Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein
Hans-Adam II is the reigning Prince of Liechtenstein. He is the son of Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein and he bears the titles Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf, and Count Rietberg. Prince Hans-Adam was born on 14 February 1945 in Zürich, Switzerland as the eldest son of Prince Franz Joseph II and Princess Gina of Liechtenstein. His father had succeeded as Prince of Liechtenstein upon the death of his childless grand-uncle, Prince Franz I, in 1938, in 1969, Hans-Adam graduated from the University of St. Gallen with a Licentiate in Business and Economic Studies. Hans-Adam formally succeeded as Prince of Liechtenstein upon the death of his father on 13 November 1989, a referendum to adopt Hans-Adams revision of the constitution to expand his powers passed in 2003. Legally, Hans-Adam remains Head of State, in July 2012 the people of Liechtenstein overwhelmingly rejected a proposal to curtail the political power of the princely family. Despite an almost year-long campaign by those who proposed the changes, who serve on a part-time basis, rose in the princes defence on 23 May, voting 18 to 7 against the citizens initiative.
The prince had threatened to quit the country if the 2003 referendum did not result in his favor and he owns an extensive art collection, much of which is displayed for the public at the Liechtenstein Museum in Vienna. Hans-Adam descends in the male line from three of the previous fourteen Princes of Liechtenstein, and from another three in the female line. His native language is German, but he is fluent in English. Their official residence is at Vaduz Castle, which overlooks the capital. D. St. V, nordgau Prag Stuttgart, a Catholic students fraternity that is a member of the Cartellverband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen. The Prince donated $12 million in 2000 to found the Liechtenstein Institute on Self-determination at Princeton Universitys Woodrow Wilson School of Public, in his childhood he joined the Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins in Vaduz. He is a member of the Viennese Scout Group Wien 16-Schotten. He is a member of the World Scout Foundation, today he and his wife are patrons of Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins.
He is the 1, 305th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Austria, Prince Hans-Adam II has written the political treatise The State in the Third Millennium, which was published in late 2009. In it, he argues for the importance of the nation-state as a political actor. He makes the case for democracy as the best form of government, which he sees China and Russia as transitioning towards although the path will be difficult for these nations. He declared his role in a family as something that has legitimacy only from the assent of the people. ”In an interview, recorded in November 2010, Hans-Adam said that he saw certain problems with aspects of the US Constitution
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito, born Josip Broz, was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II he was the leader of the Partisans, while his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, some historians consider him a benevolent dictator. He was a public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. He gained further attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, working with Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt. He was General Secretary of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, and went on to lead the World War II Yugoslav guerrilla movement, after the war, he was the Prime Minister, President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. From 1943 to his death in 1980, he held the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia, serving as the commander of the Yugoslav military.
With a highly favourable reputation abroad in both Cold War blocs, Josip Broz Tito received some 98 foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honour, Josip Broz was born to a Croat father and Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Croatia. Drafted into military service, he distinguished himself, becoming the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Army of that time, after being seriously wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during World War I, Josip was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains. He participated in the October Revolution, and joined a Red Guard unit in Omsk, upon his return home, Broz found himself in the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. Tito was the architect of the second Yugoslavia, a socialist federation that lasted from 1943 to 1991–92. Tito was a backer of independent roads to socialism, in 1951 he implemented a self-management system that differentiated Yugoslavia from other socialist countries.
A turn towards a model of market socialism brought economic expansion in the 1950s and 1960s and his internal policies included the suppression of nationalist sentiment and the promotion of the brotherhood and unity of the six Yugoslav nations. He remains a figure in the Balkans. He was the seventh or eighth child of Franjo Broz and Marija née Javeršek and he was christened and raised as a Roman Catholic. His father, was a Croat whose family had lived in the village for three centuries, while his mother Marija, was a Slovene from the village of Podsreda, the villages were only 16 kilometres apart, and his parents had been married on 21 January 1891. Franjo Broz had inherited a 4. 0-hectare estate and a good house, despite his mixed parentage, Broz was considered an ethnic Croat. In July 1900, at the age of eight, Broz entered primary school at Kumrovec, as a result of his limited schooling, throughout his life he was poor at spelling
President of Yugoslavia
The President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, or the President of the Republic for short, was the head of state of that country from 14 January 1953 to 4 May 1980. Josip Broz Tito was the person to occupy the office. Broz was concurrently President of the Presidency of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, Broz was eventually declared president-for-life and with his death in 1980 the office was discontinued and the new office of President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia took its place. The 1946 constitution defined the government of Yugoslavia headed by a president as the highest administrative authority in the country, Broz served as Prime Minister during the entire period up to adoption of the new constitutional law in 1953. This law proclaimed the country to be a socialist republic and removed all references to a government, ministries. Instead it defined the office of President and the Federal Executive Council in place of the government, the President was to serve as both head of state and would preside over the FEC, a body of 30-40 members some of whom would be selected to be federal secretaries.
Broz moved from the position of Prime Minister to President on 14 January 1953 and was subsequently re-elected on 29 January 1954 and 19 April 19,1958, the 1963 constitution specifically gave Broz an unlimited number of terms. It defined a new office of President of the Federal Executive Council which would head that institution rather than the President. Broz could still convene the Federal Executive Council, remained head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces and he was re-elected by the Federal Assembly under this system again in 1963 and 1968. Constitutional amendments in 1971 created a new collective presidency consisting of republican representatives, the 1974 constitution gave the 82-year old Broz an unlimited mandate, making him president-for-life. It created a new rotating office of President of the Presidency which would take effect in the event of Brozs death, the sitting Vice President of the Presidency would succeed him in this case. This eventually occurred on 4 May 1980 when Lazar Koliševski became the first President of the Presidency upon Brozs death, President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia List of heads of state of Yugoslavia
National Council (Austria)
The National Council is one of the two houses of the Austrian Parliament and is frequently referred to as the lower house. The constitution endows the National Council far more power than the Federal Council, the National Council is where Austrias federal legislative authority is concentrated, for a bill to become federal law, it must be resolved upon by this chamber. Bills passed by the National Council are sent to the Federal Council for corroboration, if the Federal Council approves of the bill or simply does nothing for eight weeks, the bill has succeeded. In other words, the Federal Council does not have any power to prevent adoption of legislation. The approval of the National Council is required for most of the prerogatives of the Federal Assembly to be exercised. For example, motions to call for a referendum aimed at having the President removed from office by the electorate, only motions to impeach the President can be from the Federal Council. National Council elections are general elections, the nine regional electoral districts are subdivided into a total of 43 local electoral districts.
Political parties submit separate ranked lists of candidates for district, regional or local. They submit a federal-level list, votes cast are first counted within their local electoral districts. Since there are 43 local districts but 183 seats to fill, the number of votes required to win one seat is simply the number of votes divided by the number of seats assigned to the district in question. For example, if 150,000 votes are cast in a local district. If a party has scored 61,000 votes out of the 150,000 votes cast, since 60,000 votes would have been sufficient to win two seats,1000 votes are left unaccounted for by this first round of tallying. Any vote not accounted for on the level is dealt with on the regional level. Any vote not accounted for on the level either is dealt with on the federal level. The DHondt method is used to allocate any National Council seats remaining to be filled, in addition to voting for a party list, voters may express preference for one individual candidate. It is not possible, however, to vote for party X.
In practice, Austrias President plays no role in the administration, which is left to the Chancellor and Cabinet, which are dependent on the confidence of the National Council. While the President has the authority to dissolve a hostile National Council
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and is the ceremonial head of state of Japans system of constitutional monarchy. According to the 1947 constitution, he is the symbol of the State, in Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō, which means heavenly sovereign. In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, the Emperor of Japan is the only remaining monarch in the world reigning under the title of Emperor. The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing hereditary monarchy in the world, in the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, it is said that Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu. He acceded the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, the role of the Emperor of Japan has historically alternated between a largely ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1192, the Emperors of Japan have rarely taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees.
In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shoguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all power in the realm. His current status as a figurehead dates from the 1947 Constitution, since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō, Kōkyo, and is located on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries, the Emperors Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchies, the Emperor is not the nominal Chief Executive, article 65 of the Constitution explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader. The Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, the Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister. The Emperors powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions, article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government.
It stipulates that the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state, article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles, Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives, proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other documents as provided for by law
Hassan II of Morocco
King Hassan II,9 July 1929 –23 July 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He was the eldest son of Mohammed V, King of Morocco, there were several controversies during his lifetime. King Hassan was educated at the Imperial College at Rabat, and he was exiled to Corsica by French authorities on 20 August 1953, together with his father Sultan Mohammed V. They were transferred to Madagascar in January 1954, Prince Moulay Hassan acted as his fathers political advisor during the exile. Mohammed V and his family returned from exile on 16 November 1955, in the unrest of the same year, he led army contingents battling rebels in the mountains of the Rif. Mohammed V changed the title of the Moroccan sovereign from Sultan to King in 1957, Hassan was proclaimed Crown Prince on 19 July 1957, and became King on 26 February 1961, after his fathers death. Hassans conservative rule, one characterized by a human rights record. In Moroccos first constitution of 1963, Hassan II reaffirmed Moroccos choice of a multi-party political system, in 1965, Hassan dissolved Parliament and ruled directly, although he did not abolish the mechanisms of parliamentary democracy.
When elections were held, they were mostly rigged in favor of loyal parties. This caused severe discontent among the opposition, and protest demonstrations, a US report observed that Hassan appears obsessed with the preservation of his power rather than with its application toward the resolution of Moroccos multiplying domestic problems. In the early 1970s, King Hassan survived two assassination attempts, important guests, including the Belgian Ambassador Marcel Dupert, were placed under house arrest, and the King himself was taken to a small pavilion. Rabats main radio station was taken over by the rebels and broadcast propaganda stating that the King had been murdered, the coup ended the same day when royalist troops took over the palace in combat against the rebels. It was subsequently claimed by the Moroccan authorities that the cadets had been misled by senior officers into thinking that they were acting to protect the king. Allegedly, the King himself hurried to the cockpit, took control of the radio and shouted, Stop firing you fools, eight people were killed when the jets strafed the awaiting reception dignitaries.
General Mohamed Oufkir, Moroccos defense minister, was the man behind the coup and was declared to have committed suicide after the attack. His body, was found with bullet wounds. In the Cold War era, Hassan II allied Morocco with the West generally, there were close and continuing ties between Hassan IIs government and the CIA, who helped to reorganize Moroccos security forces in 1960. Hassan served as a channel between the Arab world and Israel, facilitating early negotiations between them
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shāhanshāh on 26 October 1967 and he was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi of the Iranian monarchy. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several titles, including that of Āryāmehr. His dream of the Great Civilization in Iran led to an industrial and military expansion as well as economic. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi came to power during World War II after an Anglo-Soviet invasion forced the abdication of his father, various additional controversial policies were enacted, including the banning of the communist Tudeh Party, and a general suppression of political dissent by Irans intelligence agency, SAVAK. According to official statistics, Iran had as many as 2,200 political prisoners in 1978, by 1979, political unrest had transformed into a revolution which, on 17 January, forced him to leave Iran.
Soon thereafter, the Iranian monarchy was abolished, and Iran was declared an Islamic republic led by Ruhollah Khomeini. Facing likely execution should he return to Iran, he died in exile in Egypt, whose President, due to his status as the last de facto Shah of Iran, he is often known as simply the Shah. Born in Tehran to Reza Pahlavi and his wife, Tadj ol-Molouk, Mohammad Reza was the eldest son of the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, Reza Shah. He was born with a sister, Ashraf Pahlavi. However, Mohammad Reza, Ali Reza, Reza Shah was always convinced that his sudden quirk of good fortune had commenced in 1919 with the birth of his son who was dubbed khoshghadam. Mohammad Reza described his father in his book Mission for My Country as one of the most frightening men he had ever known, depicting Reza Khan as a dominating man with a violent temper. Reza Khan often impressed on his son his belief that history was made by men such as himself. From women, and apparently from women alone that the future Shah received whatever psychological nourishment he was able to get as a child, male children were considered more preferable than females, and as a boy, Mohammed Reza was often spoiled by his mother and sisters.
Mohammed Reza was very close to his twin sister Ashraf as she noted, It was this twinship, no matter how I would reach out in the years to come-sometimes even desperately-to find an identity and a purpose of my own, I would remain inextricably tied to my brother. Always, the center of my existence was, and is, in 1973, Mohammad Reza told the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci, A king who does not need to account to anyone for what he says and does is unavoidably doomed to loneliness. However, I am not entirely alone, because a force others cant perceive accompanies me, I have lived with God besides me since I was 5 years old. Since, that is, God sent me those visions, in his 1961 book Mission for My Country, Mohammad Reza wrote, From the time I was six or seven, I have felt that perhaps there is a supreme being, who is guiding me
Haile Selassie I,23 July 1892 –27 August 1975), born Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael, was Ethiopias regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974. He served as Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity from 25 May 1963 to 17 July 1964 and 5 November 1966 to 11 September 1967 and he was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty. At the League of Nations in 1936, the emperor condemned the use of weapons by Italy against his people during the Second Italo–Ethiopian War. His regime was criticized by rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch, as autocratic. Among the Rastafari movement, whose followers are estimated at two and four million, Haile Selassie is revered as the returned messiah of the Bible. Beginning in Jamaica in the 1930s, the Rastafari movement perceives Haile Selassie as a figure who will lead a future golden age of eternal peace, righteousness. Haile Selassie was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian throughout his life and he is a defining figure in Ethiopian history. Haile Selassie died on 27 August 1975 at the age of 83, Haile Selassie was known as a child as Lij Tafari Makonnen.
Lij is translated as child, and serves to indicate that a youth is of noble blood and his given name, means one who is respected or feared. Like most Ethiopians, his personal name Tafari is followed by that of his father Makonnen and his Geez name Haile Selassie was given to him at his infant baptism and adopted again as part of his regnal name in 1930. As Governor of Harer, he known as Ras Teferi Makonnen listen. Ras is translated as head and is a rank of nobility equivalent to Duke, in 1916, Empress Zewditu I appointed him to the position of Balemulu Siltan Enderase. In 1928, she granted him the throne of Shoa, elevating his title to Negus or King, on 2 November 1930, after the death of Empress Zewditu, Ras Tafari was crowned Negusa Nagast, literally King of Kings, rendered in English as Emperor. Upon his ascension, he took as his regnal name Haile Selassie I, Haile means in Geez Power of and Selassie means trinity—therefore Haile Selassie roughly translates to Power of the Trinity. Haile Selassies full title in office was By the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of Kings of Ethiopia, Elect of God.
This title reflects Ethiopian dynastic traditions, which hold that all monarchs must trace their lineage to Menelik I, who was the offspring of King Solomon, to Ethiopians, Haile Selassie has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu Meri, and Abba Tekel. The Rastafari movement employs many of these appellations, referring to him as Jah, Jah Jah, Jah Rastafari, Haile Selassies royal line originated from the Amhara people, but he had Oromo, and Gurage roots. He was born on 23 July 1892, in the village of Ejersa Goro and his mother was Woizero Yeshimebet Ali Abba Jifar, daughter of the renowned Oromo ruler of Wollo province Dejazmach Ali Abba Jifar
Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal, KG KT GCVO GCStJ QSO GCL CD is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession, behind her mother – Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother and she rose to second after her mothers accession, but is currently 12th in line. Anne is known for her work, and is patron of over 200 organisations. Princess Anne has held the title of Princess Royal since 1987 and is its seventh holder, Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, they divorced in 1992. They have two children and three grandchildren, in 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mothers equerry between 1986 and 1989. Anne was born at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11,50 am, as the child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh. She was the grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, after the death of George VI, Annes mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II.
Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation, the Company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963, in 1968 she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. In the next couple of years, Anne started dating, in 1970 her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who became the first husband of Camilla Shand. Following the wedding and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park and he was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. By 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, the couple divorced on 23 April 1992. The Queen had offered Phillips an earldom on his wedding day, the couple had two children, Peter Phillips and Zara Phillips. As female-line descendants of royalty, the children have no title despite being the grandchildren of a monarch, Anne became a grandmother on 29 December 2010 when Peter and his wife Autumn had a daughter, Savannah.
On 29 March 2012, the couple had daughter, Isla. Annes third granddaughter, Mia Grace, was born on 17 January 2014 to Zara and her husband Mike Tindall. As Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, the driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistol
Monarchy of Sweden
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The Kingdom of Sweden has been a monarchy since time immemorial, Sweden in the present day is a representative democracy in a parliamentary system based on popular sovereignty, as defined in the current Instrument of Government. The monarch and the members of the Royal Family undertake a variety of official and other duties within Sweden. Carl XVI Gustaf became King on 15 September 1973 on the death of his grandfather, Sweden has been a kingdom since prehistoric times. Originally, the Swedish king had combined powers limited to that of a war chief, a judge, the Royal Court of Sweden, does count Olofs father as Swedens first king. The king was elected from a favored dynasty at the Stones of Mora. The ceremonial stones were destroyed around 1515 and that dynasty formed a pre-Kalmar Union Sweden into a strong state, and finally king Magnus IV even ruled Norway and Scania.
Following the Black Death, the union was weakened, and Scania was reunited with Denmark. In 1397, after the Black Death and domestic power struggles, Queen Margaret I of Denmark united Sweden, continual tension within each country and the union led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century. The unions final disintegration in the early 16th century led to prolonged rivalry between Denmark-Norway and Sweden for centuries to come. Catholic bishops had supported the King of Denmark, Christian II, Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden by the Estates of the Realm, assembled in Strängnäs on 6 June 1523. Inspired by the teachings of Martin Luther, Gustav I used the Protestant Reformation to curb the power of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1527 he persuaded the Estates of the Realm, assembled in the city of Västerås, to church lands. At the same time, he broke with the papacy and established a state church. Legally Sweden has only been a monarchy since 1544 when the Riksdag of the Estates, through Västerås arvförening.
Crown tax revenues increased, but more importantly the new system was perceived as fairer, a war with Lübeck in 1535 resulted in the expulsion of the Hanseatic traders, who previously had had a monopoly on foreign trade. With its own burghers in charge, Swedens economic strength grew rapidly, Sweden now built the first modern army in Europe, supported by a sophisticated tax system and an efficient bureaucracy. At the death of King Gustav I in 1560, he was succeeded by his oldest son Eric XIV and his reign was marked by Swedens entrance into the Livonian War and the Northern Seven Years War