Caning of Charles Sumner
The beating nearly killed Sumner and it drew a sharply polarized response from the American public on the subject of the expansion of slavery in the United States. It has been considered symbolic of the breakdown of reasoned discourse that led to the American Civil War. In 1856, during the Bleeding Kansas crisis, Sumner denounced the Kansas–Nebraska Act in his Crime against Kansas speech, delivered on May 19, Sumner attacked the authors of the Act, Senators Stephen A. For her his tongue is always profuse in words, in addition Sumner mocked Butlers speaking ability, which had been impeded by a recent stroke, touches nothing which he does not disfigure with error, sometimes of principle, sometimes of fact. He cannot open his mouth, but out there flies a blunder, according to Hoffer, It is important to note the sexual imagery that recurred throughout the oration, which was neither accidental nor without precedent. Abolitionists routinely accused slaveholders of maintaining slavery so that they could engage in sexual relations with their slaves.
Douglas said during the speech that this damn fool is going to get killed by some other damn fool. Representative Preston Brooks, Butlers cousin, was infuriated and he said that he intended to challenge Sumner to a duel, and consulted with fellow South Carolina Representative Laurence M. Keitt on dueling etiquette. Keitt told him that dueling was for gentlemen of social standing. Two days later, on the afternoon of May 22, Brooks entered the Senate chamber with Keitt and another ally and they waited for the galleries to clear, especially concerned that there be no ladies present to witness what Brooks intended to do. He confronted Sumner as he sat writing at his desk in the almost empty Senate chamber, Mr. Sumner, I have read your speech twice over carefully. It is a libel on South Carolina, and Mr. Butler, as Sumner began to stand up, Brooks beat Sumner severely on the head before he could reach his feet, using a thick gutta-percha cane with a gold head. The force of the blows so shocked Sumner that he lost his sight immediately, I no longer saw my assailant, nor any other person or object in the room.
What I did afterwards was done almost unconsciously, acting under the instincts of self-defense, Sumner was knocked down and trapped under the heavy desk, which was bolted to the floor. His chair, which was pulled up to his desk, moved back and forth on a track, Sumner either could not or did not think to slide his chair back to escape, so it pinned him under his desk. Brooks continued to strike Sumner until Sumner rose to his feet, by this time, Sumner was blinded by his own blood. He staggered up the aisle and, arms outstretched, vainly attempted to defend himself, but he was an even larger and easier target for Brooks, who continued to beat him across the head and shoulders to the full extent of power. Brooks didnt stop when his cane snapped, he continued thrashing Sumner with the piece which held the gold head, Sumner stumbled and reeled convulsively, Oh Lord, he gasped Oh
It ensued after South Carolina declared that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state. The US suffered an economic downturn throughout the 1820s, and South Carolina was particularly affected, many South Carolina politicians blamed the change in fortunes on the national tariff policy that developed after the War of 1812 to promote American manufacturing over its European competition. The controversial and highly protective Tariff of 1828 was enacted into law during the presidency of John Quincy Adams, the tariff was opposed in the South and parts of New England. By 1828, South Carolina state politics increasingly organized around the tariff issue and its opponents expected that the election of Jackson as President would result in the tariff being significantly reduced. In Washington, a split on the issue occurred between Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun, a native South Carolinian and the most effective proponent of the theory of state nullification.
On July 14,1832, before Calhoun had resigned the Vice Presidency in order to run for the Senate where he could effectively defend nullification, Jackson signed into law the Tariff of 1832. This compromise tariff received the support of most northerners and half of the southerners in Congress, military preparations to resist anticipated federal enforcement were initiated by the state. The South Carolina convention reconvened and repealed its Nullification Ordinance on March 15,1833, the crisis was over, and both sides could find reasons to claim victory. The tariff rates were reduced and stayed low to the satisfaction of the South, by the 1850s the issues of the expansion of slavery into the western territories and the threat of the Slave Power became the central issues in the nation. Later in the decade the Alien and Sedition Acts led to the states rights position being articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. ”The key sentence, and the word nullification was used in supplementary Resolutions passed by Kentucky in 1799.
He was chairman of a committee of the Virginia Legislature which issued a book-length Report on the Resolutions of 1798 and this asserted that the state did not claim legal force. The declarations in such cases are expressions of opinion, unaccompanied by other effect than what they may produce upon opinion, the opinions of the judiciary, on the other hand, are carried into immediate effect by force. But, the four presidential terms spanning the period from 1800 to 1817 did little to advance the cause of states’ rights and much to weaken it. ”Over Jefferson’s opposition, the power of the federal judiciary, led by Federalist Chief Justice John Marshall, increased. Jefferson expanded federal powers with the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory, opposition to the War of 1812 was centered in New England. Delegates to a convention in Hartford, Connecticut met in December 1814 to consider a New England response to Madison’s war policy, the debate allowed many radicals to argue the cause of states’ rights and state sovereignty.
In the end, moderate voices dominated and the product was not secession or nullification. After the conclusion of the War of 1812 Sean Wilentz notes, This spirit of nationalism was linked to the tremendous growth and economic prosperity of this post war era
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
Ostend Circular, was a document written in 1854 that described the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain while implying that the U. S. should declare war if Spain refused. Cubas annexation had long been a goal of U. S. slaveholding expansionists, at the national level, American leaders had been satisfied to have the island remain in weak Spanish hands so long as it did not pass to a stronger power such as Britain or France. The Ostend Manifesto proposed a shift in policy, justifying the use of force to seize Cuba in the name of national security. It resulted from debates over slavery in the United States, Manifest Destiny, and they met secretly at Ostend and drafted a dispatch at Aix-la-Chapelle. To Marcys chagrin, Soulé made no secret of the meetings, the administration was finally forced to publish the contents of the dispatch, which caused it irreparable damage. The dispatch was published as demanded by the House of Representatives, dubbed the Ostend Manifesto, it was immediately denounced in both the Northern states and Europe.
The Pierce administration suffered a significant setback, and the became a rallying cry for anti-slavery Northerners. The question of Cubas annexation was effectively set aside until the late 19th century, located 90 miles off the coast of Florida, Cuba had been discussed as a subject for annexation in several presidential administrations. He described Cuba and Puerto Rico as natural appendages to the North American continent—the formers annexation was indispensable to the continuance and integrity of the Union itself. As the Spanish Empire had lost much of its power, a no-transfer policy began with Jefferson whereby the U. S. respected Spanish sovereignty, the U. S. simply wanted to ensure that control did not pass to a stronger power such as Britain or France. Cuba was of importance to Southern Democrats, who believed their economic. As slavery-free Western states were admitted, Southern politicians increasingly looked to Cuba as the slave state. If Cuba were admitted to the Union as a single state, in the Democratic Party, the debate over the continued expansion of the United States centered on how quickly, rather than whether, to expand.
Even John C. likely referring to Britain, under orders from Polk, Secretary of State James Buchanan prepared an offer of $100 million, but sooner than see transferred to any power, would prefer seeing it sunk into the ocean. When Franklin Pierce took office in 1853, however, he was committed to Cubas annexation, at Pierces inauguration, he stated, The policy of my Administration will not be controlled by any timid forebodings of evil from expansion. To this end, he appointed expansionists to diplomatic posts throughout Europe, notably sending Pierre Soulé, whose appointment was an attempt to placate the Old Fogies. This was the term for the wing of the party that favored slow, in March 1854, the steamer Black Warrior stopped at the Cuban port of Havana on a regular trading route from New York City to Mobile, Alabama. When it failed to provide a cargo manifest, Cuban officials seized the ship, its cargo, while the matter was resolved peacefully, it fueled the flames of Southern expansionism
The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was an increased import tariff in the United States, adopted on March 2,1861, during the administration of President James Buchanan, a Democrat. It was named for its sponsor, Representative Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont, the passage of the tariff was possible because many tariff-averse Southerners had resigned from Congress after their states declared their secession. The Morrill Tariff raised rates to encourage industry and to high wages for industrial workers. Its supporters included Democrats and Americans, representatives of northern merchants and railroad interests, and spokesmen for southern farmers and planters. Opposition came largely from two groups, the iron manufacturers of Pennsylvania and the wool growers of New England. Two additional tariffs sponsored by Morrill, each one higher, were passed during Abraham Lincolns administration to raise urgently needed revenue during the Civil War. The Morrill tariff inaugurated a period of trade protection in the United States.
The schedule of the Morrill Tariff and its two successor bills were retained long after the end of the Civil War, a high tariff to encourage the development of domestic industry had been advocated for many years, especially by the Whig Party and its long-time leader Henry Clay. They enacted such a tariff in 1842, but in 1846 the Democrats enacted the Walker Tariff, the Democrats cut rates even further in the Tariff of 1857, which was highly favorable to the South. Meanwhile, the Whig Party broke up, and this element of the Whig program was taken up by the new Republican Party, some former Whigs from the Border States and upper South remained in Congress as Opposition, Unionist, or American members, they supported higher tariffs. The Panic of 1857 led to calls for protectionist tariff revision, well-known economist Henry C. Carey blamed the Panic on the Tariff of 1857. His opinion was circulated in the high tariff media. Efforts to revise the tariff schedules upward began in earnest in the 35th Congress of 1857–1859, two proposals were submitted in the House.
House Ways and Means Committee chairman John S. Phelps (D-Missouri wrote the Democrats plan, minority Ways and Means members Morrill and Henry Winter Davis produced the Republican proposal, an upward revision of the tariff schedule. Economic historian Frank Taussig argued that in cases, the substitution of specific duties was used to disguise the extent of the rate increases. Specific rates made such subterfuge pointless, the House took no action on either tariff bill during the 35th Congress. When the 36th Congress met in 1859, action remained blocked by a wrangle over the Speaker of the House until 1860, a pro-tariff Republican majority was appointed to Ways and Means, and John Sherman of Ohio became chairman. The Morrill bill was passed out of committee and brought up for a floor vote near the end of first session of the Congress, the vote was on May 10,1860, the bill passed by a vote of 105 to 64
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Toms Cabin, or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War, the sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. Uncle Toms Cabin was the novel of the 19th century. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s, in the first year after it was published,300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States, one million copies in Great Britain. In 1855, three years after it was published, it was called the most popular novel of our day, to affirm the role of literature as an agent of social change. The book and the plays it inspired helped popularize a number of stereotypes about black people and these include the affectionate, dark-skinned mammy, the pickaninny stereotype of black children, and the Uncle Tom, or dutiful, long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress.
In recent years, the associations with Uncle Toms Cabin have, to an extent. Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Seminary and an active abolitionist, wrote the novel as a response to the passage, in 1850, of the second Fugitive Slave Act. Much of the book was composed in Brunswick, where her husband, Calvin Ellis Stowe, taught at his alma mater, Bowdoin College. Stowe was partly inspired to create Uncle Toms Cabin by the slave narrative The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself. Henson, an enslaved black man, had lived and worked on a 3,700 acres tobacco plantation in North Bethesda, Maryland. Henson escaped slavery in 1830 by fleeing to the Province of Upper Canada, where he helped other fugitive slaves settle and become self-sufficient, Stowe acknowledged in 1853 that Hensons writings inspired Uncle Toms Cabin. When Stowes work became a best-seller, Henson republished his memoirs as The Memoirs of Uncle Tom and traveled on lecture tours extensively in the United States and Europe.
Stowes novel lent its name to Hensons home—Uncle Toms Cabin Historic Site, near Dresden and it is now a part of the National Park Service National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom program, and plans are underway to build a museum and interpretive center on the site. American Slavery As It Is, Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, a volume co-authored by Theodore Dwight Weld and the Grimké sisters, is a source of some of the novels content. Stowe said she based the novel on a number of interviews with people who escaped slavery during the time when she was living in Cincinnati, across the Ohio River from Kentucky, a slave state. In Cincinnati the Underground Railroad had local abolitionist sympathizers and was active in efforts to help runaway slaves on their route from the South. Stowe mentioned a number of the inspirations and sources for her novel in A Key to Uncle Toms Cabin and this non-fiction book was intended to verify Stowes claims about slavery
Nat Turner's slave rebellion
Nat Turners Rebellion was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, during August 1831. Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed from 55 to 65 people, the rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for more than two months afterwards. The rebellion was suppressed at Belmont Plantation on the morning of August 23,1831. There was widespread fear in the aftermath of the rebellion, the state executed 56 slaves accused of being part of the rebellion. In the frenzy, many non-participant slaves were punished, approximately 120 slaves and free African Americans were murdered by militias and mobs in the area. Nat Turner was an African-American slave who had lived his life in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner was highly intelligent and learned how to read and write at a young age and he grew up deeply religious and was often seen fasting, praying or immersed in reading the stories of the Bible. He frequently had visions, which he interpreted as messages from God and these visions greatly influenced his life.
Turner often conducted Baptist services, and preached the Bible to his fellow slaves, Turner had an influence over white people. In the case of Ethelred T. Brantley, Turner said that he was able to convince Brantley to cease from his wickedness, by the spring of 1828, Turner was convinced that he was ordained for some great purpose in the hands of the Almighty. In 1830, Joseph Travis purchased Turner and became his master, Turner recalled that Travis was a kind master who had placed the greatest confidence in him. Turner eagerly anticipated Gods signal to start his task of slay my enemies with their own weapons, Turner witnessed a solar eclipse on February 11,1831, and was convinced that this was the sign for which he was waiting. Following in the steps of the late Denmark Vesey of South Carolina, Turner communicated the great work laid out to do, to four in whom I had the greatest confidence – his fellow slaves Henry, Hark and Sam. Turner had originally planned for the rebellion to begin on July 4,1831, Turner started with several trusted fellow slaves, and ultimately gathered more than 70 enslaved and free blacks, some of whom were mounted on horseback.
On August 13,1831, an atmospheric disturbance made the sun appear bluish-green, Turner took this as the final signal, and began the rebellion a week on August 22. The rebels traveled from house to house, freeing slaves and killing all the people they encountered. As muskets and firearms were to difficult to collect and would gather unwanted attention, the rebels used knives, axes, oates states that Turner called on his group to kill all the white people. The group spared a few homes because Turner believed the white inhabitants thought no better of themselves than they did of negroes
John J. Crittenden
John Jordan Crittenden was a politician from the U. S. state of Kentucky. He was the 17th governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislature, although frequently mentioned as a potential candidate for the U. S. presidency, he never consented to run for the office. During his early career, Crittenden served in the Kentucky House of Representatives and was chosen as speaker on several occasions. With the advent of the Second Party System, he allied with the National Republican Party and was a fervent supporter of Henry Clay and opponent of Democrats Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. He was returned to the Senate in 1842, serving until 1848, Taylor was elected, but Crittenden refused a post in his cabinet, fearing he would be charged with making a corrupt bargain, as Clay had been in 1825. Following Taylors death in 1850, Crittenden resigned the governorship and accepted Millard Fillmores appointment as attorney general, as the Whig Party crumbled in the mid-1850s, Crittenden joined the Know Nothing Party.
After the expiration of his term as general, he was again elected to the U. S. Senate. In December 1860, he authored the Crittenden Compromise, a series of resolutions and constitutional amendments he hoped would avert the Civil War, one of Crittendens sons, George B. Crittenden, became a general in the Confederate Army, another son, Thomas Leonidas Crittenden, became a general in the Union Army. The elder Crittenden was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1861, however, he criticized many of the policies of President Abraham Lincoln and the U. S. Congress, including the Emancipation Proclamation and the admission of West Virginia to the Union. He continued to work for reconciliation of the states throughout his time in office and he declared his candidacy for re-election to the House in 1863, but died before the election took place. John Jordan Crittenden was born September 10,1787, near Versailles and he was the second child and first son of Revolutionary War veteran John Crittenden and his wife Judith Harris.
John and Judith Crittenden had four sons and five daughters, all, on his fathers side, he was of Welsh ancestry, while his mothers family was French Huguenot. His father had surveyed land in Kentucky with George Rogers Clark, two of Crittendens brothers and Robert, became lawyers, while the third, was a farmer. Crittenden began a college preparatory curriculum at Pisgah Academy in Woodford County and he was sent to a boarding school in Jessamine County. Among his classmates were Thomas Alexander Marshall and Francis P. Blair, Crittenden became especially close friends with Blair, and political differences did little to diminish their friendship. After a year at boarding school, Crittenden moved to the Lexington, Kentucky and he began his tertiary studies at Washington College in Lexington, Virginia. During his brief tenure there, he studied mathematics and belles-lettres, Crittenden was dissatisfied with the curriculum at Washington College and matriculated to the College of William and Mary