Rwanda, officially the Republic of Rwanda, is a sovereign state in central and east Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland. Located a few south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Burundi. Rwanda is in the African Great Lakes region and is elevated, its geography is dominated by mountains in the west and savanna to the east. The climate is temperate to subtropical, with two seasons and two dry seasons each year. The population is young and predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Africa, Rwandans are drawn from just one cultural and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda, although within this group there are three subgroups, the Hutu and Twa. The Twa are a pygmy people descended from Rwandas earliest inhabitants. Christianity is the largest religion in the country, the language is Kinyarwanda, spoken by most Rwandans, with English. Rwanda has a system of government. The president is Paul Kagame of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, who took office in 2000, Rwanda today has low corruption compared with neighbouring countries, although human rights organisations report suppression of opposition groups and restrictions on freedom of speech.
The country has been governed by an administrative hierarchy since pre-colonial times. Rwanda is one of two countries with a female majority in the national parliament. Hunter gatherers settled the territory in the stone and iron ages, the population coalesced first into clans and into kingdoms. The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power. Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa, followed by Belgium, both European nations ruled through the kings and perpetuated a pro-Tutsi policy. The Hutu population revolted in 1959 and they massacred numerous Tutsi and ultimately established an independent, Hutu-dominated state in 1962. The Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a war in 1990. Social tensions erupted in the 1994 genocide, in which Hutu extremists killed an estimated 500,000 to 1.3 million Tutsi, the RPF ended the genocide with a military victory. Rwandas economy suffered heavily during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, but has since strengthened, the economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture
The Zaire, was the unit of currency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and of the Republic of Zaire from 1967 until 1997. All but six of the 79 series of banknotes issued bear the image of Mobutu Sese Seko, the Zaire, symbol, Z, or sometimes Ƶ, was introduced in 1967, replacing the Congolese franc at an exchange rate of 1 zaire =1000 francs. The zaire was subdivided into 100 makuta, each of 100 sengi, the sengi was worth very little and the only sengi denominated coin was the 10 sengi coin issued in 1967. Unusually for any currency, it was practice to write cash amounts with three zeros after the decimal place, even after inflation had greatly devalued the currency. Inflation eventually caused denominations of banknotes up to 5,000,000 zaires to be issued, after which the new zaire was introduced. In 1967, coins were introduced by the National Bank of Congo in denominations of 10 sengi,1 and 5 makuta, in 1973, the first coins issued by the Bank of Zaire were issued, cupro-nickel 5,10 and 20 makuta.
In 1987, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of brass 1,5, in 1967, the National Bank of Congo introduced notes for 10,20 and 50 makuta,1 and 5 zaires. In 1971,10 zaire notes were introduced, in 1972, the Bank of Zaire started issuing notes for 1,5 and 10 zaires, followed by 50 makuta notes in 1973. One reason for this mistrust was an error in the French number on the note. The New Zaire, symbol NZ, ISO4217 code ZRN and it was subdivided into 100 new makuta. This currency was issued in banknote form and suffered from similarly high inflation to its predecessor. In 1993, notes were issued by the Bank of Zaire in denominations of 1,5,10 and 50 new makuta,1,5,10,50 and 100 new zaires and these were followed, in 1994, by notes for 200 and 500 new zaires. In 1995,1000,5000 and 10,000 new zaire notes were introduced, whilst in 1996, all of the new zaire notes feature a portrait of Mobutu Sésé Seko in uniform with cap. Banknotes of Zaire Zaire – Currency
The helmeted guineafowl is the best known of the guineafowl bird family and the only member of the genus Numida. It is native to Africa, mainly south of the Sahara, in the early days of the European colonisation of North America, the native wild turkey was confused with this species. The body plumage is gray-black spangled with white, like other guineafowl, this species has an unfeathered head, in this case decorated with a dull yellow or reddish bony knob, and red and blue patches of skin. The wings are short and rounded, and the tail is short, various sub-species are proposed, differences in appearance being mostly a large variation in shape and colour of the casque and facial wattles. This is a species, forming flocks outside the breeding season typically of about 25 birds that roost communally. Guineafowl are particularly well-suited to consuming massive quantities of ticks, which might otherwise spread lyme disease and these birds are terrestrial, and prone to run rather than fly when alarmed.
Like most gallinaceous birds, they have a short-lived explosive flight, Helmeted guineafowl are great runners, and can walk 10 km and more in a day. They make loud calls when disturbed. Their diet consists of a variety of animal and plant food, fruits, snails, spiders and insects, lizards, small snakes and small mammals. Guineafowl are equipped with claws and scratch in loose soil for food much like domestic chickens. As with all of the numididae, they have no spurs, males often show aggression towards each other, and will partake in aggressive fighting which may leave other males bloodied and otherwise injured. The nest is a well-hidden, generally unlined scrape and a clutch is normally 6–12 eggs which the female incubates for 26–28 days and it has been noted that domesticated guineafowl hens are not the best of mothers, and will often abandon their nests. The keets are cryptically coloured and rapid wing growth enables them to flutter onto low branches barely a week after hatching and they may live for up to 12 years in the wild.
Helmeted guinea fowl are seasonally reproducing birds, summer is the peak breeding season in which testes could weigh up to 1.6 gm while during winter no breeding activity takes place. Serum testosterone level is up to 5.37 ng/ ml during breeding season and it breeds in warm, fairly dry and open habitats with scattered shrubs and trees such as savanna or farmland. Flocks of guineafowl have flourished in recent years in the Northern and Southern Suburbs of Cape Town and they often roost at night on the roofs of bungalows. While residents generally appreciate the wildlife, it can be a nuisance, obstructing traffic. Although many young guineafowl manage to fall down drains, it is not enough to restrain their numbers, adult birds are sometimes caught and eaten by the homeless
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo, known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, East Congo, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1971 to 1997 it was named, and is still called, Zaire. It is the second-largest country in Africa by area and eleventh largest in the world, the Congolese Civil Wars, which began in 1996, brought about the end of Mobutu Sese Sekos 32-year reign and devastated the country. These wars ultimately involved nine African nations, multiple groups of UN peacekeepers and twenty armed groups, besides the capital, the other major cities and Mbuji-Mayi, are both mining communities. DR Congos largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting over 50% of DRCs exports in 2012, as of 2015, according to the Human Development Index, DR Congo has a low level of human development, ranking 176 out of 187 countries. The country was known officially as the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1965 to 27 October 1971, in 1992, the Sovereign National Conference voted to change the name of the country to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but the change was not put into practice.
The countrys name was restored by former president Laurent-Désiré Kabila following the fall of longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997, some historians think that Bantu peoples began settling in the extreme northwest of Central Africa at the beginning of the 5th century and gradually started to expand southward. Their propagation was accelerated by the transition from Stone Age to Iron Age techniques, the people living in the south and southwest were mostly San Bushmen and hunter-gatherer groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of tools during this time period revolutionized agriculture. This led to the displacement of the groups in the east and southeast. The 10th century marked the expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. Rising populations soon made intricate local and foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in salt, iron. Belgian exploration and administration took place from the 1870s until the 1920s and it was first led by Sir Henry Morton Stanley, who undertook his explorations under the sponsorship of King Leopold II of Belgium.
The eastern regions of the precolonial Congo were heavily disrupted by constant slave raiding, mainly from Arab–Swahili slave traders such as the infamous Tippu Tip, Leopold had designs on what was to become the Congo as a colony. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Conference of Berlin in 1885 and he named it the Congo Free State. Leopolds rėgime began various infrastructure projects, such as construction of the railway ran from the coast to the capital of Leopoldville. Nearly all such projects were aimed at making it easier to increase the assets which Leopold. In the Free State, colonists brutalized the local population into producing rubber, for which the spread of automobiles, rubber sales made a fortune for Leopold, who built several buildings in Brussels and Ostend to honor himself and his country
Patrice Émery Lumumba was a Congolese independence leader and the first democratically elected prime minister of Congo. Lumumba appealed to the United States and the United Nations for assistance to suppress the Belgian-supported Katangan secessionists, both parties refused, so Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for support. This led to growing differences with President Joseph Kasa-Vubu and chief-of-staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, as well as the opposition of the United States. Lumumba was subsequently imprisoned by authorities under Mobutu and executed by a firing squad under the command of Katangan authorities. The United Nations, which he had asked to come to the Congo, the United Kingdom, and the United States have all been accused of involvement in Lumumbas death. In 2002 Belgium recognised its involvement in the killing and apologised to Lumumbas family, in 2014, the United States recognised the CIAs active involvement. He was a member of the Tetela ethnic group and was born with the name Élias OkitAsombo and his original surname means heir of the cursed and is derived from the Tetela words okitá/okitɔ́ and asombó.
He had three brothers and one half-brother, Lumumba spoke Tetela, Lingala and Tshiluba. Outside of his studies, Lumumba took an interest in the Enlightenment ideals of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He was fond of Molière and Victor Hugo, therefore, he started writing poetry, with many of his works taking on an anti-imperialist theme. He worked in Léopoldville and Stanleyville as a clerk and as a travelling beer salesman. In 1951, he married Pauline Opangu, in 1955, Lumumba became regional head of the Cercles of Stanleyville and joined the Liberal Party of Belgium, where he worked on editing and distributing party literature. After traveling on a study tour in Belgium, he was arrested in 1955 on charges of embezzlement. His two-year sentence was commuted to twelve months after it was confirmed by Belgian lawyer Jules Chrome that Lumumba had returned the funds and he was released in July 1956. After his release, he helped found the Mouvement National Congolais party on 5 October 1958, Lumumba himself had a large popular following, due to his personal charisma, excellent oratorical skills, and ideological sophistication.
This allowed him more political autonomy than his Belgian-dependent contemporaries, Lumumba was one of the delegates that represented the MNC at the All-African Peoples Conference in Accra, Ghana, in December 1958. At this international conference, hosted by Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah, Nkrumah was personally impressed by Lumumbas intelligence and ability. In late October 1959, Lumumba, as leader of the organization, was arrested for inciting a riot in Stanleyville,30 thirty people were killed
The franc was the currency of Katanga between 1960 and 1963 during the Congolese provinces brief independence. It replaced the Congolese franc at par and was initially equal to the Belgian franc. This established a rate of 50 francs =1 U. S. dollar. Just before Katanga was re-annexed by Congo, the rate had fallen to 195 francs =1 U. S. dollar. The currency was replaced at par by the Congolese franc, bronze coins were issued in 1961 in denominations of 1 and 5 francs. A non-circulating gold 5 francs coin was issued for collectors. Only one set containing 1 francs and 5 francs were ever made and their design shows a copper cross, which was locally used for money in precolonial times. In 1961, an issue of notes was produced by the government. These were overprinted on notes of the Rwanda and Burundi franc in denominations of 5,10,20, and 50 francs. On 9 January 1961, regular notes dated 31.10.60 were issued by the Banque Nationale du Katanga in denominations of 10,20,50,100,500 and 1000 francs. A second series of notes was issued dated 1962 and 1963 in denominations of 100,500, the Involvement of the Belgian Central Bank in the Katanga Secession, 1960-1963
Virunga National Park
The park was established in 1925 as Africas first national park and is a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site since 1979. In recent years and the Congo Civil War have seriously damaged its wildlife population, the current park director since 2008 is the Belgian Prince Emmanuel de Merode. The park was created in 1925 by King Albert I of Belgium as the first national park on the continent of Africa. Land remuneration and the use of resources such as fishing and hunting by the local population became an ongoing problem. When the Belgians granted Congo independence in 1960 the new state deteriorated rapidly and it was only in 1969 when President Mobutu began to take a personal interest in conservation, that the park was revived. In the process of Mobutus Africanization campaign, it was renamed Virunga National Park, Virunga fared well for the better part of the 1970s. Foreign investment helped to improve the infrastructure and training facilities. In 1979 UNESCO designated the park as a World Heritage Site, in the mid-1980s the Mobutu regime began to lose its hold on power and the country began a long slide into chaos.
Poaching depleted Virungas large mammal populations, infrastructure was destroyed, the Congolese Wildlife Authority slowly lost control of Virunga and UNESCO changed the World Heritage Site status to endangered. In 2013 the World Wildlife Fund raised concerns about plans by the UK based Soco International to carry out exploration for oil in the park, currently more than 80% of Virunga National Park has been allocated as oil concessions. Soco Internationals own environmental impact assessment reports admit that oil exploration is likely to cause pollution, irreparably damage habitats, the World Wildlife Fund have launched a campaign to petition Soco to refrain exploring the world heritage area for oil, and thereby avoid these outcomes. As of August 30,2014, SOCO demobilized its operations in the DRC, World Wildlife Fund executives now acknowledge that the battle over Virunga is hardly over. SOCO has yet to relinquish its operating permits or commit to an unconditional withdrawal, Virunga National Park is unrivaled in its diversity of landscapes and ecosystems.
The park is known for its diversity, containing more bird, mammal. Although mountain gorillas are now rare and listed as one of the most critically endangered species. Their populations actually increased during the years of upheaval in the region. The 2010 mountain gorilla census has indicated that the efforts of Virunga have been very successful regarding the gorilla population. Both savanna and forest elephants as well as chimpanzees and low land gorillas can still be found in Virunga, along with okapi, giraffes and many endemic birds
The Belgian Congo was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Colonial rule in the Congo began in the late 19th century, King Leopold II of the Belgians persuaded the government to support colonial expansion around the then-largely unexplored Congo Basin. Their ambivalence resulted in Leopolds creating a colony on his own account, with support from a number of Western countries, Leopold achieved international recognition for a personal colony, the Congo Free State, in 1885. Belgian rule in the Congo was based on the trinity of state, missionary. The privileging of Belgian commercial interests meant that large amounts of capital flowed into the Congo, the country was split into nesting, hierarchically organised administrative subdivisions, and run uniformly according to a set native policy. This was in contrast to the British and the French, who favoured the system of indirect rule whereby traditional leaders were retained in positions of authority under colonial oversight.
The Congo had a degree of racial segregation. The large numbers of immigrants who moved to the Congo after the end of World War II came from across the social spectrum. During the 1940s and 1950s, the Congo had extensive urbanisation, one of the results was the development of a new middle class of Europeanised African évolués in the cities. By the 1950s the Congo had a labour force twice as large as that in any other African colony. This ended with the seizure of power by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, until the part of the 19th century, few Europeans had ventured into the Congo basin. The rainforest and accompanying malaria and other diseases, such as sleeping sickness. After Henry Morton Stanley had explored the region in a journey that ended in 1878, Leopold courted the explorer, Leopold II had been keen to acquire a colony for Belgium even before he ascended to the throne in 1865. The Belgian civil government showed little interest in its monarchs dreams of empire-building and stubborn, Leopold decided to pursue the matter on his own account.
European rivalry in Central Africa led to tensions, in particular with regard to the largely unclaimed Congo River basin. In November 1884 Otto von Bismarck convened a 14-nation conference to find a resolution to the Congo crisis. The rules recognised the Congo basin as a free-trade zone, but Leopold II emerged triumphant from the Berlin Conference and his single-shareholder philanthropic organization received a large share of territory to be organized as the Congo Free State. The Congo Free State operated as a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II through a non-governmental organization, the state included the entire area of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo and existed from 1885 to 1908, when the government of Belgium annexed the area
Central African CFA franc
The Central African CFA franc is the currency of six independent states in central Africa, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. These six countries have a population of 48.0 million people. CFA stands for Coopération financière en Afrique centrale and it is issued by the BEAC, located in Yaoundé, for the members of the CEMAC. The franc is nominally subdivided into 100 centimes but no centime denominations have been issued, in several west African states, the West African CFA franc, which is of equal value to the Central African CFA franc, is in circulation. The CFA franc was introduced to the French colonies in Equatorial Africa in 1945, the Equatorial African colonies and territories using the CFA franc were Chad, French Cameroun, French Congo and Ubangi-Shari. The currency continued in use when these colonies gained their independence, Equatorial Guinea, the only former Spanish colony in the zone, adopted the CFA franc in 1984, replacing the Equatorial Guinean ekwele at a rate of 1 franc =4 bipkwele.
In 1948, coins were issued for use in all the colonies in denominations of 1 and 2 francs and this was the last issue of a 2-franc coin for nearly 50 years. In 1958, 5-, 10- and 25-franc coins were added and these bore the name Cameroun in addition to États de lAfrique Equatoriale. In 1961, nickel 50-franc coins were introduced, followed by nickel 100-franc pieces in 1966, from 1971, the 100-franc coins were issued by the individual states. In 1976, cupro-nickel 500-franc coins were introduced, from 1985, these were issued by the individual states. That year saw the introduction of 5-, 25-, 50-, in 1996, centralized production of the 100-franc coin was resumed, with a single 500-franc coin reintroduced in 1998. In 2006, a steel 2-franc coin was introduced, when the CFA franc was introduced, notes issued by the Caisse Centrale de la France dOutre-Mer in denominations of 5,10,20,100 and 1000 francs were in circulation. In 1947, a new series of notes was introduced for use in French Equatorial Africa, notes were issued in denominations of 5,10,20,50,100 and 1000 francs, followed by those of 500 francs in 1949, and 5000 francs in 1952.
In 1957, the Institut dEmission de lAfrique Equatoriale Française et du Cameroun took over paper money production, in 1961, the Banque Centrale des Etats de lAfrique Equatoriale et du Cameroun took over banknote production, with notes below 100 francs ceasing to be issued. The name of the changed to Banque Centrale des Etats de lAfrique Equatoriale in 1963. 10, 000-franc notes were introduced in 1968, whilst the 100-franc notes were replaced by coins in 1971, since then, the banknotes have been issued with only a letter prominently displayed to distinguish between the issues of the different states. 2000 franc notes were introduced in 1993
State of Katanga
The new Katangese government did not enjoy full support throughout the province, especially in the northern Baluba areas. The state is now Katanga Province, part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the declaration of independence was made with the support of Belgian business interests and over 6,000 Belgian troops. Tshombe was known to be close to the Belgian industrial companies which mined Katangas rich resources of copper, Katanga was one of the richest and most developed areas of the Congo. Without Katanga, Congo would lose a part of its mineral assets. Belgium did not officially recognise the new state, despite providing it with military assistance, a military force designated the Katanga Gendarmerie, raised by the Tshombe government, was initially organised and trained by Belgian Army officers and subsequently by European mercenaries. The Katangese government went on to appeal for Belgian military aid to support their unilateral declaration of independence. Tshombe was seeking support and recognition from the United States for his cause, a common myth in 1961 among the United Nations in general was that Katanga was an expression of indigenous nationalist sentiment.
However, this was only in part. The political leaders of the districts in the province were actively opposed to independence. In reality, secession proved to be a designed to preserve the comparative wealth of Katanga. Lumumba solicited urgent military assistance due to the government in Leopoldvilles inability to maintain order in the massive country. He went on to blame post-independence Belgian intrigues for the present crisis, inside the United Nations itself, feelings towards Katanga were generally mixed. Britain and France remained neutral, the latter quietly hostile towards the idea of peacekeeping in Congo. The British initially provided assistance to the UN troops who were eventually dispatched. Portugal and the Union of South Africa were openly hostile towards the operation from its very conception, the commander of the new gendarmery, Major Crèvecoeur, called for former officers of the Force Publique who had left the Congo after the July troubles or were in Katanga. The numbers of the new force were originally fixed at 1,500 volunteers from sixteen to twenty-one years of age recruited from ethnic groups.
Almost all the aircraft of the Force Publique had been transferred to Kamina, on 14 July 1960, in response to requests by Prime Minister Lumumba, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 143. This called upon Belgium to remove its military personnel from the Congo, Lumumba demanded that Belgium remove its troops immediately, threatening to seek help from the Soviet Union if they did not leave within two days