and 7th centuries suggest a revival of settlement. The city became known as Wintan-ceastre in Old English, in 648, King Cenwalh of Wessex erected the Church of SS Peter and Paul, known as the Old Minster. This became a cathedral in the 660s when the West Saxon bishopric was transferred from Dorchester-on-Thames, the citys first mint appears to date from this period.
In the early tenth century there were two new establishments, the convent of Nunnaminster, founded by Alfreds widow Ealhswith
New Minster, Winchester
The New Minster in Winchester was a royal Benedictine abbey founded in 901 in Winchester in the English county of Hampshire. Alfred the Great had intended to build the monastery, but only got around to buying the land and his son, Edward the Elder, finished the project according to Alfreds wishes, with the help of Saint Grimbald who became its first abbot. It stood so close to the Old Minster that the voices of the two merged with chaotic results. The body of King Alfred was transferred to the New Minster, Saint Grimbald joined him and it was given the body of the Breton Saint Judoc. Queen Emma added the head of Saint Valentine in 1041 and it became a Benedictine house in 963. Victoria County History of Hampshire, New Minster, or the Abbey of Hyde
Folklore is the body of expressive culture shared by a particular group of people, it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales and jokes and they include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations like Christmas and weddings, folk dances, each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next, for folklore is not taught in a formal school curriculum or studied in the fine arts. Instead these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration, the academic study of folklore is called folkloristics. To fully understand folklore, it is helpful to clarify its component parts and it is well-documented that the term was coined in 1846 by the Englishman William Thoms.
He fabricated it to replace the contemporary terminology of popular antiquities or popular literature, the second half of the compound word, proves easier to define as its meaning has stayed relatively stable over the last two centuries. Coming from Old English lār instruction, and with German and Dutch cognates, it is the knowledge and traditions of a particular group, the concept of folk proves somewhat more elusive. When Thoms first created this term, folk applied only to rural, frequently poor, a more modern definition of folk is a social group which includes two or more persons with common traits, who express their shared identity through distinctive traditions. Folk is a concept which can refer to a nation as in American folklore or to a single family. This expanded social definition of folk supports a view of the material, i. e. the lore. These now include all things people make with words, things they make with their hands, Folklore is no longer circumscribed as being chronologically old or obsolete.
The folklorist studies the traditional artifacts of a group and how they are transmitted. Transmission is a part of the folklore process. Without communicating these beliefs and customs within the group over space and time, for folklore is a verb. These folk artifacts continue to be passed along informally, as a rule anonymously, the folk group is not individualistic, it is community-based and nurtures its lore in community. As new groups emerge, new folklore is created… surfers, motorcyclists, in direct contrast to high culture, where any single work of a named artist is protected by copyright law, folklore is a function of shared identity within the social group. Having identified folk artifacts, the professional folklorist strives to understand the significance of these beliefs, for these cultural units would not be passed along unless they had some continued relevance within the group
Consanguinity is the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that aspect, consanguinity is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person, the laws of many jurisdictions set out degrees of consanguinity in relation to prohibited sexual relations and marriage parties. Rules of Consanguinity are used to determine heirs of an estate according to statutes that govern intestate succession, the Knot System is a numerical notation that defines consanguinity. Issues of consanguinity arise in several aspects of the law, Laws prohibiting incest govern the degree of kinship within which marriage or sexual intercourse is permitted. These are almost universally prohibited within the degree of consanguinity. Some jurisdictions forbid marriage between first cousins, while others do not, marriage with aunts and uncles is legal in several countries. Consanguinity is relevant to inheritance, particularly with regard to intestate succession, in general, the law favors inheritance by persons closely related to the deceased.
Some jurisdictions bar citizens from service on a jury on the basis of consanguinity with persons involved in the case, in many countries, laws prohibiting nepotism bar employment of, or certain kinds of contracts with, the near relations of public officers or employees. Under Roman civil law, which early canon law of the Catholic Church followed, in the ninth century the church raised the number of prohibited degrees to seven and changed the method by which they were calculated. Eventually the nobility became too interrelated to marry as the pool of non-related prospective spouses became smaller and they had to either defy the churchs position or look elsewhere for eligible marriage candidates. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council made what they believed was a change to canon law reducing the number of prohibited degrees of consanguinity from seven back to four. The method of calculating prohibited degrees was changed also, instead of the former practice of counting up to the common ancestor down to the proposed spouse, the new law computed consanguinity by counting back to the common ancestor.
After 1215 the general rule was that while fourth cousins could marry without dispensation, in fourteenth century England, for example, papal dispensations for annulments due to consanguinity were relatively few. The connotations of degree of consanguinity varies by context, most cultures define a degree of consanguinity within which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous. The rule is strict on the mothers side, where the limit is about four generations back. This rule does not apply to Muslims or other ethnic groups, islamThe category includes those one is forbidden to marry due to relationship of blood as well as some who are forbidden due to marital relations. And do not marry women whom your fathers married except what has already passed and it was indeed obscene, hateful and an evil way. And those already married except those whom your right hand possesses, and allowed for you are all besides these if you seek them with your property seeking chastity not fornication