Telegraph Hill (Hull, Massachusetts)
Telegraph Hill is a historic site in Hull, Massachusetts. The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976 and it is now part of Fort Revere Park. The site was first used as a fort in 1776 to defend the port of Boston, the first telegraph tower was built in 1827. Several other telegraph stations occupied the site until 1938, when radio communications made the site obsolete. In 1903, United States Government built a 120 foot high,25 foot diameter reinforced concrete tower to contain a 20-foot diameter,118, 000-gallon steel water storage tank to serve Fort Revere. Erected by the Hennebique Construction Company, the tower was one of the earliest concrete water towers in the United States and it had a secondary benefit as an observation tower for the Army. The tower was restored in 1975 was designated an American Water Landmark in 2003 and it was periodically open to the public until mid-2012 when it was closed due to safety concerns. National Register of Historic Places listings in Plymouth County, Massachusetts
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts, the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a district fall into one of two types of property and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th Century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a medical clinic. The contributing properties are key to a districts historic associations, historic architectural qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place, the ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street.
By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charlestons lead, an amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, which was charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans. The city passed an ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, the Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for the New Orleans laws and 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946. The National Park Service appears to refute this, in 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, which was the citys original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design, beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures.
The United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, by 1965,51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances. By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns, contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws, usually at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. It can be any property, structure or object that adds to the integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal. Definitions vary but, in general, they maintain the same characteristics, another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity
Fort Ticonderoga, formerly Fort Carillon, is a large 18th-century star fort built by the French at a narrows near the south end of Lake Champlain in northern New York in the United States. It was of importance during the 18th-century colonial conflicts between Great Britain and France, and again played an important role during the American Revolutionary War. The site controlled a river alongside the mouth of the rapids-infested La Chute River in the 3. The terrain amplified the importance of the site, the name Ticonderoga comes from the Iroquois word tekontaró, meaning it is at the junction of two waterways. During the 1758 Battle of Carillon,4,000 French defenders were able to repel an attack by 16,000 British troops near the fort, in 1759, the British returned and drove a token French garrison from the fort. Cannons captured were transported to Boston where their deployment forced the British to abandon the city in March 1776. The only direct attack on the fort took place in September 1777, the British abandoned the fort after the failure of the Saratoga campaign, and it ceased to be of military value after 1781.
It fell into ruin, leading people to strip it of some of its stone, metal. It became a stop on tourist routes of the area in the 19th century and its private owners restored the fort early in the 20th century. A foundation now operates the fort as a tourist attraction, the route was relatively free of obstacles to navigation, with only a few portages. Although the site provides commanding views of the extent of Lake Champlain, Mount Defiance, at 853 ft. Indians had occupied the area for centuries before French explorer Samuel de Champlain first arrived there in 1609, Champlain recounted that the Algonquins, with whom he was traveling, battled a group of Iroquois nearby. In 1642, French missionary Isaac Jogues was the first white man to traverse the portage at Ticonderoga while escaping a battle between the Iroquois and members of the Huron tribe and these colonial conflicts reached their height in the French and Indian War, which began in 1754. The next year saw the building of the four main bastions, work slowed in 1757, when many of the troops prepared for and participated in the attack on Fort William Henry.
The barracks and demi-lunes were not completed until spring 1758, the French built the fort to control the south end of Lake Champlain and prevent the British from gaining military access to the lake. The Joannes and Languedoc bastions overlooked the lake to the south, the walls were seven feet high and fourteen feet thick, and the whole works was surrounded by a glacis and a dry moat five feet deep and 15 feet wide. When the walls were first erected in 1756, they were made of squared wooden timbers, the French began to dress the walls with stone from a quarry about one mile away, although this work was never fully completed. When the main defenses became ready for use, the fort was armed with cannons hauled from Montreal, the fort contained three barracks and four storehouses
Fortification of Dorchester Heights
General William Howe, commander of the British forces occupying the city, considered contesting this act, as the cannon threatened the town and the military ships in the harbor. After a snowstorm prevented execution of his plans, Howe chose to withdraw from the city, the British forces, accompanied by Loyalists who had fled to the city during the siege, left the city on March 17 and sailed to Halifax, Nova Scotia. The siege of Boston began on April 19,1775, when, in the aftermath of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, on May 3, the Committee gave Arnold a colonels commission and authorized him to raise troops and lead a mission to capture the fort. Arnold, in conjunction with Ethan Allen, his Green Mountain Boys, after George Washington took command of the army outside Boston in July 1775, the idea of bringing the cannons from Ticonderoga to the siege was raised by Colonel Henry Knox. Knox was eventually given the assignment to transport weapons from Ticonderoga to Cambridge, historian Victor Brooks has called Knoxs feat one of the most stupendous feats of logistics of the entire war.
Early in the siege, on June 15, the British agreed on the plan of seizing both of these heights, beginning with those in Dorchester, which had a view of the harbor than the Charlestown hills. It was the leaking of this plan that precipitated events leading to the Battle of Bunker Hill, neither the British nor the Americans had the daring to take and fortify the heights, but both armies knew of its strategic importance in the war. By the end of February, Knox had arrived with the cannon from Ticonderoga, as had additional supplies of powder, Washington decided the time was right to act. Washington first placed some of the cannons from Ticonderoga at Lechmeres Point and Cobble Hill in Cambridge. These cannonades were repeated on the night of March 3, while preparations for the taking of the heights continued, on the night of March 4,1776, the batteries opened fire again, but this time the fire was accompanied by action. General John Thomas and about 2,000 troops quietly marched to the top of Dorchester Heights, hauling entrenching tools, hay bales were placed between the path taken by the troops and the harbor in order to muffle the sounds of the activity.
Throughout the night, these troops and their relief labored at hauling cannon and building earthworks overlooking the town, general Washington was present to provide moral support and encouragement, reminding them that March 5 was the sixth anniversary of the Boston Massacre. By 4 a. m. they had constructed fortifications that were proof against small arms, work continued on the positions, with troops cutting down trees and constructing abbatis to impede any British assault on the works. The outside of the works included rock-filled barrels that could be rolled down the hill at attacking troops, if Howe decided to launch an attack on the heights, Washington planned to launch an attack against the city from Cambridge. As part of the preparations, he readied two floating batteries and boats sufficient to carry almost 3,000 troops, washingtons judgment of Howes options was accurate, they were exactly the options Howe considered. Admiral Shuldham, commander of the British fleet, declared that the fleet was in danger unless the position on the heights was taken.
Howe and his staff determined to contest the occupation of the heights, notified of British movements, increased the forces on the heights until there were nearly 6,000 men on the Dorchester lines. However, a storm began late on March 5 and halted any chance of a battle for several days
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Siege of Boston
The Siege of Boston was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War. New England militiamen prevented the movement by land of the British Army garrisoned in what was the city of Boston. Both sides had to deal with supply and personnel issues over the course of the siege. British resupply and reinforcement activities were limited to sea access, after eleven months of the siege, the British abandoned Boston by sailing to Nova Scotia. The siege began on April 19 after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the Continental Congress formed the Continental Army from the militia, with George Washington as its Commander in Chief. Military actions during the remainder of the siege were limited to raids, minor skirmishes. In November 1775, Washington sent the 25-year-old bookseller-turned-soldier Henry Knox to bring to Boston the heavy artillery that had captured at Fort Ticonderoga. In a technically complex and demanding operation, Knox brought many cannons to the Boston area by January 1776, in March 1776, these artillery fortified Dorchester Heights, thereby threatening the British supply lifeline.
The British commander William Howe saw the British position as indefensible and withdrew the British forces in Boston to the British stronghold at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on March 17. Prior to 1775, the British had imposed taxes and import duties on the American colonies, parliament authorized Gage, among other actions, to disband the local provincial government. It was reformed into the Provincial Congress, and continued to meet, the Provincial Congress called for the organization of local militias and coordinated the accumulation of weapons and other military supplies. Under the terms of the Boston Port Act, Gage closed the Boston port, when British forces were sent to seize military supplies from the town of Concord on April 19,1775, militia companies from surrounding towns opposed them in the Battles of Lexington and Concord. At Concord, some of the British forces were routed in a confrontation at the North Bridge, the British troops, on their march back to Boston, were engaged in a running battle, suffering heavy casualties.
All of the New England colonies raised militias in response to this alarm and they particularly blocked the Charlestown Neck, and the Boston Neck, leaving only the harbor and sea access under British control. In the days following the creation of the siege line, the size of the colonial forces grew, as militias from New Hampshire, Rhode Island. General Gage turned his attention to fortifying easily defensible positions, in the south, at Roxbury, Gage ordered lines of defenses with 10 twenty-four pound guns. In Boston proper, four hills were quickly fortified and they were to be the main defense of the city. Over time, each of these hills were strengthened, Gage decided to abandon Charlestown, removing the beleaguered forces to Boston