A bitters is traditionally an alcoholic preparation flavored with botanical matter such that the end result is characterized by a bitter, sour, or bittersweet flavor. Numerous longstanding brands of bitters were originally developed as patent medicines, the botanical ingredients used in preparing bitters have historically consisted of aromatic herbs, roots, and/or fruit for their flavour and medicinal properties. Some of the common ingredients are cascarilla, gentian, orange peel. Most bitters contain both water and alcohol, the latter of which functions as a solvent for botanical extracts as well as a preservative, the alcoholic strength of bitters varies widely across different brands and styles. The earliest origins of bitters can be traced back as far as the ancient Egyptians, who may have infused medicinal herbs in jars of wine. By the 19th century, the British practice of adding herbal bitters to Canary wine had become popular in the former American colonies. ”Of the commercial aromatic bitters that would emerge from this period.
In spite of its name, the preparation contains no medicinal bark from the tree, instead it is named after the town of Angostura, todays Ciudad Bolívar. In 1824, German physician Dr. Johann Gottlieb Benjamin Siegert compounded a cure for sea sickness and stomach maladies, Dr. Siegert subsequently formed the House of Angostura to sell the bitters to sailors. Orange bitters are commonly called for in older cocktail recipes, bitters prepared from the tree bark containing the antimalarial quinine were occasionally included in historical cocktail recipes, which served to mask the intensely bitter flavor of this medicine. Trace quantities of quinine are still included as a flavoring in tonic water, antique commercial bitters bottles are highly collectible, the oldest and rarest of which sometimes command prices in the tens of thousands USD. Digestive bitters are typically consumed either neat or with ice at the end of a meal in many European, including popular Italian-style amaros and German-style Kräuter liquors, are often used in cocktails as well.
Some notable examples of digestive bitters available today include, Cocktail bitters are typically used for flavoring cocktails in drops or dashes, in the United States, many cocktail bitters are classified as alcoholic non-beverage products. As alcoholic non-beverage products, they are available from retailers who do not sell liquor
Hudson, New York
Hudson is a city located along the west border of Columbia County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 6,713, the city is named after the adjacent Hudson River and ultimately after the explorer Henry Hudson. Hudson is the county seat of Columbia County, Hudson is sister city with Pallisa, Uganda. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.3 square miles. 2.2 square miles of it is land and 0.15 square miles, Hudson is located on what began as a spit of land jutting into the Hudson River between the South Bay and North Bay, now both largely filled in. Across the Hudson River lies the town of Athens in Greene County, New York, the town of Greenport borders the other three sides of the city. As of the census of 2010, there were 6,713 people,2,766 households, the population was estimated at 6,648 in 2013. These numbers include the approximately 360 residents of the local Hudson Correctional Facility, the population density was 3,110.8 inhabitants per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 59. 0% White,25. 0% African American,0. 4% Native American,7. 1% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander, hispanic or Latino of any race were 8. 2% of the population. 40. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was out with 22. 5% under the age of 18,9. 8% from 18 to 24,27. 3% from 25 to 44,27. 0% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37.5 years, for every 100 females there were 106.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.6 males, the median income for a household in the city was $35,117, and the median income for a family was $37,400. Males had an income of $26,274 versus $22,598 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,353, about 23. 0% of families and 23. 2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31. 8% of those under age 18 and 19. 1% of those age 65 or over.
The land was purchased from native Mahicans by Dutch settlers in 1662 and was part of the town of Claverack. Settled by New England whalers and merchants hailing primarily from Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, the self-described Proprietors laid out a city grid, and Hudson grew rapidly as an active port, coming within one vote of being named the capital of New York state. The city grew rapidly and by 1790 was the 24th largest city in the United States, as late as 1820, it was the fourth largest city in New York
The martini is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth, and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist. Over the years, the martini has become one of the best-known mixed alcoholic beverages, H. L. Mencken called the martini the only American invention as perfect as the sonnet and E. B. White called it the elixir of quietude, over time the generally expected garnish became the drinkers choice of a green olive or a twist of lemon peel. A dry Martini is made dry, white vermouth. By the Roaring Twenties, it common to ask for them. Over the course of the century, the amount of vermouth steadily dropped, during the 1930s the ratio was 3,1, and during the 1940s the ratio was 4,1. During the latter part of the 20th century,6,1,8,1,12,1,15,1, a dirty Martini contains a splash of olive brine or olive juice and is typically garnished with an olive. A perfect Martini uses equal amounts of sweet and dry vermouth, some Martinis were prepared by filling a cocktail glass with gin, rubbing a finger of vermouth along the rim.
There are those who advocated the elimination of vermouth altogether, according to Noël Coward, A perfect Martini should be made by filling a glass with gin, waving it in the general direction of Italy, Italy being a major producer of vermouth. Luis Buñuel used the dry Martini as part of his creative process and he offers his own recipe, involving Angostura bitters, in his memoir. In 1966, the American Standards Association released K100. 1-1966, Safety Code and Requirements for Dry Martinis, a humorous account of how to make a standard dry martini. The latest revision of this document, K100. 1-1974, was published by American National Standards Institute, there are a number of variations on the traditional Martini. The fictional spy James Bond sometimes asked for his vodka Martinis to be shaken, not stirred, following Harry Craddocks The Savoy Cocktail Book, the proper name for a shaken Martini is a Bradford. However, Somerset Maugham is often quoted as saying that a Martini should always be stirred, not shaken, a Martini may be served on the rocks, that is, with the ingredients poured over ice cubes and served in an Old-Fashioned glass.
The exact origin of the martini is unclear, in 1863, an Italian vermouth maker started marketing their product under the brand name of Martini, after its director Alessandro Martini, and the brand name may be the source of the cocktails name. Alternatively, the people of Martinez say the drink was first created by a bartender in their town, put a quarter of a slice of lemon in the glass, and serve. If the guest prefers it very sweet, add two dashes of gum syrup, numerous cocktails with names and ingredients similar to the modern-day martini were seen in other bartending guides of the late 19th century. For example, in the 1888 Bartenders Manual there was a recipe for a drink that consisted in part of half a glass of Old Tom Gin
A bartender is a person who formulates and serves alcoholic beverages behind the bar, usually in a licensed establishment. Bartenders usually maintain the supplies and inventory for the bar, a bartender can generally mix classic cocktails such as a Cosmopolitan, Old Fashioned, and Mojito. The bartending profession was generally a second occupation, used as work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees. This however is changing around the world and bartending has become a profession by choice rather than necessity, in America, where tipping is a local custom, bartenders depend on tips for most of their income. Bartenders are responsible for confirming that customers meet the legal drinking age requirements before serving them alcoholic beverages. In certain countries, such as the United Kingdom and Sweden, as such, it lacks traditional employment protections and therefore has a high turnover. The high turnover of staff due to low wages and poor employee benefits results in a shortage of skilled bartenders, some pubs prefer experienced staff, although pub chains tend to accept inexperienced staff and provide training.
Tipping bartenders in the United Kingdom is not considered mandatory but is appreciated by the bartender. Bartenders may attend special schools or learn while on the job, Bartenders in the United States may work in a large variety of bars. These include hotel bars, restaurant bars, sports bars, gay bars, piano bars, growing in popularity is the portable bar, which can be moved to different venues and special events. Bar-back, a bartenders assistant Hospitality List of bartenders List of public house topics List of restaurant terminology Tavern Media related to Bartenders at Wikimedia Commons
Gin is a spirit which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries. From its earliest origins in the Middle Ages, gin has evolved from use in medicine to an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin is one of the broadest categories of spirits, represented by products of various origins, Gin emerged in England in varying forms as of the early 17th century, and at the time of the Restoration, enjoyed a brief resurgence. Gin drinking in England rose significantly after the Government allowed unlicensed gin production and this created a market for poor-quality grain that was unfit for brewing beer, and thousands of gin-shops sprang up throughout England, a period known as the Gin Craze. Because of the price of gin, when compared with other drinks available at the same time and in the same geographic location. Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, not including coffee shops and drinking chocolate shops, Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was often safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water.
Gin, was blamed for various problems. The reputation of the two drinks was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane, described by the BBC as arguably the most potent anti-drug poster ever conceived. The negative reputation of gin survives today in the English language, in terms like gin mills or the American phrase gin joints to describe disreputable bars, the epithet mothers ruin is a common British name for gin, the origin of which is the subject of ongoing debate. The Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets, the prohibitive duty was gradually reduced and finally abolished in 1742. The Gin Act 1751 was more successful, however, it forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers, Gin in the 18th century was produced in pot stills, and was somewhat sweeter than the London gin known today. In London in the early 18th century, much gin was distilled legally in residential houses and was often flavoured with turpentine to generate resinous woody notes in addition to the juniper.
As late as 1913, Websters Dictionary states without further comment, another common variation was to distill in the presence of sulphuric acid. Although the acid itself does not distil, it imparts the aroma of diethyl ether to the resulting gin. Sulphuric acid subtracts one water molecule from two molecules to create diethyl ether, which forms an azeotrope with ethanol. The result is a spirit, and one that may have possessed additional analgesic or even intoxicating effects – see Paracelsus. Dutch or Belgian gin, known as jenever or genever, evolved from malt wine spirits, Schiedam, a city in the province of South Holland, is famous for its jenever-producing history. The oude style of jenever remained very popular throughout the 19th century, the 19th century gave rise to a style of gin referred to as Old Tom Gin, which is a softer, sweeter style of gin, often containing sugar
St. Louis is an independent city and major U. S. port in the state of Missouri, built along the western bank of the Mississippi River, on the border with Illinois. Prior to European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture. The city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, in 1764, following Frances defeat in the Seven Years War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase, during the 19th century, St. Louis developed as a major port on the Mississippi River. In the 1870 Census, St. Louis was ranked as the 4th-largest city in the United States and it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics, the economy of metro St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, and tourism.
This city has become known for its growing medical, pharmaceutical. St. Louis has 2 professional sports teams, the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the city is commonly identified with the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in Downtown St. Louis. The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture and their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the Mound City and these mounds were mostly demolished during the citys development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane. The earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years War, Pierre Laclède, the early French families built the citys economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe, French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River, before then, Laclede had been a very successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area
A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with fruit, herbs, flowers or nuts and bottled with added sugar or other sweetener. Liqueurs are typically sweet, they are usually not aged for long after the ingredients are mixed. In the United States and Canada, where spirits are often called liquor, there is confusion over liqueurs and liquors. You can distinguish them from each other because liqueurs are quite sweet and often syrupy in consistency, most liqueurs have a lower alcohol content than spirits, but some contain as much as 55% ABV. Liqueurs are historical descendants of herbal medicines, they were made in Italy as early as the 13th century and were prepared by monks. Nowadays, liqueurs are made worldwide and are served in many ways, by themselves, poured over ice, with coffee, mixed with cream or other mixers to create cocktails and they are often served with or after a dessert. Liqueurs are used in cooking, some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers in either water or alcohol and adding sugar or other items.
Others are distilled from aromatic or flavoring agents, layered drinks are made by floating different-colored liqueurs in separate layers. Each liqueur is poured slowly into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, the word liqueur comes from the Latin liquifacere via French. Liqueurs Liqueurs at The Cooks Thesaurus
Sugar is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose, the table sugar or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar is used in prepared foods and it is added to some foods, in the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk, longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may have a sweet taste, low-calorie food substitutes for sugar, described as artificial sweeteners, include aspartame and sucralose, a chlorinated derivative of sucrose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants and are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient commercial extraction in sugarcane, the world production of sugar in 2011 was about 168 million tonnes.
The average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in sugars, especially refined sugars, is good for human health. Sugar has been linked to obesity, and suspected of, or fully implicated as a cause in the occurrence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, macular degeneration, the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. The English word sugar ultimately originates from the Sanskrit शर्करा, via Arabic سكر as granular or candied sugar, the contemporary Italian word is zucchero, whereas the Spanish and Portuguese words, azúcar and açúcar, have kept a trace of the Arabic definite article. The Old French word is zuchre and the contemporary French, the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin – Portuguese jagara from the Sanskrit शर्करा.
Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and it was not plentiful or cheap in early times and honey was more often used for sweetening in most parts of the world. Originally, people chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness, sugarcane was a native of tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule, one of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating back to 8th century BC that state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. Sugar was found in Europe by the 1st century AD, but only as an imported medicine and it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, and it crunches between the teeth. It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut, sugar is used only for medical purposes. Sugar remained relatively unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store, crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century AD
Vodka is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, vodka is made by the distillation of cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented, though some modern brands use other substances, the European Union has established a minimum of 37. 5% ABV for any European vodka to be named as such. Products sold as vodka in the United States must have an alcohol content of 40%. Even with these restrictions, most vodka sold contains 40% ABV. For homemade vodkas and distilled beverages referred to as moonshine, see moonshine by country, Vodka is traditionally drunk neat, though it is often served chilled in the vodka belt countries. It is used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the vodka martini, vodka tonic, Greyhound, Black or White Russian, Moscow Mule. The name vodka is a form of the Slavic word voda, interpreted as little water. The word vodka was recorded for the first time in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, at the time, the word vodka referred to medicines and cosmetic products, while the beverage was called gorzałka, which is the source of Ukrainian horilka.
The word vodka written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus. Although the word vodka could be found in manuscripts and in lubok pictograms. It was attested in Sámuel Gyarmathis Russian-German-Hungarian glossary of 1799, where it is glossed with Latin vinum adustum, in English literature the word vodka was attested already in the late 18th century. In a book of his travels published in English in 1780, william Tooke in 1799 glossed vodka as rectified corn-spirits. In French, Théophile Gautier in 1800 glossed it as a grain liquor served with meals in Poland, in Russian during the 17th and 18th centuries, горящѣе вино or горячее вино was widely used. Others languages include the German Branntwein, Danish brændevin, brandewijn, Swedish, brännvin, scholars debate the beginnings of vodka. It is an issue because very little historical material is available. For many centuries, beverages differed significantly compared to the vodka of today, as the spirit at that time had a different flavor and smell and it contained little alcohol, an estimated maximum of about 14%, as only this amount can be attained by natural fermentation.
The still, allowing for distillation, increased purity, and increased alcohol content, was invented in the 8th century, in Poland, vodka has been produced since the early Middle Ages with local traditions as varied as the production of cognac in France, or Scottish whisky. The word written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus, in these early days, the spirits were used mostly as medicines
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis
The Archdiocese of St. Louis is the Roman Catholic archdiocese that covers the City of St. Louis and the Missouri counties of Franklin, Lincoln, Saint Charles, Saint Francois, Ste. Genevieve, St. Louis and Washington and it is the metropolitan see to the suffragan sees of the Diocese of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, the Diocese of Jefferson City, and the Diocese of Kansas City-St. It is currently led by Robert James Carlson, the former Bishop of Saginaw, who was named the Archbishop-elect on April 21,2009, by Pope Benedict XVI, Archbishop Carlson is assisted by Auxiliary Bishop Emeritus Robert Joseph Hermann. His predecessor was Archbishop Raymond Burke until Burkes transfer to the position of Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura on June 27,2008, the archdiocesan cathedral is the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis. The original cathedral and mother church is the Basilica of St. Louis, the Archdiocese is one of two in the world that has both an Archbishop and a Cardinal, as Raymond Burkes See remains St.
Louis, and represents the Archdiocese in the College of Cardinals. The first parish of Saint Louis was established in 1770 and it was incorporated into the Diocese of Louisiana, the diocese originally encompassed the entire Louisiana Purchase, from the Gulf of Mexico to British North America, as well as the Florida peninsula and the Gulf Coast. The date of its establishment makes it the second-oldest diocese in the present-day United States, at the time of its establishment, the territory of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Two Floridas was part of the Archdiocese of San Cristobal de la Habana, based in Havana, Cuba. The diocese was divided into smaller dioceses several times, and many dioceses in the central United States were originally part of the Diocese of Louisiana. The city of Saint Louis was sold to the United States in 1803, the areas first bishop was Louis William Valentine Dubourg, who on September 24,1815, was appointed Bishop of Louisiana and the Two Floridas by Pope Pius VII.
He was the Bishop of the Louisiana Territory from 1815-1826, unlike his predecessor, who set up his see in New Orleans, DuBourg chose to set up his episcopal see in St. Louis. When founded, it included the state of Missouri, the half of Illinois. It was the largest American diocese, equaling in extent all of the nine dioceses. Its first bishop, Joseph Rosati, led the Roman Catholic Churchs expansion of its presence in these areas and he was the Bishop of St. Louis from 1826-1843. On July 28,1837, territory in Iowa, until 1840, the Old Cathedral was the only church in the city. By 1850, there were 10, Cathedral of St. Louis, St. Mary of Victories, St. Francis Xavier, St. Patrick, St. Joseph, St. Vincent de Paul, St. John the Apostle, Sts. Peter and Paul, Holy Trinity, and St. Michael, the St. Louis Diocese was elevated to an Archdiocese on July 20,1847, by Pope Pius IX. Because of its strong Catholic identity and having been the diocese of many dioceses in the midwest. It is dedicated to Saint Louis IX and has as its copatrons Saints Vincent de Paul, St.
Louis IX, the patron of the archdiocese, represents the ideal Christian knight- a fervent layman, a man of honor and a leader unafraid of exhibiting his ardent spirituality
The Savoy Hotel is a luxury hotel located in the Strand in the City of Westminster in central London, England. Built by the impresario Richard DOyly Carte with profits from his Gilbert and Sullivan opera productions and it was the first in the Savoy group of hotels and restaurants owned by Cartes family for over a century. The hotel became Cartes most successful venture and its bands, Savoy Orpheans and the Savoy Havana Band, became famous, and other entertainers included George Gershwin, Frank Sinatra, Lena Horne and Noël Coward. Winston Churchill often took his cabinet to lunch at the hotel, the hotel is now managed by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. It has been called Londons most famous hotel and it has 268 rooms and panoramic views of the River Thames across Savoy Place and the Thames Embankment. The hotel is a Grade II listed building, the House of Savoy was the ruling family of Savoy, descended from Humbert I, Count of Sabaudia, who became count in 1032. The name Sabaudia evolved into Savoy, Count Peter of Savoy was the maternal uncle of Eleanor of Provence, queen-consort of Henry III of England, and came with her to London.
King Henry III made Peter Earl of Richmond and, in 1246, Peter gifted the palace and the manor of the Savoy to the Congregation of Canons of the Great Saint Bernard, and the palace became the Great Hospital of St Bernard de Monte Jovis in Savoy. The manor was purchased by Queen Eleanor, who gave the site to her second son, Edmund. Edmunds great-granddaughter, inherited the site and her husband, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, built a magnificent palace that was burned down by Wat Tylers followers in the Peasants Revolt of 1381. King Richard II was still a child, and his uncle John of Gaunt was the power behind the throne, in about 1505, Henry VII planned a great hospital for pouer, nedie people, leaving money and instructions for it in his will. The hospital was built in the ruins and licensed in 1512. Drawings show that it was a magnificent building, with a dormitory, dining hall, Henry VIIs hospital lasted for two centuries, but suffered from poor management. The sixteenth-century historian Stow noted that the hospital was being misused by loiterers, vagabonds, in 1702, the hospital was dissolved, and the hospital buildings were used for other purposes.
Part of the old palace was used as a prison in the eighteenth century. In the nineteenth century, the old buildings were demolished. Opened in 1889, the hotel was designed by architect Thomas Edward Collcutt, Carte chose the name Savoy to commemorate the history of the property. His investors in the venture were, in addition to his relatives, Carl Rosa, George Grossmith, François Cellier, George Edwardes, Augustus Harris and his friend, the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan, was a shareholder and sat on the Board of Directors