A charge is a maneuver in battle in which combatants advance towards their enemy at their best speed in an attempt to engage in close combat. The charge is the dominant shock attack and has been the key tactic, modern charges usually involve small groups against individual positions instead of large groups of combatants charging another group or a fortified line. It may be assumed that the charge was practised in prehistoric warfare, the tactics of the classical Greek phalanx included an ordered approach march, with a final charge to contact. Initially successful, it was countered by effective discipline and the development of defensive bayonet tactics, the development of the bayonet in the late 17th century led to the bayonet charge becoming the main infantry charge tactic through the 19th century and into the 20th. As early as the 19th century, tactical scholars were already noting that most bayonet charges did not result in close combat, one side usually fled before actual bayonet fighting ensued.
The act of fixing bayonets has been held to be connected to morale. The shock value of an attack has been especially exploited in cavalry tactics. However, when cavalry charges succeeded, it was due to the defending formation breaking up and scattering. It must be noted, that while it was not recommended for a charge to continue against unbroken infantry. The cavalry charge was a significant tactic in the Middle Ages and these developments began in the 7th century but were not combined to full effect until the 11th century. The Battle of Dyrrhachium was an instance of the familiar medieval cavalry charge. By the time of the First Crusade in the 1090s, the charge was being employed widely by European armies. It became increasingly common for knights to dismount and fight as heavy infantry. The use of cavalry for flanking manoeuvres became more useful, although interpretations of the knightly ideal often led to reckless. Cavalry could still charge dense heavy infantry formations head-on if the cavalrymen had a combination of certain traits, the majority of cavalry personnel lacked at least one of these traits, particularly discipline and horses trained for head-on charges.
In the twentieth century, the charge was seldom used, though it enjoyed sporadic. In what was called the last true cavalry charge, elements of the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States attacked Villista forces in the Battle of Guerrero on 29 March 1916. The battle was a victory for the Americans, occurring in desert terrain, at the Mexican town of Vicente Guerrero, Chihuahua
Close quarters combat
Close quarters combat is a tactical concept that involves physical confrontation between several combatants. It can take place between military units and criminals, and other similar scenarios. In the typical close quarters combat scenario, the try a very fast, violent takeover of a vehicle or structure controlled by the defenders. Because enemies, hostages/civilians, and fellow operators can be intermingled, close quarters combat demands a rapid assault. The operators need great proficiency with their weapons, and the ability to make decisions in order to minimize accidental casualties. Therefore, much material relating to close quarters combat is written from the perspective of the authorities who must break into the stronghold where the force has barricaded itself. Typical examples would be commando operations behind enemy lines and hostage rescues, although there is considerable overlap, close quarters combat is not synonymous with urban warfare, now sometimes known by the military acronyms MOUT, FIBUA or OBUA in the West.
After the May Thirtieth Movement riots, which resulted in a massacre, Fairbairn was charged with developing an auxiliary squad for riot control. After absorbing the most appropriate elements from a variety of experts, from China and elsewhere. The aim of his system was simply to be as brutally effective as possible. It was a system, unlike traditional Eastern martial-arts that required years of intensive training, the method incorporated training in point shooting and gun combat techniques, as well as the effective use of more ad hoc weapons such as chairs or table legs. During the Second World War, Fairbairn was brought back to Britain, during this period, he expanded his Shanghai Method into the Silent Killing Close Quarters Combat method for military application. This became standard training for all British Special Operations personnel. He designed the pioneering Fairbairn-Sykes fighting knife, which was adopted for use by British, in 1942, he published a textbook for close quarters combat training called Get Tough. U. S.
Applegate published his work in 1943, called Kill or Get Killed, during the war, training was provided to British Commandos, the Devils Brigade, OSS, U. S. Army Rangers and Marine Raiders. Other combat systems designed for combat were introduced elsewhere, including European Unifight, Chinese Sanshou, Soviet/Russian sambo. The prevalence and style of combat training often changes based on perceived need. Elite units such as forces and commando units tend to place higher emphasis on hand-to-hand combat training
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. Urban combat is very different from combat in the open at both the operational and tactical level, complicating factors in urban warfare include the presence of civilians and the complexity of the urban terrain. Fighting in urban areas negates the advantages that one side may have over the other in armour, heavy artillery, some civilians may be difficult to distinguish from combatants such as armed militias and gangs, and particularly individuals who are simply trying to protect their homes from attackers. The United States Armed Forces term for urban warfare is UO, the previously used U. S. military term MOUT, an abbreviation for military operations in urban terrain, has been replaced by UO, although the term MOUT Site is still in use. The British armed forces terms are OBUA, FIBUA, or sometimes FISH, or FISH, israel Defense Forces calls urban warfare לשב, a Hebrew acronym for warfare on urban terrain. LASHAB in the IDF includes large-scale tactics, CQB training for fighting forces, the IDF has a special large and advanced facility for training soldiers and units in urban warfare.
Urban military operations in World War II often relied on large quantities of artillery bombardment, in some particularly vicious urban warfare operations such as Stalingrad and Warsaw, all weapons were used irrespective of their consequences. However, when liberating occupied territory some restraint was often applied, Military forces are bound by the laws of war governing military necessity to the amount of force which can be applied when attacking an area where there are known to be civilians. Until the 1970s, this was covered by the 1907 Hague Convention IV – The Laws, sometimes distinction and proportionality, as in the case of the Canadians in Ortona, causes the attacking force to restrain from using all the force they could when attacking a city. In other cases, such as the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Berlin, when Russian forces attacked Grozny in 1999, large amounts of artillery fire were used. Fighting in an environment can offer some advantages to a weaker defending force or to guerrilla fighters through ambush-induced attrition losses.
The attacking army must account for three dimensions more often, and consequently expend greater amounts of manpower in order to secure a myriad of structures, and mountains of rubble. Ferroconcrete structures will be ruined by heavy bombardment, but it is difficult to demolish such a building totally when it is well defended. The characteristics of a city include tall buildings, narrow alleys, sewage tunnels. Defenders may have the advantage of detailed knowledge of the area, right down to the layout inside of buildings. The buildings can provide excellent sniping posts while alleys and rubble-filled streets are ideal for planting booby traps, defenders can move from one part of the city to another undetected using underground tunnels and spring ambushes. Meanwhile, the attackers tend to more exposed than the defender as they must use the open streets more often, unfamiliar with the defenders secret. During a house to search the attacker is often exposed on the streets
Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of eastern Asia, it originally referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s. The term is derived from Latin, and means arts of Mars, Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts, Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Similarly, modern Western martial arts and sports include fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat or singlestick. Combat-oriented Health-oriented Many martial arts, especially those from Asia, teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices and this is particularly prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-oriented Martial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality, numerous systems are reputed to have been founded, disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns.
Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training, in those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like empty mind and beginners mind are recurrent, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of peace in a practitioner. The Koreans believe that the use of force is only justified through defense. Many such martial arts incorporate music, especially strong percussive rhythms, the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows.
Chinese martial arts originated during the Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago and it is said the Yellow Emperor Huangdi introduced the earliest fighting systems to China. The Yellow Emperor is described as a general who, before becoming Chinas leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine, astrology. One of his opponents was Chi You who was credited as the creator of jiao di. The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is likely a blend of early Chinese, during the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China
Combatives is a term for hand-to-hand combat training and techniques. Sometimes called Close Quarters Combat, World War II-era American combatives were largely developed by Britains William E. Fairbairn, similar training was provided to British Commandos, the First Special Service Force, Office of Strategic Services, Army Rangers, and Marine Raiders. Fairbairn at one point called this system Defendu and published on it, Fairbairn often referred to the technique as gutter fighting, a term which Applegate used, along with the Fairbairn system. Other combatives systems having their origins in the military include Chinese Sanshou, Soviet Bojewoje Sambo. De-emphasized in the United States after World War II, insurgency conflicts such as the Vietnam War, low intensity conflict, in August 2007, MAC training became required in every Army unit by Army regulation 350-1. The Modern Army Combatives Program was adopted as the basis for the Air Force Combatives Program in January 2008, in 2001, Matt Larsen, a Sergeant First Class, established the United States Army Combatives School at Fort Benning.
Students are taught techniques from the 2002 and 2009 versions of FM 3-25.150, the aim of the regimen is to teach soldiers how to train rather than attempting to give them the perfect techniques for any given situation. The main idea is all real ability is developed after the initial training. They are taught as small, easily repeatable drills, in which practitioners could learn multiple related techniques rapidly, the drill can be completed in less than a minute and can be done repeatedly with varying levels of resistance to maximize training benefits. New soldiers begin their Combatives training on day three of Initial Military Training, at the time that they are first issued their rifle. The training begins with learning to control of your weapon in a fight. The Combatives School teaches four instructor certification courses, students of the first course are not expected to have any knowledge of combatives upon arrival. They are taught fundamental techniques which are designed to illuminate the fundamental principles of combatives training.
The basic techniques form a framework upon which the rest of the program can build and are taught as a series of drills, while the course is heavy on grappling, it does not lose sight of the fact that it is a course designed for soldiers going into combat. It is made clear that while combatives can be used to kill or disable, his approach was to use the limited amount of institutional training time to lay a foundation for training around the Army. Drills were designed to teach core concepts to students. They instill basic movement patterns and so internalize the concept of a hierarchy of dominant positions, new techniques can be taught in context, for example a new choke can be practiced every time the appropriate position is reached. They allow students of different levels to work together, an advanced student will not necessarily pass the guard or achieve the mount in the same way as a beginner but the drill still functions as a framework for practice
A ranged weapon is any weapon that can harm targets at distances greater than hand-to-hand distance. In contrast, a weapon intended to be used in combat is called a melee weapon. Ranged weapons give the attacker an advantage in combat since the target has less time to react and it provides a safer combat option since melee combat often becomes a life or death struggle where each member has a high probability of dying. The line between ranged and melee weapons is not entirely definite, for instance, knives, early ranged weapons include thrown weapons such as javelins, darts, the bow and arrow, and medieval siege engines like stone throwers, catapults and trebuchets. Siege engines were used for passing or hitting obstacles like fortifications. After the invention of gunpowder and the development of firearms, ranged weapons became the weapon of choice, in modern warfare, ranged weaponry is used in the form of cruise and ballistic missiles. Maximum effective range of a weapon is the greatest distance fired, while some are small and light enough to be used by individuals, most require a team to aim, move or fire.
ISBN 1-58574-478-6 The Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 1, the Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 2. The Traditional Bowyers Bible Volume 3, the ballistics of the sling, Thom Richardson, Royal Armouries Yearbook, Volume 31998