Churchill, Hitler and the Unnecessary War
Churchill and the Unnecessary War, How Britain Lost Its Empire and the West Lost the World, is a book by Pat Buchanan, published in May 2008. In it, Buchanan argues that both world wars were unnecessary, and that Britains decision to fight in them was disastrous for the world, in Buchanans opinion, the results of British involvement in both world wars were a disaster for Britain and the world. Buchanan accuses Churchill, at that time First Lord of the Admiralty, Buchanan follows the conclusions of the American diplomat George F. He asserts that this was a policy of the Germans which tied England to Europe. He writes that in the century between Waterloo and World War I Britain had fought ten wars and Germany three. Buchanan writes in defense of Kaiser Wilhelm II that he had not fought a war in his 25-year reign, Churchill had himself seen more war than almost any soldier in the German army. Buchanan claims that Kaiser Wilhem was desperate to avoid a war in 1914, Buchanan accuses Churchill and Grey of illegally committing Britain to war in 1914 by making promises that Britain would defend France without the knowledge of either Cabinet or Parliament.
Buchanan argues that World War II could have been avoided if the Treaty of Versailles had not in his view been so harsh towards Germany, Buchanan views the Versailles treaty as monstrously unjust towards Germany, and argues that German efforts to revise Versailles were both moral and just. Buchanan calls those historians who blame Germany for the two world wars court historians, whom Buchanan argues have created a myth of sole German guilt for the world wars. Buchanan says that the Hungarians, who lost two thirds of their country by the Treaty of Trianon, considered it a national crucifixion and were embittered towards the Allies by it. Buchanan accuses the Czech leaders Beneš and Masaryk of deceiving the Allies, particularly President Wilson, asked why he had consigned three million Germans to Czech rule, Wilson blurted, Masaryk never told me that. As a result of their humiliation at Versailles, argues Buchanan, the result was to inflict a sharp humiliation on the Bruning government and to inflame national resentment in Germany.
In this way, Buchanan argues that Britain, Italy, Buchanan argues that the guarantee of Poland in 1939 was impossible to fulfill and only made the war inevitable. Buchanan quotes Churchill as arguing that No one can keep up the pretence that Abyssinia is a fit and equal member of the league of civilised nations. At the same time in early 1936, when the crisis over Ethiopia had pushed Britain and Italy to the brink of war, there occurred the Remilitarization of the Rhineland. Buchanan points out that Hitler regarded the Franco-Soviet Pact as a move directed at Germany and that it violated the Locarno Treaties. Hitler employed this claimed violation of Locarno as a weapon against which the French. Buchanan contends that Hitler wanted Poland as an ally against the Soviet Union, citing the book March 1939 by the British historian Simon K. Buchanan calls Chamberlains guarantee of Poland rash and the fatal blunder which caused the end of the British Empire
Akihito is the reigning Emperor of Japan. He is the 125th emperor of his line according to Japans traditional order of succession, Akihito succeeded his father Shōwa and acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne on 7 January 1989. There has been ongoing coverage of his possible abdication due to age,31 December 2018 and 1 January 2019 has been mentioned as possible dates of such abdication. In Japan, the Emperor is never referred to by his given name, in writing, the Emperor is referred to formally as The Reigning Emperor. The Era of Akihitos reign bears the name Heisei, and according to custom he will be renamed Emperor Heisei by order of the Cabinet after his death, at the same time, the name of the next era under his successor will be established. Akihito was born in the Tokyo Imperial Palace, Tokyo City, and is the elder son and the fifth child of the Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun. Titled Prince Tsugu as a child, he was raised and educated by his private tutors, unlike his predecessors in the Imperial family, he did not receive a commission as an army officer, at the request of his father, Hirohito.
During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo in March 1945, Akihito and his younger brother, during the American occupation of Japan following World War II, Prince Akihito was tutored in the English language and Western manners by Elizabeth Gray Vining. He briefly studied at the Department of Political Science at Gakushuin University in Tokyo, Akihito was heir-apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne from the moment of his birth. His formal Investiture as Crown Prince was held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace on 10 November 1952, in June 1953 Akihito represented Japan at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London. Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries, upon the death of Emperor Hirohito on 7 January 1989, his eldest son the Crown Prince Akihito succeeded to the throne, with an enthronement ceremony taking place on 12 November 1990. In 1998, during a visit to the United Kingdom. Emperor Akihito underwent surgery for cancer on 14 January 2003.
Since succeeding to the throne, Emperor Akihito has made an effort to bring the Imperial family closer to the Japanese people, the Emperor and Empress of Japan have made official visits to eighteen countries and to all forty-seven Prefectures of Japan. The Emperor and Empress made a visit on Wednesday,30 March 2011 to a temporary shelter housing refugees of the disaster and this kind of event is extremely rare, though in line with the Emperors attempts to bring the Imperial family closer to the people. Later in 2011 he was admitted to suffering from pneumonia. In February 2012 it was announced that the Emperor would be having a coronary examination, senior officials within the Imperial Household Agency have denied that there is any official plan for the monarch to abdicate. A potential abdication by the Emperor would require an amendment to the Imperial Household Act, on 8 August 2016, the Emperor gave a rare televised address, where he emphasized his advanced age and declining health, this address is interpreted as an implication of his intention to abdicate
Setsuko, Princess Chichibu
Setsuko, Princess Chichibu, born Setsuko Matsudaira, was a member of the Japanese Imperial Family. The Princess was the wife of Prince Chichibu, the son of Emperor Taishō. She was, therefore, a sister-in-law of Emperor Shōwa and an aunt of the present emperor and she was born in Walton-on-Thames, England. Her father Tsuneo Matsudaira was Japanese ambassador to the United States and to Great Britain and her mother was the former Nobuko Nabeshima. Although technically born a commoner, she was a scion of distinguished aristocratic families with ties to the Japanese Imperial Family on both sides. Her paternal grandfather, Katamori Matsudaira, was the last daimyo of Aizu and her maternal grandfather was Marquis Naohiro Nabeshima, former daimyo of Saga. Her mothers elder sister, married Prince Morimasa Nashimoto, in 1925, while her father was ambassador to the United States, Setsuko was educated at the Sidwell Friends School in Washington, D. C. Upon her return to Japan, Empress Teimei chose Setsuko to marry her second son, on 28 September 1928, aged 19, she wed Yasuhito, Prince Chichibu, and became Princess Chichibu.
Prince and Princess Chichibu had no children, as Princess Chichibus only pregnancy ended in a miscarriage, but by all accounts their marriage was filled with love and happiness for each other. In 1937, the prince and princess were sent on a tour of Europe which took several months, Princess Chichibu stayed in Switzerland while her husband met Adolf Hitler in Nuremberg at the end of the trip. She felt a love for the United States and for England and. The Princess, who was fluent in English, made several visits to Great Britain. Princess Chichibu died of heart failure on 25 August 1995 and her autobiography, which was published posthumously as The Silver Drum, A Japanese Imperial Memoir, was translated in English by Dorothy Britton. Setsuko was styled as Her Imperial Highness The Princess Chichibu, prior to her marriage she was styled as The Honourable Setsuko Matsudaira. Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden invested her with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Seraphim on 8 April 1969, on 23 July 1962, she became an Honorary Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire.
On 9 October 1978, Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon invested Princess Chichibu as an Honorary Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael, the Silver Drum, A Japanese Imperial Memoir. Chichibu no Miya Hi Setsuko no shogai, splendid Monarchy and Pageantry in Modern Japan. University of California Press, Reprint edition, above the Clouds, Status Culture of the Modern Japanese Nobility
Opposition to World War II
Opposition to World War II was most vocal during the early part of World War II, and stronger still before the war started. Some Communist-led organizations with links to Comintern opposed the war during the period of the Hitler-Stalin pact but backed it after Germany invaded the Soviet Union. In Britain, Oswald Mosley and many members of the British Union of Fascists were opposed to a war with Nazi Germany, Mosley led a “Peace Campaign” to call for a negotiated peace with Germany. This campaign ended after Mosley and most active UK fascists were interned under Defence Regulation 18B in May 1940, pacifist opposition to World War II was limited. During the conflict, a few such as the Peace Pledge Union continued their opposition to all wars. Mohandas K. Gandhis pacifist movement opposed the war even to the point of advocating that the British surrender, Gandhi still backed the use of Indian troops and territory in a pragmatic exchange for guaranteed Indian independence after the war. The Catholic Worker Movement was opposed to the war, socialists were divided in the 1930s.
There was an element of pacifism in the socialist movement. The commitment to pacifism, was balanced by militant anti-fascism, during its Popular Front period, the Comintern allied with other anti-fascist parties, including right-wing parties. This policy was terminated by the Comintern when the Soviet Union signed a pact with Hitler in August 1939. The Communist front organizations opposed the war during the period of the Nazi-Soviet pact, most dutifully followed orders from Moscow. In 1940, Britains Daily Worker referred to the Allied war effort as the Anglo-French imperialist war machine, at the same time, Joseph Stalin ordered a series of military attacks on Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Romania. In the US, organizations like the American Peace Mobilization and veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade protested in opposition to the war and the Lend-Lease Act. They said of Lend-Lease, Roosevelt needs its dictatorial powers to further his aim of carving out of a warring world, the American Empire so long desired by the Wall Street money lords.
Communist parties around the world reversed course when Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22,1941, a small number of socialists continued to oppose the war. Leon Trotsky had drawn up the Proletarian Military Policy, calling for opposition to the war, left communists took a similar position, as did many anarchists. A few nationalist movements in colonial countries would take no part in the conflict and this was perhaps strongest in India, where some nationalists went beyond opposition to the war to form the Indian National Army and fight alongside Japanese forces. Opposition was seen among the Ceylonese garrison on the Cocos Islands which mutinied, isolationism was strongest in the United States, where oceans separated it on both sides from the war fronts
Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax
He held several senior ministerial posts during this time, most notably those of Viceroy of India from 1925 to 1931 and of Foreign Secretary between 1938 and 1940. From 1941 to 1946, he served as British Ambassador in Washington, Halifax was born into a Yorkshire family, the fourth son of Charles Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax. He and his siblings were all sickly, his three brothers died young, leaving him as heir to his fathers fortune and seat in the House of Lords. He was born with no left hand and a left arm. That, and his religiosity as a devout Anglo-Catholic like his father, in 2009, the familys roots were traced back to the Viking warrior, Magnus Irwinsson, who arrived in England in 1066 with the army of Harold Hardrada. Woods childhood was divided mainly between two houses in Yorkshire, Hickleton Hall, near Doncaster, and Garrowby and he was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, became a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. In 1910 he was elected Member of Parliament for Ripon, holding the seat until his elevation to the Lords in 1925.
In 1918, he and George Ambrose Lloyd wrote The Great Opportunity and he held this position until 1924, when he was apparently equally undistinguished as Minister for Agriculture under Stanley Baldwin. Woods career had become bogged down. Wood was Viceroy of India from 1926 to 1931, proposed in 1925 at the suggestion of King George V, created Baron Irwin, he arrived in Bombay on 1 April 1926, hoping to improve Anglo-Indian relations and calm interfaith tensions in the country. His rule was marked by a period of political turmoil. He had all the Congress leaders put behind bars and opened negotiations with Gandhi, some criticism of Irwin may have been unfair, but he had made an error and the consequences were serious and unrest grew. Irwins attempts to mediate with Indian leaders were stymied by Londons refusal to make concessions, Gandhis detention, only made matters worse. The fortnight-long discussions resulted in the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, after which the Civil Disobedience Movement was suspended, the agreement between Gandhi and Irwin was signed on 5 March 1931.
The salient points were, The Congress would discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement, the Congress would participate in the Round Table Conference. The Government would withdraw all ordinances issued to curb the Congress, the Government would withdraw all prosecutions relating to offences not involving violence. The Government would release all persons serving sentences of imprisonment for their activities in the civil disobedience movement and it was agreed that Gandhi would join the Second Round Table Conference as the sole representative of the Congress. On 20 March 1931, Irwin paid tribute to Gandhis honesty, sincerity, a month following the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Lord Irwins term ended and he left India