The Workers and Peasants Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution, the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. The Red Army is credited as being the land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II. During operations on the Eastern Front, it fought 75%–80% of the German land forces deployed in the war, inflicting the vast majority of all German losses and ultimately capturing the German capital. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote, There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, at the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters,1.8 million dead,5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners and he estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million.
Therefore, the Council of Peoples Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918 and they envisioned a body formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes. All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible, in the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary. Because the Red Army was composed mainly of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations, some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army, along with some women, flooded the recruitment centres. If they were turned away they would collect scrap metal and prepare care-packages, in some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy, Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for war, Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as peoples commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars, at a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked, We have no army.
The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies and we have no power to stay the enemy, only an immediate signing of the peace treaty will save us from destruction. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledins Volunteer Army in the River Don region, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics. The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, a series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. The Whites defeated the Red Army on each front, Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked, the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchaks army in June, and the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-November the White armies were all almost completely exhausted, in January 1920, Budennys First Cavalry Army entered Rostov-on-Don. 1919 to 1923 At the wars start, the Red Army consisted of 299 infantry regiments, Civil war intensified after Lenin dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and the Soviet government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, removing Russia from the Great War
4th Ukrainian Front
The 4th Ukrainian Front was a front of the Red Army during World War II. It was formed on October 20,1943 by renaming the Southern Front, the fronts first operations were the Lower Dnieper Strategic Offensive Operation and the Kiev Strategic Offensive and Kiev Strategic Defensive operations. 5th Shock Army and 28th Army were part of the Front at the time, 18th Army served with the front in 1944 and 1945. On 25 August 1945 the front was disbanded and elements incorporated into the Carpathian Military District
2nd Belorussian Front
The 2nd Belorussian Front was a military formation of Army group size of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. Soviet army groups were known as Fronts, the 2nd Belorussian Front was created in February 1944 as the Soviets pushed the Germans back towards Byelorussia. General Colonel Pavel Kurochkin became its first commander, in hiatus in April 1944, its headquarters was reformed from the army headquarters of the disbanding 10th Army. On 2 January 1944 2BF entered the former Polish territories, on 26 June 1944 the Fronts forces captured Mogilev in the Mogilev Offensive. On 9 July The 2BF attacks northwest from Vitebsk as part of a major Soviet offensive east of Riga towards Rezekne in order to cut off the German Army Group North, on 29 July Soviets reach the coast cutting Army Group North off in Estonia and Eastern Latvia. On 13 September 2BF captured Łomża, west of Białystok, in November 1944 Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky was appointed commander of 2BF just in time for its last two great offensives of World War II.
As part of a attack by four Fronts on 14 January 1945 2BF attacked East Prussia. 10 January 2BF attacked towards Neustett but was halted by German counterattacks,14 January 2BF attacks East Prussia. 24 January 1st and 2nd Belorussian Fronts attack in Pomerania,27 February Elements of the 2BF enter Pomerania 28 February 2BF captured Neustettin. 30 March Soviet troops finally capture Danzig,20 April 2BF offensive across the lower Oder towards Neubrandenburg, Stralsund,25 April 2BF, seized a large bridgehead on the Oder River south of Stettin forcing the centre of the III Panzer Army back to Prenzlau. 27 April 2BF captures Prenzlau and Angermünde 70 km northwest of Berlin 5 May elements of the 2BF entered Peenemunde, on 9 April 1945 Königsberg in East Prussia finally fell to the Red Army. This freed up 2BF to move west to the east bank of the Oder river, during the first two weeks of April the Soviets performed their fastest Front redeployment of the war. General Georgy Zhukov concentrated his 1st Belorussian Front which had been deployed along the Oder river from Frankfurt in the south to the Baltic, the 2BF moved into the positions being vacated by the 1BF north of the Seelow Heights.
While this redeployment was in progress gaps were left in the lines, on 20 April the 2BF join in the attack. The Headquarters of the 2nd Byelorussian Front become the Headquarters of the Northern Group of Forces, most of the NGFs forces were drawn from 2nd Belorussian Front, along with some elements of the 1st Byelorussian and 1st Ukrainian Fronts. Battle for Berlin, April – May 1945, http, //www. historyofwar. org/articles/battles_berlin. html
The Leningrad Front was formed during the 1941 German approach on Leningrad by dividing the Northern Front into the Leningrad Front and Karelian Front on August 27,1941. The Leningrad Front was immediately given the task of containing the German drive towards Leningrad, by September 1941, German forces to the south were effectively stopped on the outskirts of Leningrad, initiating the two-and-a-half-year-long Siege of Leningrad. Although Finnish forces to the north stopped at the old Finnish–Soviet border, from September 8, soldiers of the front were forced to conduct operations under the conditions of a blockade, with very little supply. Some supplies did reach the city however via the lake Road of Life, during the blockade, the front executed various offensive and defensive operations, until finally with the help of the Baltic and Volkhov Front, the blockade was lifted. From June 1942, Leonid Govorov had been the commander of the front, in mid and late-January 1944 the Leningrad front, along with the Volkhov Front, the 1st Baltic Front and the 2nd Baltic Front, pushed back Army Group North and broke the 28-month-long blockade.
Several days later, these forces would completely liberate all of the Leningrad Oblast, six months later, the Leningrad Front took over the town of Narva. On April 21,1944, parts of the Leningrad front were broken off to create the 3rd Baltic Front, in June 1944, the Leningrad front, along with the Baltic fleet had successfully carried out the Vyborg operation. As a result of which, Finland would leave the German side of the war, from September–November 1944, the front participated in the Baltic Offensive, it advanced in the Narva-Tartu direction, and towards Tallinn. Following the capture of continental Estonia, elements of the front, along with the Baltic fleet and these were the last offensive operations of the front. Forces of the Leningrad Front were stationed on the Soviet-Finnish border, the Leningrad front was reinforced with elements of the recently disbanded 2nd Baltic Front. On June 24,1945, the Leningrad front was reorganized into the Leningrad Military District, continuation War#Trench warfare 1942-1943 Любанская операция
Northern Front (Soviet Union)
The Northern Front was a front of the Red Army during the Second World War. The Northern Front was created on June 24,1941 from the Leningrad Military District and its primary goal was the defense of the Kola Peninsula and the northern shores of the Gulf of Finland. On August 23,1941, the Fronts forces were divided into the Karelian Front, Lieutenant General Markian M. Popov commanded the Front for the three months of its existence. The Fronts major force structure was based on the 7th Army, 14th Army, 23rd Armies, separate 7th Army with its commander Lieutenant General Filip D. Garelenko responsible for the Defence Sector No. In fact the Stavka had determined the Army had four sectors in its responsibility, 277th separate machinegun-artillery battalion around Ropsha 83rd separate machinegun-artillery battalion around Ropsha and Kolpino 65th Rifle Corps was a separate Corps which covered the No. 1st Mechanised Corps less 1st Tank Division which was concentrated around Sluttsk, 191st and 177th Rifle Divisions that remained at cadre strength awaiting mobilisation.
Glantz, Stumbling Colossus,1998, Appendix A
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Polands Defence Minister. Rokossovsky was born in Warsaw, part of Congress Poland under Russian rule and his family had moved to Warsaw following the appointment of his father as the inspector of the Warsaw Railways. The Rokossovsky family were members of the Polish nobility, and over generations had produced many cavalry officers, Konstantins father, Ksawery Wojciech Rokossowski, was a railway official in the Russian empire and his Belarusian mother Antonina Ovsyannikova was a teacher. Orphaned at 14, Rokossovsky earned a living by working in a stocking factory, in 1911, he became an apprentice stonemason. Much in his life, the government of Peoples Republic of Poland used this fact for propaganda and he was wounded twice during the war and awarded the Cross of St George. In 1917, he joined the Bolshevik Party and soon thereafter, Rokossovsky received Soviet Russias highest military decoration at the time, the Order of the Red Banner.
In 1921 he commanded the 35th Independent Cavalry Regiment stationed in Irkutsk and played an important role in bringing Damdin Sükhbaatar, Rokossovsky was again wounded, this time in the leg. The combined Mongol and Soviet forces soon thereafter captured Ulaanbaatar and it was in Mongolia that he met his wife Julia Barminan, a high school teacher who was fluent in four languages and who had studied Greek mythology, whom he married in 1923. Their daughter Ariadna was born in 1925, in 1924 and 1925 he attended the Leningrad Higher Cavalry School, where he first met Georgy Zhukov. He returned to Mongolia, where he was a trainer for the Mongolian Peoples Army, both became principal actors in his life during World War II, where he served directly under both at different times. Often demonstrates initiative and skillfully applies it, demanding and persistent in his demands. A somewhat ungracious and not sufficiently sympathetic person, broadly experienced as a military leader. Absolutely cannot be used in staff or teaching jobs because constitutionally he hates them, Rokossovsky was among the first to realize the potential of armoured assault.
He was a supporter of the creation of a strong armoured corps for the Red Army. Rokossovsky held senior commands until August 1937 when he caught up in Joseph Stalins Great Purge. Tchaikovsky who, like Rokossovsky, served in the far east in the early 1930s and he described Rokossovskys refusal to sign a false confession, Those who refused to sign a false statement were beaten up, as long as the false statement was not signed. There were steadfast people who stubbornly did not sign, K. K. Rokossovsky, as he sat with me in the same cell did not sign a false statement. But he was a brave and strong man and broad-shouldered, but my grandfather knew very well that Yushkevich died in Perekop
1st Guards Army (Soviet Union)
The 1st Guards Army was a Soviet field army that fought on the Eastern Front during World War II. On August 6,1942, the formed from the 2nd Reserve Army with five Guards Rifle Divisions. On August 9, the army was incorporated into Southeastern Front, on August 18, it was transferred to the Stalingrad Front. During the German Sixth Armys assault on Stalingrad in August 1942, the 1st Guards Army and the 24th Army launched the attack. The 1st Guards Army managed an advance of just a few miles, on October 16,1942, the headquarters of the army transferred into Stavka reserve and its troops transferred to the 24th Army. On 25 October 1942 the army was disbanded, its headquarters was converted to the management of the 2nd formation of Southwestern Front according to the Stavka directive of 22 October 1942. Lieutenant General Filipp Ivanovich Golikov Guard Major General Artillery Kirill Semenovich Moskalenko Guard Major General Ivan Mikhailovich Chistyakov, on November 5,1942, 1st Guards Army was reformed from 63rd Army according to the Stavka directive of November 1.
The army was a part of Southwestern Front, when the German troops were making their attack on Stalingrad, the First Guards Army was facing the Italian Eighth Army in the upper part of the Don River. The Army participated in Stalingrad strategic offensive Operation Uranus, as the right flank of the front shock group, 1st Guards Army with 5th Tank Army created the appearance of the Stalingrad encirclement boiler. On December 5,1942, 1st Guards Army is split, the 1st Guards Army was created on December 8,1942, according to the Stavka directive of December 5,1942. The troops of the army was formed from the part of the group of Southwestern Front. After the German relief operation was held, the 1st Guards Army, along with the 6th Army and 3rd Guards Army, during the operation the Soviets defeated the Italian Eighth Army and gained a respectable amount of territory. By the end of the year, the 1st Guards Army was outside Millerovo, the 1st Guards Army took part in Operation Saturn, where the Red Army successfully drove back Army Group South to the Donets Basin in the Ukraine.
The 1st Guards Army was part of the Soviet Southwestern Front, also, in 1943, the 1st Guards Army was the first unit of the soviet army to operate the new T-34/85 tank. Among its units when the war ended in 1945 was the 81st Rifle Division, in August, the 1st Guards Army became the headquarters of the Kiev Military District. Lieutenant-General, and from May 1943, Colonel-General Vasily Ivanovich Kuznetsov Colonel-General Andrei Antonovich Grechko, in July 1958, the 1st Separate Combined Arms Army was moved from its headquarters in Budapest to Chernigov and renamed the 1st Combined Arms Army. The 1st Combined Arms Army was subordinated to the Kiev Military District and in 1960 consisted of the 72nd, 81st and 115th Guards Motor Rifle Divisions, as well as the 35th Guards Tank Division. On 5 October 1967, it was renamed the 1st Guards Combined Arms Army at the request of Defence Minister Grechko, on 22 February 1968, it was awarded the Order of the Red Banner
1st Ukrainian Front
The 1st Ukrainian Front was a front—a force the size of a Western Army group—of the Soviet Unions Red Army during the Second World War. On October 20,1943 the Voronezh Front was renamed to the 1st Ukrainian Front and this name change reflected the westward advance of the Red Army in its campaign against the German Wehrmacht, leaving Russia behind and moving into Ukraine. The front participated or conducted battles in Ukraine, Germany, during 1944, the front participated with other fronts in the battles of Korsun-Shevchenkivskyy, and the battle of Hubes Pocket in Ukraine. It took part in the battle for Ternopil, in 1945 the front participated in the Vistula-Oder offensive, and conducted the Silesian and Prague Operations, and the siege of Breslau. It participated in the Berlin operations in Germany and Poland, the front conducted the major part of the Halbe Encirclement, in which most of the German 9th Army was destroyed south of Berlin. By this time the Polish Second Army was operating as part of the Front, finally 1st Ukrainian Front provided the defence against the counter-attacks by Armee Wenck which aimed to relieve Berlin and the 9th Army.
The Prague Offensive was the battle of World War II in Europe. Following the war, the Front headquarters formed the Central Group of Forces of the Red Army in Austria and Hungary, 5th Guards Army 2nd Polish Army 52nd Army 4th Guards Tank Army 28th Army 31st Army 3rd Guards Army Konev, I. S. Das Jahr 1945 Ziemke, E. F. Stalingrad to Berlin Tissier, Tony Slaughter at Halbe Duffy, Christopher Red Storm on the Reich Antill, battle for Berlin, April – May 1945