Timeline of World War II (1944)
This is a timeline of events that occurred during 1944 in World War II. 4, The 1st Ukrainian Front of the Red Army enters Poland,9, British forces take Maungdaw, Burma, a critical port for Allied supplies. 12, The SS United Victory, the first Victory ship, is launched, count Ciano, the Italian Foreign Minister and Mussolinis son-in-law, is executed by Mussolinis revived Fascist government sympathisers. 17, The first Battle of Monte Cassino begins when the British X Corps attacks along the Garigliano river at the end of the German Gustav Line. 19, Red Army troops push westward toward the Baltic countries, British Operation Outward accidentally claims lives in Sweden by causing a train crash by knocking out lighting. 20, The Royal Air Force drops 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin, the U. S. Army 36th Infantry Division, in Italy, attempts to cross the Gari River but suffers heavy losses. 22, Allies begin Operation Shingle, the landing at Anzio, the Allies hope to break the stalemate in south Italy, but they are unable to break out of the beachhead and the line holds until late May.
23, The British destroyer HMS Janus is sunk off Anzio,24, The Allied forces have a major setback on the Gari River. 24, In German-occupied Belgium, the Social Pact, detailing plans for social reform, is secretly signed. 28, The Russian Army completes encirclement of two German Army corps at the Korsun pocket, south of Kiev, two-thirds of the Germans escape in the breakout next month with the loss of most heavy equipment. 30, United States troops invade Majuro, Marshall Islands, Japanese kill 44 suspected spies in the Homfreyganj massacre. The Brazzaville Conference begins in French Equatorial Africa, during the conference, the French Committee of National Liberation agrees to major reforms to the French colonial empire. 31, American forces land on Kwajalein Atoll and other islands in the Japanese-held Marshall Islands, Marines mop up on Roi and Namur in the northern part of the Kwajalein atoll in the Marshall Islands. 2, The Narva front near the east border of Estonia is formed between the Soviet and German forces, Germans defeat American troops in the Battle of Cisterna near Anzio.
3, American planes bomb Eniwetok in the Marshalls, to be a major B-29 base,4, the worlds largest atoll and a major Japanese naval base, is secured. 5, The American Navy bombards the Kuril Islands, northernmost in the Japanese homelands,7, In a radio interview, the last Estonian Prime Minister Jüri Uluots, as acting Head of State, supports mobilisation. 8, The plan for the invasion of France, Operation Overlord, is confirmed,10, Winston Churchill urges Harold Alexander to order the Anzio generals to show more aggression. 11, German forces sent to relieve the Korsun pocket in Ukraine are now only 10 miles away,14, The Russian 374th Rifle Regiment forms a bridgehead on the western shore of Lake Peipus
Events preceding World War II in Asia
This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. The revolution led by the Kuomintang and others ended the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, which was replaced by a republic, prior to World War I, the ROC central government failed to effectively rule its territory. China fell into a region of local warlords. Other than the central government, two primary forces aimed to unite China under their ideology. The KMT was reorganized in 1919, and the Communist Party of China was formed in 1921, the two parties were not immediate enemies and had short-term partnership. In 1924, KMT started a campaign to defeat the northern warlords. In 1927, with much of southern and central China under the KMT control, the KMT took most parts of China under its power in 1928, and the warlord controlling Manchuria agreed to KMT leadership of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Britain won the war and as a result gained control over Hong Kong,1853, American Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Tokyo harbor and forces Japanese to allow trade with American merchants with threat of military action.
1856, Outbreak of the Second Opium War or the Arrow War in China, resulting Treaties of Tianjin at 1858, Treaty of Aigun, etc. Unequal Treaties and burning, looting of the Old Summer Palace, beyond any doubt, by 1860 the ancient civilization that was China had been thoroughly defeated and humiliated by the West. 1858, Western nations force Japan to sign the Unequal Treaties and these articles established export and import tariffs and the concept of extraterritoriality. Japan had no power to change these terms,1868, Japan, in an effort to modernize and prevent future Western dominance, ousts the Tokugawa Shogunate and adopts a new Meiji Emperor. The next few decades see arguably the most rapid and successful industrialization of any economy in world history during the Meiji Restoration, 1894–1895, The First Sino-Japanese War ends in Japanese victory, results in Japanese dominance in Korea and Japanese control of Liaodong Peninsula and Penghu Islands. Balance of power in Asia permanently altered,1899, With newly gained power from recent industrialization, Japan successfully renegotiates aspects of the Unequal Treaties.
1904–1905, The Russo-Japanese War begins with an attack and ends by an eventual Japanese victory over Imperial Russia. Japanese control over Korea until World War II is assured,1910, Empire of Japan annexes Korea. 1911, The Chinese Revolution overthrows the Manchu Qing Dynasty and establishes the Republic of China,1914, During World War I Japan and other Allies seize German colonial possessions. 1919, The May Fourth Movement erupts in Beijing to protest to the Chinese government’s weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, Japan, as a member of the victorious Allies during World War I, gains a mandate over various Pacific islands previously part of the German colonial empire
Field marshal is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is and it is considered as a five-star rank in modern-day armed forces in many countries. The origin of the dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the kings horses. Promotion to the rank of marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general. However, the rank has used as a divisional command rank. The traditional attribute distinguishing a field marshal is a baton, the baton nowadays is purely ornamental, and as such may be richly decorated. That said, it is not necessary for the insignia to be a baton, the exact wording of the titles used by field marshals varies, examples include marshal and field marshal general. The air force equivalent in Commonwealth and many Middle Eastern air forces is marshal of the air force. Navies, which usually do not use the nomenclature employed by armies or air forces, use titles such as fleet admiral, Field marshal Mohammad Qasim Fahim was a politician in Afghanistan who served as Vice President from June 2002 until December 2004 and from November 2009 until his death.
Between September 2001 and December 2004, he served as Defense Minister under the Afghan Transitional Administration. As military commander of the Northern Alliance, Fahim captured the Afghan capital Kabul in the fall of 2001 from the Taliban government, in 2004 President Hamid Karzai provided Fahim the honorary title Marshal and a year he became member of the House of Elders. He became a recipient of the Ahmad Shah Baba Medal, Fahim was a member of Afghanistans Tajik ethnic group. He was affiliated with the Jamiat Islami party of Afghanistan, Sir Thomas Blamey was the first and is the only Australian-born field marshal. He was promoted to the rank on the insistence of the Australian prime minister, Sir Robert Menzies, Blamey was, at the time of his promotion, seriously ill and mostly bed-ridden in the Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital. He was presented with his marshals baton at a ceremony held in the sunroom at the Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital by the Governor-General of Australia. Blameys field marshals baton is on display in the Second World War galleries at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.
Currently, the only Australian field marshal is HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, during Imperial rule in China, different dynasty gave different titles to generals. A very similar title is 司馬 in Eastern Han dynasty, which means master of horse
Timeline of the Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom, from 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District, along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys. The Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939, but grew to more than 130,000 people. Over 90% of the cost was for building factories and producing the fissionable materials, with less than 10% for development, two types of atomic bomb were developed during the war. A relatively simple gun-type fission weapon was made using uranium-235, an isotope that makes up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium, since it is chemically identical to the most common isotope, uranium-238, and has almost the same mass, it proved difficult to separate. Three methods were employed for uranium enrichment, gaseous, most of this work was performed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
In parallel with the work on uranium was an effort to produce plutonium, reactors were constructed at Oak Ridge and Hanford, Washington, in which uranium was irradiated and transmuted into plutonium. The plutonium was separated from the uranium. The following is a timeline of the Manhattan Project, september 3, Great Britain and France declare war on Nazi Germany in response to its invasion of Poland, beginning World War II. October 11, Economist Alexander Sachs meets with President Roosevelt and delivers the Einstein–Szilárd letter, Roosevelt authorizes the creation of the Advisory Committee on Uranium. October 21, First meeting of the Advisory Committee on Uranium, $6,000 is budgeted for neutron experiments. March 2, John R. Dunnings team at Columbia University verifies Niels Bohrs hypothesis that uranium 235 is responsible for fission by slow neutrons, the memorandum is given to Mark Oliphant, who in turn hands it over to Sir Henry Tizard. April 10, MAUD Committee established by Tizard to investigate feasibility of an atomic bomb, may 21, George Kistiakowsky suggests using gaseous diffusion as a means of isotope separation.
June 12, Roosevelt creates the National Defense Research Committee under Vannevar Bush, september 6, Bush tells Briggs that NDRC will provide $40,000 for the uranium project. February 25, Conclusive discovery of plutonium by Glenn Seaborg and Arthur Wahl, may 17, A report by Arthur Compton and the National Academy of Sciences is issued which finds favorable the prospects of developing nuclear power production for military use. June 28, Roosevelt creates the Office of Scientific Research and Development under Vannevar Bush with the signing of Executive Order 8807, OSRD absorbs NDRC and the Uranium Committee. James B. Conant succeeds Bush as the head of NDRC, july 2, The MAUD Committee chooses James Chadwick to write the second draft of its report on the design and costs of developing a bomb
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943. He ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy, known as Il Duce, Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism. In 1912 Mussolini was the member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party. Mussolini was expelled from the PSI for withdrawing his support for the stance on neutrality in World War I. He served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917, Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism, and founded the fascist movement. Following the March on Rome in October 1922 he became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014, within five years he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, aspiring to create a totalitarian state.
Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1943, a few months later, he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy, he held this post until his death in 1945. Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe until at least 1942, Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, resulting in declarations of war by France and the United Kingdom and starting World War II. In the summer of 1941 Mussolini sent Italian forces to participate in the invasion of the Soviet Union, and war with the United States followed in December. On 24 July 1943, soon after the start of the Allied invasion of Italy, the Grand Council of Fascism voted against him, on 12 September 1943, Mussolini was rescued from prison in the Gran Sasso raid by German special forces. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north and his body was taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.
Mussolini was born in Dovia di Predappio, a town in the province of Forlì in Romagna on 29 July 1883. During the Fascist era, Predappio was dubbed Duces town, pilgrims went to Predappio and Forlì, to see the birthplace of Mussolini. His father, Alessandro Mussolini, was a blacksmith and a Socialist, while his mother, Benito was the eldest of his parents three children. His siblings Arnaldo and Edvige followed, as a young boy, Mussolini would spend some time helping his father in his smithy. His fathers political outlook combined views of anarchist figures like Carlo Cafiero and Mikhail Bakunin, the military authoritarianism of Garibaldi, in 1902, at the anniversary of Garibaldis death, Benito Mussolini made a public speech in praise of the republican nationalist. The conflict between his parents about religion meant that, unlike most Italians, Mussolini was not baptized at birth, as a compromise with his mother, Mussolini was sent to a boarding school run by Salesian monks. After joining a new school, Mussolini achieved good grades, in 1902, Mussolini emigrated to Switzerland, partly to avoid military service
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honour in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George and it is awarded at the Sovereigns pleasure as a personal gift on recipients from the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St Georges Day, the orders emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne, the list includes Sir Sanchet DAbrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed, the Kings wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Also, its original statutes required that member of the Order already be a knight.
The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch and it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter, at the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St.1431. Various legends account for the origin of the Order, the most popular legend involves the Countess of Salisbury, whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, Honi soit qui mal y pense, King Edward supposedly recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order. This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774, The motto in fact refers to Edwards claim to the French throne, the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used to fasten armour. Medieval scholars have pointed to a connection between the Order of the Garter and the Middle English poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, in Gawain, a girdle, very similar in its erotic undertones to the garter, plays a prominent role.
A rough version of the Orders motto appears in the text and it translates from Old French as Accursed be a cowardly and covetous heart. While the author of that poem remains disputed, there seems to be a connection between two of the top candidates and the Order of the Garter. Scholar J. P. Oakden has suggested that it is related to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, more importantly. Another competing theory is that the work was written for Enguerrand de Coucy, the Sire de Coucy was married to King Edward IIIs daughter and was given admittance to the Order of the Garter on their wedding day
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Timeline of World War II (1941)
This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II from 1941, marked by the beginning of Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front. 1, Accounting of the nights bombing of London reveals that the Old Bailey, the Guildhall. RAF bombs aircraft factories in Bremen, Germany,2, German bombers, perhaps off course, bomb Irish Free State for the second night in a row. 2–4, Bardia is bombed by British bombers and bombarded by naval vessels off shore,3, RAF bombers attacked Bremen and the Kiel Canal in Germany. The Kiel Canal Bridge suffered a hit and collapsed on Finnish ship Yrsa. 5, Operation Compass, Australian troops of XIII Corps capture Italian-held Bardia and 45,000 Italian prisoners are taken, the next target, is 70 miles away. The leader of Wallonias fascist party, Léon Degrelle, gives a speech in the German-occupied city of Liège announcing the support of the Rexist Party for German Nazism,6, The Greeks advance towards Klisura Pass. 7, British and Commonwealth offensive in North Africa nears Tobruk,10, Lend-Lease introduced into the U. S.
Congress. German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement is signed, German aircraft damage aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious, which is heading for Malta. German Luftwaffe, it is now clear, has command of air over the Mediterranean, the attack is the opening of Maltas agony over the next months. Greek forces in Albania take the strategically important Klissoura pass,11, In London,57 people are killed and 69 injured when a German bomb lands outside the Bank of England, demolishing the Underground station below and leaving a 120-foot crater. 12, Operation Compass and Australian troops of XIII Corps prepare for the assault on Italian-held Tobruk,13, Heavy Luftwaffe night raid on Plymouth. 14, First use of V for Victory by Victor de Laveleye on the BBCs Belgian service,15, The rivalry between Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists becomes more evident, large numbers of the latter are forced to give up their arms, reluctantly of course. 16, British forces start the first attacks of their East African counter-offensive, on Italian-held Ethiopia, from Kenya, German bombers pound Valletta, Malta,17, The Battle of Ko Chang ended in a decisive victory for the Vichy French naval forces during the Franco-Thai War.
Molotov meets German Ambassador Schulenburg in Moscow, the Soviets are surprised that they have not received any answer from Germany to their offer to join the Axis. Schulenburg replies that it has to be first discussed with Italy,18, Air raids on Malta are increasing in focus and intensity. 19, The 4th and 5th Indian Divisions continue the British counter-offensive in East Africa and Mussolini meet at Berchtesgaden, Hitler agrees to provide aid in North Africa. 21, Operation Compass and Australian troops of XIII Corps complete capture of Italian-held Tobruk, there are reports that Romanian Fascist are executing Jews in Bucharest
Diplomatic history of World War II
The Diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies and the Axis powers. The military history of the war is covered at World War II, the United States, the Soviet Union and China were the Big Four Allied powers, who called themselves The United Nations. They were joined by other countries, such as Canada, and other Commonwealth countries, as well as governments in exile, such as the Free France. The Cairo Conference held in Cairo, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II, the meeting was attended by President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin did not attend the conference because his meeting with Chiang could have caused friction between the Soviet Union and Japan. Britain, the USSR and the US, were in frequent contact through ambassadors, top generals, foreign ministers, there were numerous high-level conferences, in total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, and Stalin 5.
Most visible were the three conferences that brought together the three top leaders. The first meeting of the Big Three, Stalin and Churchill and it agreed on an invasion of France in 1944 and dealt with Turkey, Iran and the war against Japan as well as the post-war settlement. The Yalta Conference met in the Crimea February 4–11,1945 and it focused on postwar plans for European boundaries. The new boundaries of Poland were especially important, with Stalin seeking control of western Belorussia, Poland was to gain parts of Germany. Stalin promised free elections in Poland under the auspices of a government he controlled, at Roosevelts strong urging, Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan three months after the defeat of Germany. It was agreed the USSR would be a member of the United Nations Security Council, with a veto, and Ukraine and Belorussia would be UN members, Germany was to be divided into three zones of occupation, and France was to get a zone. In a decision that became controversial, all civilians would be repatriated.
The Potsdam Conference was held July 17-Aug,2,1945, at Potsdam, near Berlin. Stalin met with the new U. S. President Harry S. Truman and it demanded unconditional surrender from Japan, and finalized arrangements for Germany to be occupied and controlled by the Allied Control Commission. The status of occupied countries was discussed in line with the basic agreements made earlier at Yalta. The conference was held at Dumbarton Oaks from August 21,1944 to October 7,1944, San Francisco Conference was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, United States. At this convention, the delegates reviewed and rewrote the Dumbarton Oaks agreements, though most Americans favoured Britain in the war, there was widespread opposition to American military intervention in European affairs
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In this sense, officers are not enlisted, but hold appointments from their government that typically remain in force indefinitely unless resigned, the proportion of officers varies greatly. Officers typically make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel, in 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, and the senior 13. 7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, however, armed forces have generally had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers, in the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12. 5%. Within a nations armed forces, armies tend to have a proportion of officers. For example,13. 9% of British army personnel and 22. 2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, having officers is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though these officers need not have obtained an official commission or warrant.
Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in an armed forces environment, a superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, who is a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se, many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning, even from the enlisted ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel, the IDF often sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers, the first, and primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. The third route is similar to the second, in that they convert from an enlisted to a commission, but these are taken from the highest ranks of SNCOs.
LE officers, whilst holding the same Queens Commission, generally work in different roles from the DE officers, in the infantry, a number of Warrant Officer Class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 30-week period at RAF College Cranwell, Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a grueling 15-month course. The courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, etiquette, until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least socially mobile, AOCS also included the embedded Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate and Naval Aviation Cadet programs. NAVCADs were personnel who held associates degrees, but lacked bachelors degrees, nAVCADs would complete the entire AOCS program, but would not be commissioned until completion of flight training and receiving their wings.
After their initial tour, they would be assigned to a college or university full-time for no more than two years in order to complete their bachelors degree
Emperor Shōwa was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25,1926, until his death on January 7,1989. He was succeeded by his eldest son, upon his death, although better known outside Japan by his personal name Hirohito, in Japan, he is now referred to primarily by his posthumous name Emperor Shōwa. The word Shōwa is the name of the era that corresponded with the Emperors reign, the name Hirohito means abundant benevolence. He was the head of state under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japans imperial expansion, born in Tokyos Aoyama Palace, Hirohito was the first son of Crown Prince Yoshihito and Crown Princess Sadako. He was the grandson of Emperor Meiji and Yanagihara Naruko and his childhood title was Prince Michi. At the age of 3, Hirohito and his brother Chichibu were returned to court when Kawamura died – first to the mansion in Numazu, Shizuoka. In 1908, he began studies at the Gakushūin. When his grandfather, Emperor Meiji, died on July 30,1912, Hirohitos father, assumed the throne, in 1914, he was promoted to the ranks of lieutenant in the army and sub-lieutenant in the navy, to captain and lieutenant in 1916.
He was formally proclaimed Crown Prince and heir apparent on November 2,1916, Hirohito attended Gakushūin Peers School from 1908 to 1914 and a special institute for the crown prince from 1914 to 1921. In 1920, Hirohito was promoted to the rank of Major in the army, in 1921, Hirohito took a six-month tour of Western Europe, including the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium. After his return to Japan, he became Regent of Japan on November 29,1921, in 1923, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the army and Commander in the navy, and to army Colonel and Navy Captain in 1925. The Washington Naval Treaty was signed on February 6,1922, Japan withdrew troops from the Siberian Intervention on August 28,1922. The Great Kantō earthquake devastated Tokyo on September 1,1923, on December 27,1923, Daisuke Namba attempted to assassinate Hirohito in the Toranomon Incident but his attempt failed. During interrogation, he claimed to be a communist and was executed, the General Election Law was passed on May 5,1925, giving all men above age 25 the right to vote.
Prince Hirohito married his distant cousin Princess Nagako Kuni, the eldest daughter of Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni and they had two sons and five daughters. On December 25,1926, Hirohito assumed the throne upon his father, the Crown Prince was said to have received the succession. The Taishō eras end and the Shōwa eras beginning were proclaimed, the deceased Emperor was posthumously renamed Emperor Taishō within days. Following Japanese custom, the new Emperor was never referred to by his name, but rather was referred to simply as His Majesty the Emperor