President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29,1958, disestablishing NASAs predecessor, the new agency became operational on October 1,1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data with various national and international such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. Since 2011, NASA has been criticized for low cost efficiency, from 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch a satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard, after the Soviet launch of the worlds first artificial satellite on October 4,1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. This led to an agreement that a new federal agency based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 29,1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, a NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA, earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPAs early space programs were transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA has conducted many manned and unmanned spaceflight programs throughout its history.
Some missions include both manned and unmanned aspects, such as the Galileo probe, which was deployed by astronauts in Earth orbit before being sent unmanned to Jupiter, the experimental rocket-powered aircraft programs started by NACA were extended by NASA as support for manned spaceflight. This was followed by a space capsule program, and in turn by a two-man capsule program. This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program, reduction of the perceived threat and changing political priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary space laboratory, to date, NASA has launched a total of 166 manned space missions on rockets, and thirteen X-15 rocket flights above the USAF definition of spaceflight altitude,260,000 feet. The X-15 was an NACA experimental rocket-powered hypersonic research aircraft, developed in conjunction with the US Air Force, the design featured a slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systems
100th Infantry Battalion (United States)
The 100th Infantry Battalion is the only infantry unit in the United States Army Reserve. In World War II, the then-primarily Nisei battalion was composed largely of members of the Hawaii Army National Guard. The 100th saw heavy combat during World War II before and after combining with the 442nd Infantry Regiment, another mostly Nisei military unit, into a single fighting combat team. Based at Fort Shafter, Hawaii, the 100th Battalion has reservists from Hawaii, American Samoa and Saipan, the unit was unofficially nicknamed the Purple Heart Battalion, with the motto Remember Pearl Harbor. On the morning 7 December 1941, the United States was attacked by the Empire of Japan, after the attack, Japanese-Americans and those of Japanese descent faced prejudice at home. However, three days after the attack, the rifles were stripped from them because of the ethnicity of members. Nisei that were a part of the ROTC program at the University of Hawaii were discharged from the Hawaii Territorial Guard and those former members eventually formed the Varsity Victory Volunteers.
At 11,30 a. m. martial law was declared, the FBI rounded up known Japanese sympathizers, Buddhist priests, language school principals and teachers and business leaders and instructors of judo and related martial arts. Their desire was to organize into a force to be sent to Europe or Africa to fight the Germans and Italians. Under the title Hawaiian Provisional Infantry Battalion the week-long zig-zag journey took them to a port in Oakland where they were designated the 100th Infantry Battalion on 12 June 1942, the unit number was an indication of the Armys recently formulated plan for a modern organization for the Combat Arms. Under normal pre-war Army procedures, all battalions were organic to the regiment they were a part of. With the new system of organization, the regiment was reorganized as a headquarters with no organic battalions. The headquarters was organized into three combat commands that could be dispatched on separate combat actions with units that were attached, one Infantry battalion would be assigned to a combat command, with attachments from the higher headquarters reserve.
The 100th, was not initially attached to a regiment and it came to be unofficially known as the One-Puka-Puka. In Oakland, the 100th boarded a train to their destination, Camp McCoy. Immediately following their arrival to Camp McCoy many of the Nisei felt animosity and distrust from fellow soldiers and military, the 100th was quartered in tents, four soldiers per tent, which contained a bunk bed, blanket and backpack. It would be several months until the Nisei moved into military barracks, eventually soldiers were permanently placed into military units, such as Companies A through E, and pushed through physical and tactical training. Some of the officers and NCOs appointed to the 100th were schooled in psychology and were ordered to test their physical and military capabilities
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross, known as the American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education in the United States. It is the designated US affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross, the group was issued a corporate charter by the United States Congress under Title 36 of the United States Code, Section 3001. It is governed by volunteers and supported by community donations, income from health and safety training and products, the group is headquartered in Washington, D. C. In 2016, the Board Chair was Bonnie McElveen-Hunter and the President, ARC was established in Washington, D. C. on May 21,1881, by Clara Barton. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the home of Senator Omar D. Conger, fifteen people were present at this first meeting, including Barton and Representative William Lawrence. The first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville at Dansville, jane Delano founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20,1910.
Clara Barton founded the American chapter after learning of the Red Cross in Geneva, in 1869, she went to Europe and became involved in the work of the International Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War. She determined to bring the organization to America, Barton became President of the American branch of the society, known as the American National Red Cross in May 1881 in Washington. The first chapters opened in upstate New York, where she had connections, John D. Rockefeller, Lars Kovala and three others donated money to help create a national headquarters near the White House. Barton led one of the groups first major efforts, a response to the September 4–6,1881 Great Fire of 1881 in the Thumb region of Michigan. Over 5,000 people were left homeless, the next major disaster was the Johnstown Flood, which occurred on May 31,1889. Over 2,209 people died and thousands more were injured in or near Johnstown, Barton was unable to build up a staff she trusted and her fundraising was lackluster.
She was forced out in 1904, professional social work experts took control and made the group a model of Progressive Era scientific reform. New leader Mabel Thorp Boardman constantly consulted with government officials, military officers. William Howard Taft was especially influential and they imposed an ethos of managerialism, transforming the agency from Bartons cult of personality to an organizational humanitarianism ready for expansion. ARC is a network of more than 650 chapters and 36 blood service regions. S. military service personnel. ARC is the largest supplier of blood and blood products to more than 3,000 hospitals and assists victims of international disasters, in 2006 the organization had over $6 billion in total revenues. Revenue from blood and blood products alone were over $2 billion, in 2007, U. S. legislation clarified the role for the Board of Governors and that of the senior management in the wake of difficulties following Hurricane Katrina
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress determined King George IIIs rule to be tyrannical and infringing the rights as Englishmen. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were forced out of Boston in 1776, but captured and they blockaded the ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but failed to defeat Washingtons forces. After a failed Patriot invasion of Canada, a British army was captured at the Battle of Saratoga in late 1777, a combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States.
The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nations complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. Historians typically begin their histories of the American Revolution with the British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763, the lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies, in 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles, none did and Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes on the colonies for the first time.
All official documents, newspapers and pamphlets—even decks of playing cards—were required to have the stamps, the colonists did not object that the taxes were high, but because they had no representation in the Parliament. Benjamin Franklin testified in Parliament in 1766 that Americans already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire, stationing a standing army in Great Britain during peacetime was politically unacceptable. London had to deal with 1,500 politically well-connected British officers who became redundant, in 1765, the Sons of Liberty formed. They used public demonstrations, boycott and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable, in Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice admiralty court and looted the home of chief justice Thomas Hutchinson. Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October 1765, moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances stating that taxes passed without representation violated their rights as Englishmen.
Colonists emphasized their determination by boycotting imports of British merchandise, the Parliament at Westminster saw itself as the supreme lawmaking authority throughout all British possessions and thus entitled to levy any tax without colonial approval
David H. Jarvis
David Henry Jarvis was a captain in the United States Revenue Cutter Service. During the harsh winter of 1897–1898, serving as a first lieutenant aboard the U. S. Jarvis was born at Berlin and he was appointed as a cadet to the United States Revenue Cutter Service on May 28,1881. On June 18,1883 he was commissioned as a third lieutenant and his first assignment was aboard USRC Hamilton. This assignment lasted a little more than two months as he was transferred from the cutter on September 11 for a reason only to be reassigned to Hamilton again on November 24. While assigned to Hamilton his temporary rank was changed to permanent third lieutenant on December 26,1883, during the time Jarvis was assigned to Hamilton, her cruising area was from Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to Bodie Island, North Carolina, including Delaware Bay. Jarvis was transferred from Hamilton to USRC Stevens based out of New Bern, on March 16,1888 Jarvis received orders that transferred him to the Pacific coast where he spent the balance of his career with the RCS.
He reported aboard USRC Bear based in San Francisco, California for the first time on April 3,1888 Aboard Bear, after his return from the patrol, he was transferred to USRC Thomas Corwin based in San Francisco on October 18,1888. Corwin spent the winter patrolling waters near San Francisco Bay and was docked for repairs when Jarvis received orders transferring him from Corwin on March 14,1889, on January 2,1890 he reported aboard USRC Rush based in San Francisco. While assigned to Rush, Jarvis received orders promoting him to second lieutenant. Rush left San Francisco bound for the Seal Islands on June 5 and returned from the patrol on October 15 at Port Townsend, while assigned to Bear in August 1891, Jarvis helped load reindeer purchased in Siberia onto the decks of the cutter. The reindeer were transported to Unalaska in an effort to establish a herd, the experiment station was eventually moved to Teller Reindeer Station with the assistance of personnel from Bear. On 18 January 1896 Jarvis was promoted to first lieutenant, in 1897, eight whaling ships were trapped in an Arctic ice field surrounding Point Barrow, the northernmost point of Alaska.
Trapped by ice, the environment, and a dwindling food supply. 0n November 29,1897, the Bear, commanded by Captain Francis Tuttle, sailed from Port Townsend, the overland trek left from Cape Vancouver, Alaska on December 16,1897. The expedition was led by First Lieutenant Jarvis, the officer of the Bear. They were accompanied by Dr. Samuel J, the distance to Point Barrow overland from Cape Vancouver was roughly 1,500 miles. The rescue party traveled and carried the provisions using dog sleds, sleds pulled by reindeer, Bertholf caught up with Jarvis and Call and helped re-provision the relief mission. The group reached Point Barrow on March 29,1898, having walked most of the distance, Jarvis assumed command in accordance with orders from the Secretary of the Treasury
War of 1812
Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the wars end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved, the view was shared in much of New England and for that reason the war was widely referred to there as Mr. Madison’s War. As a result, the primary British war goal was to defend their North American colonies, the war was fought in three theatres. Second and naval battles were fought on the U. S. –Canadian frontier, large-scale battles were fought in the Southern United States and Gulf Coast. With the majority of its land and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars, early victories over poorly-led U. S. armies demonstrated that the conquest of the Canadas would prove more difficult than anticipated. Despite this, the U. S. was able to inflict serious defeats on Britains Native American allies, both governments were eager for a return to normality and peace negotiations began in Ghent in August 1814.
This brought an Era of Good Feelings in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism, the war was a major turning point in the development of the U. S. military, with militia being increasingly replaced by a more professional force. The U. S. acquired permanent ownership of Spains Mobile District, the government of Canada declared a three-year commemoration of the War of 1812 in 2012, intended to offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border. At the conclusion of the commemorations in 2014, a new national War of 1812 Monument was unveiled in Ottawa. The war is remembered in Britain primarily as a footnote in the much larger Napoleonic Wars occurring in Europe, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812. This section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States, as Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair.
The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was vindication of American identity. Americans at the time and historians since often called it the United States Second War of Independence, in 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law, the American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton, the British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. The United States view was that Britains restrictions violated its right to trade with others, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man. The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become U. S.
citizens and this meant that in addition to recovering naval deserters, it considered any United States citizens who were born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the reluctance of the United States to issue formal naturalization papers and it was estimated by the Admiralty that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805
Lincoln Ellsworth was a polar explorer from the United States and a major benefactor of the American Museum of Natural History. He was born on May 12,1880 to James Ellsworth and Eva Frances Butler in Chicago and he lived in Hudson, Ohio as a child and attended Western Reserve Academy. Lincoln Ellsworths father, James, a wealthy man from the United States. Two Dornier Wal flying boats, the N24 and N25, attempted to reach the North Pole on May 21, when one airplane lost power both made forced landings and, as a result, became separated. It took 3 days for the crews to regroup and 7 take off attempts before they were able to return N25 to the air 28 days later, Ellsworth senior died in Italy on June 2,1925 while waiting for news of his lost son. In early March 1926, under the headline Across the Pole by Dirigible, a long article in the same edition was headed Massed Attack On Polar Region Begins Soon. Ellsworth accompanied Amundsen on his effort to fly over the Pole in the airship Norge and piloted by the Italian engineer Umberto Nobile.
On May 12, the Geographic North Pole was sighted, Ellsworth made four expeditions to Antarctica between 1933 and 1939, using as his aircraft transporter and base a former Norwegian herring boat that he named Wyatt Earp after his hero. On November 23,1935, Ellsworth discovered the Ellsworth Mountains of Antarctica when he made a flight from Dundee Island to the Ross Ice Shelf. He gave the descriptive name Sentinel Range, which was named for the northern half of the Ellsworth Mountains. During the flight, his aircraft ran out of fuel, forcing a landing near the Little America camp established by Richard Byrd, because of a faulty radio, he and his pilot, Herbert Hollick-Kenyon, were unable to notify authorities about the landing. The two men were declared missing, and the British research ship Discovery sailed from Melbourne, Australia on a search mission, the two men were discovered January 16,1936, after almost two months alone at Little America. They returned to New York City on April 6, and their support ship, mount Ellsworth and Lake Ellsworth, both in Antarctica, are named after him.
In 1927, the Boy Scouts of America made Ellsworth an Honorary Scout, a new category of Scout created that same year. The other eighteen men who were awarded this distinction were, Roy Chapman Andrews, Robert Bartlett, Frederick Russell Burnham, Richard E. Byrd, George Kruck Cherrie, James L. Clark, Merian C. The Boy Scouts Book of True Adventure, Fourteen Honorary Scouts, the United States Postal Service once produced a stamp with his picture. To this day, the school teams in Hudson, are named The Explorers after Ellsworth. In 1928, Ellsworth was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal that honored both his 1925 and 1926 polar flights and he thus became one of only four people to be awarded two Congressional Gold Medals
John Paul Jones
John Paul Jones was the United States first well-known naval commander in the American Revolutionary War. As such, he is referred to as the Father of the American Navy. He served in the Imperial Russian Navy, subsequently obtaining the rank of rear admiral, Jones was born John Paul on the estate of Arbigland near Kirkbean in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright on the southwest coast of Scotland. His father John Paul, Sr. was a gardener at Arbigland and his parents married on November 29,1733 in New Abbey, Kirkcudbright. Living at Arbigland at the time was Helen Craik, a novelist, John Paul started his maritime career at the age of 13, sailing out of Whitehaven in the northern English county of Cumberland as apprentice aboard Friendship under Captain Benson. Pauls older brother William Paul had married and settled in Fredericksburg, for several years, John sailed aboard a number of British merchant and slave ships, including King George in 1764 as third mate and Two Friends as first mate in 1766. In 1768, he abandoned his prestigious position on the profitable Two Friends while docked in Jamaica and he found his own passage back to Scotland, and eventually obtained another position.
He led two voyages to the West Indies before running into difficulty, during his second voyage in 1770, John Paul viciously flogged one of his sailors, a carpenter, leading to accusations that his discipline was unnecessarily cruel. These claims initially were dismissed, but his reputation was destroyed when the sailor died a few weeks later. John Paul was arrested for his involvement in the death, and was imprisoned in Kirkcudbright Tolbooth. The negative effect of this episode on his reputation is indisputable and this man was not a usual sailor but an adventurer from a very influential Scottish family. Leaving Scotland, John Paul commanded a London-registered vessel named Betsy and this came to an end, when John killed a mutineer crew member named Blackton with a sword in a dispute over wages. He felt compelled to flee to Fredericksburg, Province of Virginia, there is a long-held tradition in the state of North Carolina that John Paul adopted the name Jones in honor of Willie Jones of Halifax, North Carolina.
From that period, America became the country of his fond election and it was not long afterward that John Paul Jones joined the American navy to fight against Britain. Sources struggle with this period of Jones life, especially the specifics of his family situation and it is not known whether his plans were not developing as expected for the plantation, or if he was inspired by a revolutionary spirit. During this time, the Navy and Marines were being formally established, Joness potential would likely have gone unrecognized were it not for the endorsement of Richard Henry Lee, who knew of his abilities. Jones sailed from the Delaware River in February 1776 aboard Alfred on the Continental Navys maiden cruise and it was aboard this vessel that Jones took the honor of hoisting the first U. S. ensign over a naval vessel. He actually raised the Grand Union Flag, not the later, the fleet had been expected to cruise along the coast but was ordered instead by Commodore Esek Hopkins to sail for The Bahamas, where Nassau was raided for its military supplies
Medal of Honor
The medal is normally awarded by the President of the United States in the name of the U. S. Congress. There are three versions of the medal, one for the Army, one for the Navy, personnel of the Marine Corps and Coast Guard receive the Navy version. U. S. awards including the Medal of Honor do not have titles and while there is no official abbreviation. The Medal of Honor is the oldest continuously issued combat decoration of the United States armed forces, because the medal is presented in the name of Congress, it is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. However, the name is Medal of Honor, which began with the U. S. Armys version. Within United States Code the medal is referred to as the Medal of Honor, in 1990, Congress designated March 25 annually as National Medal of Honor Day. The capture saved the fort of West Point from the British Army, although the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse after the American Revolutionary War, the concept of a military award for individual gallantry by members of the U. S.
539 Certificates were approved for this period and this medal was replaced by the Army Distinguished Service Medal which was established on January 2,1918. Those Army members who held the Distinguished Service Medal in place of the Certificate of Merit could apply for the Army Distinguished Service Cross effective March 5,1934. There were no awards or medals at the beginning of the Civil War except for the Certificate of Merit which was awarded for the Mexican-American War. Scott however, was strictly against medals being awarded which was the European tradition, after Scott retired in October 1861, the Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, adopted the idea of a decoration to recognize and honor distinguished naval service. Senator James W. Secretary Wells directed the Philadelphia Mint to design the new military decoration, on May 15,1862, the United States Navy Department ordered 175 medals with the words Personal Valor on the back from the U. S. Mint in Philadelphia. Senator Henry Wilson, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, the resolution was approved by Congress and signed into law on July 12,1862.
During the war, Townsend would have some medals delivered to recipients with a letter requesting acknowledgement of the Medal of Honor. By mid-November the War Department contracted with Philadelphia silversmith William Wilson and Son, the Army version had The Congress to written on the back of the medal. Both versions were made of copper and coated with bronze, which gave them a reddish tint,1863, Congress made the Medal of Honor a permanent decoration. On March 3, Medals of Honor were authorized for officers of the Army, the Secretary of War first presented the Medal of Honor to six Union Army volunteers on March 25,1863 in his office. 1890, On April 23, the Medal of Honor Legion is established in Washington,1896, The ribbon of the Army version Medal of Honor was redesigned with all stripes being vertical
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States Mint
The United States Mint produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money, the Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, and soon joined by other centres, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are currently four active coin-producing mints, Denver, San Francisco, the Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, and originally placed within the Department of State. Per the terms of the Coinage Act, the first Mint building was in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States, the Mints headquarters are in Washington D. C. It operates mint facilities in Philadelphia, San Francisco, and West Point, New York and a bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Official Mints were once located in Carson City, Charlotte, North Carolina, Georgia, New Orleans, Washington, D. C. and even in Manila. Originally part of the State Department, the Mint was made an independent agency in 1799 and it converted precious metals into standard coin for anyones account with no seigniorage charge beyond the refining costs.
Under the Coinage Act of 1873, the Mint became part of the Department of the Treasury and it was placed under the auspices of the Treasurer of the United States in 1981. Legal tender coins of today are minted solely for the Treasurys account, the first Director of the United States Mint was renowned scientist David Rittenhouse from 1792 to 1795. The position was held most recently by Edmund C, moy until his resignation effective January 9,2011. Henry Voigt was the first Superintendent and Chief Coiner, and is credited with some of the first U. S. coin designs. Another important position at the Mint is that of Chief Engraver, the Mint has operated several branch facilities throughout the United States since the Philadelphia Mint opened in 1792, in a building known as Ye Olde Mint. With the opening of branch mints came the need for mint marks, the first of these branch mints were the Charlotte, North Carolina, Dahlonega and New Orleans, Louisiana branches. Both the Charlotte and Dahlonega Mints were opened to facilitate the conversion of gold deposits into coinage.
The Civil War closed both these facilities permanently, the New Orleans Mint closed at the beginning of the Civil War and did not re-open until the end of Reconstruction in 1879. During its two stints as a facility, it produced both gold and silver coinage in eleven different denominations, though only ten denominations were ever minted there at one time. A new branch facility was opened in Carson City, Nevada, in 1870, it operated until 1893, like the Charlotte and Dahlonega branches, the Carson City Mint was opened to take advantage of local precious metal deposits, in this case, a large vein of silver. Though gold coins were produced there, no base metal coins were