Battle of the Imjin River
For the similarly named battle during the Seven-Year War, see Battle of Imjin River. The Battle of the Imjin River, known as the Battles of Solma-ri or Battle of Gloster Hill in South Korea, or as Battle of Xuemali in China, took place 22–25 April 1951 during the Korean War. Troops from the Chinese Peoples Volunteer Army attacked United Nations positions on the lower Imjin River in an attempt to achieve a breakthrough, despite facing a greatly superior enemy numerically, the brigade held its general positions for three days. The stand of the Gloucestershire battalion, together with other actions of the 29th Brigade in the Battle of the Imjin River, has become an important part of British military history, the battle took place during the Chinese Spring Offensive, aimed at recapturing Seoul. In order to achieve the objective, Peng planned to converge on Seoul with the III, IX and XIX Army Groups, the XIX Army Group was positioned on the left flank of the UN line. Its 63rd and 64th Armies were to cross the Imjin on a 12-mile front, three divisions of the 63rd Army, the 187th, 188th and 189th Divisions, attacked the British 29th Infantry Brigade’s positions on the Imjin river from 22–25 April 1951.
25 miles further to the east, other Chinese forces assaulted UN forces which included the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade and that battle became known as the Battle of Kapyong. At the time of the Chinese attack, the 29th Infantry Brigade, commanded by Brigadier Tom Brodie, consisted of the 1st Battalion, The Gloucestershire Regiment, the British soldiers were a mixture of regular soldiers and conscripted National servicemen. The deployment of UN forces meant that the 29th Brigade, with its four battalions, had to cover a front of 12 miles, gaps between units had to be accepted because there was no possibility of forming a continuous line with the forces available. Their connection with the rest of the depended on two pontoon bridges about half a mile apart. These bridges connected the Belgians with Route 11, the 29th Brigade’s main line of supply and communication, the Royal Ulster Rifles served as the brigade’s reserve and were deployed along Route 11. The scattered deployment was one aspect which complicated the defense of the 29th Brigade’s position, another was the lack of heavy artillery.
Fire support was provided by 45 Field Regiment, RA, equipped with 25 pounders, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel MT Young, No heavier artillery support was available. Further support was provided by Centurion tanks of C Squadron, 8th Hussars, under the command of Major Henry Huth and by 55 Squadron, defensive preparations were not carried out very extensively because the British expected to hold the position for only a short time. Neither minefields, deeply dug shelters nor extensive wire obstacles had been constructed, the British position on the Imjin river was deemed safe but vulnerable in case of an attack. The battle opened on the night of 22 April 1951, a Chinese patrol on the north bank of the river moved around the Belgians on Hill 194 and continued to advance east towards the two bridges on which the Belgians depended. Elements of the 29th Brigade’s reserve, the 1st RUR, were deployed forward at about 10pm to secure the crossing but were engaged by Chinese forces trying to cross the river.
The Royal Ulster Rifles were unable to secure the bridges and this development meant that the Belgian battalion on the north bank of the river was in danger of being isolated from the rest of the 29th Brigade
Battle of Agincourt
The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years War. The battle took place on Friday,25 October 1415 in the County of Saint-Pol, Henry V led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation, the French were commanded by Constable Charles dAlbret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party. This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, the battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare. The Battle of Agincourt is well documented by at least seven contemporary accounts, the approximate location of the battle has never been in dispute and the place remains relatively unaltered even after 600 years. Two of the most frequently cited accounts come from Burgundian sources, one from Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, who was present at the battle, Henry V invaded France following the failure of negotiations with the French.
He initially called a Great Council in the spring of 1414 to discuss going to war with France, Henry would marry Princess Catherine, the young daughter of Charles VI, and receive a dowry of 2 million crowns. The French responded with what they considered the terms of marriage with Princess Catherine, a dowry of 600,000 crowns. By 1415, negotiations had ground to a halt, with the English claiming that the French had mocked their claims and ridiculed Henry himself. In December 1414, the English parliament was persuaded to grant Henry a double subsidy, on 19 April 1415, Henry again asked the Great Council to sanction war with France, and this time they agreed. The siege took longer than expected, the town surrendered on 22 September, and the English army did not leave until 8 October. The campaign season was coming to an end, and the English army had suffered many casualties through disease and he intended the manoeuvre as a deliberate provocation to battle aimed at the dauphin, who had failed to respond to Henrys personal challenge to combat at Harfleur.
The French had raised an army during the siege which assembled around Rouen and this was not strictly a feudal army, but an army paid through a system similar to the English. The French hoped to raise 9,000 troops, but the army was not ready in time to relieve Harfleur, after Henry V marched to the north, the French moved to block them along the River Somme. They were successful for a time, forcing Henry to move south, away from Calais, the English finally crossed the Somme south of Péronne, at Béthencourt and Voyennes and resumed marching north. Without a river obstacle to defend, the French were hesitant to force a battle and they shadowed Henrys army while calling a semonce des nobles, calling on local nobles to join the army. By 24 October, both faced each other for battle, but the French declined, hoping for the arrival of more troops. The two armies spent the night of 24 October on open ground, the English had very little food, had marched 260 miles in two and a half weeks, were suffering from sickness such as dysentery, and faced much larger numbers of well equipped French men at arms
The Shangani Patrol, comprising 34 soldiers in the service of the British South Africa Company, was ambushed and annihilated by more than 3,000 Matabele warriors during the First Matabele War in 1893. Headed by Major Allan Wilson, the patrol was attacked just north of the Shangani River in Matabeleland in Rhodesia, the patrol comprised elements of the Mashonaland Mounted Police and the Bechuanaland Border Police. Scouting ahead of Major Patrick Forbess column attempting the capture of the Matabele King Lobengula and it moved on Lobengula the next morning, but was ambushed by a host of Matabele riflemen and warriors near the kings wagon. Surrounded and outnumbered about a hundred-fold, the made a last stand as three of its number broke out and rode back to the river to muster reinforcements from Forbes. However, the Shangani had risen significantly in flood, and Forbes was himself involved in a skirmish near the bank, Wilson. After fighting to the last cartridge, and killing over ten times their own number, the patrols members, particularly Wilson and Captain Henry Borrow, were elevated in death to the status of national heroes, representing endeavour in the face of insurmountable odds.
The anniversary of the battle on 4 December 1893 became a public holiday in Rhodesia two years later, and was an official non-work day until 1920. A historical war film depicting the episode, Shangani Patrol, was produced and released in 1970, on geopolitical maps, British territories were generally marked in red or pink, so this concept became known as the Cape to Cairo red line. Having secured the Rudd Concession on mining rights from King Lobengula on 30 October 1888, Rhodes, in return for these rights, the Company would govern and develop any territory it acquired, while respecting laws enacted by extant African rulers, and upholding free trade within its borders. The first settlers referred to their new home as Rhodesia, after Rhodes, though the Company made good on most of its pledges, the assent of Lobengula and other native leaders, particularly regarding mining rights, was often evaded, misrepresented or simply ignored. It offended Lobengula by demanding that he stop the customary Matabele raids on the Mashona people who inhabited the white-governed areas, angered by the Companys attitude towards his authority, Lobengula made war on the new arrivals and the Mashonas in 1893.
The First Matabele War had started, Company columns rode from Fort Salisbury and Fort Victoria, and combined at Iron Mine Hill, around the centre point of the country, on 16 October 1893. Together the force totalled about 700 men, commanded by Major Patrick Forbes, Forbess combined column moved on the Matabele kings capital at Bulawayo, to the south-west. The Matabele army mobilised to prevent Forbes from reaching the city, by the time the Matabele withdrew, they had suffered around 1,500 fatalities, the Company, on the other hand, had lost only four men. Lobengula fled Bulawayo as soon as he heard the news from Bembezi, on 3 November 1893, with the column on the outskirts of the city, he and his subjects left, torching the royal town as they went. In the resultant conflagration, the large store of ivory and other treasure was destroyed, as was its ammunition magazine. Using a tree to improvise a flagstaff, they hoisted first the Company flag, the reconstruction of Bulawayo began almost as soon as the blaze was out, with a new white-run city rising atop the ruins of Lobengulas former residence.
The king replied in English, Jameson did not regard this ambiguity as a proper answer, after standing by for the specified two days and receiving nothing, he correctly concluded that Lobengula was stalling him, and using the extra time to distance himself from his former capital
Siege of Trebizond (1461)
The Siege of Trebizond was the successful siege of the city of Trebizond, capital of the Empire of Trebizond, by the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmed II, which ended on 15 August 1461. The siege was the culmination of a campaign on the Ottoman side. For the rest of the inhabitants of Trebizond, their fates were less favorable, some 800 male children became recruits for his Janissaries, the elite Ottoman military unit, which required them to convert to Islam. Only among the villages of the Maina, in the southeastern Peloponnese. The original sources differ on their explanation of Mehmeds actual motivations for attacking Trebizond, in each area they were ruled by a tekvour, a kind of independent ruler, and they gave him regular taxes and military dues. Sultan Mehmed defeated and expelled some of these tekvours and wanted to do the same with the rest, the goal was to take away from these people all sovereignty. Thus he first destroyed the tekvour of Constantinople, he was considered as the principal tekvour, on he had subdued successively the tekvours of Enos, Morea and annexed their territories to the empire.
Finally the Sultans attention was drawn to the tekvour of Trebizond, by the 1450s, the Ottoman Empire either occupied or had established hegemony over much of the territories the Byzantine Empire held before the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople in 1204. John had happily related to the diplomat the news of the death of Sultan Murad II. Sphrantzes, was taken aback and explained to him that Mehmeds youth and seeming friendship were only ploys, Trebizond could rely on its substantial fortifications to defend itself. Nevertheless, John reached out to make alliances, donald Nicol lists some of them, the emirs of Sinope and Karaman, and the Christian kings of Georgia. But the most powerful and reliable ally of the Emperors of Trebizond was the ruler of the Aq Qoyunlu, in 1456, Ottoman troops under Hizir Pasha assaulted Trebizond. According to Laonikos Chalkokondyles, Hizir raided the countryside, even penetrating into the marketplace of Trebizond and capturing altogether about two thousand people.
The city was deserted due to plague and likely to fall, John made his submission, John sent his brother David to ratify the treaty with Mehmed II himself, which he did in 1458, but the Sultan raised the tribute to 3,000 gold pieces. Uzun Hasan agreed to this, and sent envoys to Mehmed II, the sources disagree on exactly how Mehmed II answered, but both versions were ominous. In one version, he told the envoys that it would not be long before they learned what they ought to expect from him. In the other, Mehmeds response was, Go in peace, and next year I will bring these things with me, in the spring of 1461, Mehmed fitted out a fleet comprising 200 galleys, and ten warships. Commanding the army, Mehmed led his troops towards Ankara, stopping on the way to visit the tombs of his father
Battle of Iwo Jima
The Battle of Iwo Jima was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II. This five-week battle comprised some of the fiercest and bloodiest fighting of the War in the Pacific of World War II, after the heavy losses incurred in the battle, the strategic value of the island became controversial. It was useless to the U. S. Army as a staging base, Navy Seabees rebuilt the landing strips, which were used as emergency landing strips for USAAF B-29s. The Imperial Japanese Army positions on the island were heavily fortified, with a network of bunkers, hidden artillery positions. The American ground forces were supported by naval artillery, and had complete air supremacy provided by U. S. Navy. Japanese combat deaths numbered three times the number of American deaths, although uniquely among Pacific War Marine battles, American total casualties exceeded those of the Japanese. Of the 21,000 Japanese soldiers on Iwo Jima at the beginning of the battle, only 216 were taken prisoner, despite the bloody fighting and severe casualties on both sides, the Japanese defeat was assured from the start.
Joe Rosenthals Associated Press photograph of the raising of the U. S. flag on top of the 169 m Mount Suribachi by six U. S, Marines became an iconic image of the battle and the American war effort in the Pacific. All indications pointed to an American drive toward the Mariana Islands, in March 1944, the Japanese 31st Army, commanded by General Hideyoshi Obata, was activated to garrison this inner line. The commander of the Japanese garrison on Chichi Jima was placed nominally in command of Army, after the American conquest of the Marianas, daily bomber raids from the Marianas hit the mainland as part of Operation Scavenger. Iwo Jima served as an early warning station that radioed reports of incoming bombers back to mainland Japan and this allowed Japanese air defenses to prepare for the arrival of American bombers. At the same time, with reinforcements arriving from Chichi Jima and the home islands, in addition, it was used by the Japanese to stage air attacks on the Mariana Islands from November 1944 through January 1945.
The capture of Iwo Jima would eliminate these problems and provide an area for Operation Downfall – the eventual invasion of the Japanese Home Islands. The distance of B-29 raids could be cut in half, American intelligence sources were confident that Iwo Jima would fall in one week. In light of the intelligence reports, the decision was made to invade Iwo Jima. American forces were unaware that the Japanese were preparing a complex and deep defense, by June 1944, Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi was assigned to command the defense of Iwo Jima. While drawing inspiration from the defense in the Battle of Peleliu, takeichi Nishis armored tanks were to be used as camouflaged artillery positions. This network of bunkers and pillboxes favored the defense, for instance, The Nanpo Bunker, which was located east of Airfield Number 2, had enough food and ammo for the Japanese to hold out for three months
1842 retreat from Kabul
The 1842 Kabul Retreat took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War. As the army and its numerous dependents and camp-followers began its march, many of the column died of exposure, frostbite or starvation or were killed during the fighting. The Afghans launched numerous attacks against the column as it made progress through the winter snows of the Hindu Kush. The final stand was made just outside a village called Gandamak on 13 January, out of more than 16,000 people from the column commanded by Elphinstone, only one European and a few Indian sepoys reached Jalalabad. Over one hundred British prisoners and civilian hostages were released, around 2,000 of the Indians, many of whom were maimed by frostbite and returned to Kabul to exist by begging or to be sold into slavery. Some at least returned to India after another British invasion of Kabul several months later, in 2013, a writer for The Economist called the retreat the worst British military disaster until the fall of Singapore exactly a century later.
In 1838 the British East India Company feared an increased Russian influence in Afghanistan after Dost Mohammad Barakzai had seized power from former ruler Shuja Shah Durrani in 1834 and he began to assemble his forces in late 1838. The army, under the command of General Sir Willoughby Cotton, with Macnaghten as his chief adviser, in March 1839 they crossed the Bolan Pass and began their march to Kabul. They advanced through rough terrain, crossing deserts and mountain passes at a height of 4,000 metres but made good progress, an Afghan had betrayed his sovereign and the British troops managed to blow one city gate and marched into the city in a euphoric mood. The ample supplies acquired in Ghazni considerably aided the further advance, Dost Mohammad fled and sought refuge in the wilds of the Hindu Kush. Kabul fell without a fight on 6 August 1839, Shuja Shah returned and was proclaimed emir by the British. He established a court in the fortress of Bala Hissar above Kabul, more than a year later, Dost Mohammad surrendered to Macnaghten on 4 November 1840 and was exiled to India.
In August 1839, the British refrained from occupying Kabuls citadel and this decision, made on diplomatic grounds, would prove to be a grave military error, as the garrison was sited in a defensively weak position. As political agent and envoy at the court of Shuja Shah, the city was described at the time as clean and pleasant with many spacious wooden houses surrounded by well-kept gardens. The occupiers enjoyed themselves arranging cricket matches, horse races and hunting parties, in the evenings amateur dramatics were staged by East India Company officers and their wives. Performances included Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream and it was considered a special honour to be invited to evening soirées hosted by Lady Florentia Sale, the wife of Brigadier-General Robert Henry Sale. Such social gatherings often saw the serving of salmon and stew with madeira wine, under these conditions, many of the East India Company troops were sent back to their garrisons in India. While the British enjoyed this lifestyle, some Afghans chafed under occupation by a foreign power, Britain had replaced Dost Mohammad, a popular ruler, with Shuja Shah, a weak puppet, who was seen as much more cruel and vindictive to his enemies than his predecessor
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
The Basque attack was a retaliation for Charlemagnes destruction of the city walls of their capital, Pamplona. As the Franks retreated across the Pyrenees back to France, the rearguard of Frankish lords was cut off, stood its ground, Roncevaux was Charlemagnes only military defeat. There are numerous works about the battle, some of which change. The battle is recounted in the 11th century The Song of Roland, the oldest surviving work of French literature. Modern adaptations of the battle include books and works of fiction, with the rise of the Carolingians and Pepin the Shorts war on Aquitaine, the Duchy of Aquitaine led by Waifer was defeated and further ensued Frankish penetration into the duchy. Their masters had been cornered in the Iberian peninsula by Abd ar-Rahman I, the three rulers conveyed that the caliph of Baghdad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, was preparing an invasion force against Abd ar-Rahman. Seeing an opportunity to extend Christendom and his own power, Charlemagne agreed to go to Spain, al-Arabi induced him to invade al Andalus by promising him an easy surrender of its Upper March, of which Zaragoza was the capital.
Following the sealing of this alliance at Paderborn, Charlemagne marched across the Pyrenees in 778 at the head of all the forces he could muster. Charlemagne led the Neustrian army over Vasconia into the Western Pyrenees, while the Austrasians and his troops were welcomed in Barcelona and Girona by Sulayman al-Arabi. As he moved towards Zaragoza, the troops of Charlemagne were joined by troops led by al-Arabi, Abd ar-Rahman of Córdoba sent his most trusted general, Thalaba Ibn Obeid, to take control of the possibly rebellious city and to prevent the Frankish invasion. Husayn and Ibn Obeid clashed repeatedly, eventually Husayn managed to defeat and he seems to have tried to appease Charlemagne by giving him the prisoner General Ibn Obeid and a large tribute of gold, but Charlemagne was not easily satisfied, putting Sulayman al-Arabi in chains. Meanwhile, the force sent by the Baghdad caliphate seems to have been stopped near Barcelona, though initially having the upper hand, the siege of Zaragoza dragged for over a month.
Eventually a deal was struck between Charlemagne and Husayn, the latter would pay gold and the release of several prisoners, while the Franks in return would withdraw their siege. After the negotiation at Zaragoza, Charlemagne heard news of a Saxon revolt in the North, but before leaving Spain he decided to further secure his hold on the Vascone territory. Charlemagne first eliminated any opposition from the natives of the region. He gave orders to tear down the walls of the Basque capital Pamplona, some primary sources suggest that he destroyed the city altogether, and many towns in the region were razed. Garrisons and military outposts were placed throughout the territory, and there were accounts of the Franks harsh treatment of the Basques during their occupation, after securing the region, Charlemagne marched for the Pyrenees mountain pass in hopes of returning to France. In the evening of August 15,778, Charlemagnes rearguard was attacked by the Basques as they crossed the mountain pass
A last stand is a general military situation in which a body of troops holds a defensive position in the face of overwhelming odds. In some cases, troops will make a last stand to protect their ruler or leader, Last stands loom large in history, as the heroism and sacrifice of the defenders exerts a large pull on the publics imagination. Some last stands have become a part of a fighting forces or a countrys history. A last stand is a last resort tactic, and is chosen because the defending force realizes or believes the benefits of fighting outweigh the benefits of retreat or surrender, the situation can arise in several ways. In some cases, troops will make a last stand to protect their ruler or leader, when Rome was attacked in 1527 by the army of the Holy Roman Empire under Emperor Charles V, over 20,000 troops stormed the city. In the Battle of Hastings in 1066, Saxon King Harold II battled the Norman William the Conqueror, after most of the Saxons were killed in the battle and his housecarl bodyguard. fought on until an arrow struck the king in the eye.
After Harold died, the housecarl bodyguard made a last stand, some last stands have become a celebrated part of a fighting force or countrys history. The French Foreign Legion became known for its last stand in the 1863 Battle of Camarón, during the battle,65 Foreign Legion soldiers protecting a supply convoy carrying gold bullion were attacked by a Mexican force of 3,000. The Foreign Legion soldiers fought their way to a building, which used as a defensive position for their last stand. They refused to surrender, and fought until almost all of them were killed, when only a handful were still alive, with no ammunition left, they conducted a bayonet charge at the much larger Mexican force. April 30 is called Camerone Day in France to remember this day, in the Battle of the Alamo 1,500 Mexican soldiers attacked the Alamo in Texas, which was defended by 180 to 260 Texans. Between 182 and 257 Texians died in a last stand defense of the Alamo, the Texians last stand in this battle has become a celebrated part of US history, which has been depicted in numerous films.
A siege may lead to a last stand by the defenders, Last stands at the end of sieges became less common after the Hague Conventions came in force. Under the laws of war as they are now. it is especially forbidden -, to kill or wound an enemy who, having laid down his arms, or having no longer means of defence, has surrendered at discretion, To declare that no quarter will be given. It is unlawful for a force to kill a garrison if they attempt to surrender even if it is during the final assault on a fortified position. Last stands loom large in history due to the pull on popular imagination, even though the odds are overwhelming, the hero and his followers fight on nobly to the end and are slaughtered to a man. In defeat the hero of the Last Stand achieves the greatest of victories, during WW I, the expression to fight with ones back to the wall became a widely-known way to refer to making a last stand
Battle of Berlin
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II. Following the Vistula–Oder Offensive of January–February 1945, the Red Army had temporarily halted on a line 60 km east of Berlin, on 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz. The first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, under the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici. When the Soviet offensive resumed on 16 April, two Soviet fronts attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Red Army encircled the city after successful battles of the Seelow Heights, on 23 April General Helmuth Weidling assumed command of the forces within Berlin. The garrison consisted of several depleted and disorganized Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, along with poorly trained Volkssturm, over the course of the next week, the Red Army gradually took the entire city.
Before the battle was over, Hitler and a number of his followers committed suicide. Starting on 12 January 1945, the Red Army began the Vistula–Oder Offensive across the Narew River, from Warsaw, an operation on a broad front. On the fourth day, the Red Army broke out and started moving west, up to 30 to 40 km per day, taking East Prussia and Poznań, drawing up on a line 60 km east of Berlin along the Oder River. The newly created Army Group Vistula, under the command of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, attempted a counter-attack, the Red Army drove on to Pomerania, clearing the right bank of the Oder River, thereby reaching into Silesia. In the south the Siege of Budapest raged, three German attempts to relieve the encircled Hungarian capital city failed, and Budapest fell to the Soviets on 13 February. Adolf Hitler insisted on a counter-attack to recapture the Drau-Danube triangle, the goal was to secure the oil region of Nagykanizsa and regain the Danube River for future operations, but the depleted German forces had been given an impossible task.
By 16 March, the German Lake Balaton Offensive had failed, on 30 March, the Soviets entered Austria, and in the Vienna Offensive they captured Vienna on 13 April. Between June and September 1944, the Wehrmacht had lost more than a million men, and it lacked the fuel and armaments needed to operate effectively. On 12 April 1945, who had decided to remain in the city against the wishes of his advisers. No plans were made by the Western Allies to seize the city by a ground operation, the major Western Allied contribution to the battle was the bombing of Berlin during 1945. The Soviet offensive into central Germany, what became East Germany, had two objectives, but the overriding objective was to capture Berlin. The two goals were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin were taken, another consideration was that Berlin itself held useful post-war strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and the German atomic bomb programme
Battle of Fallen Timbers
This land had been ceded to the United States in accordance with the Treaty of Paris, but the Native Americans refused to comply with the treaty and relinquish control. British army bases were maintained there to support their Native allies and this ultimately led to the American offensive and subsequent British-Indian withdrawal from the territory altogether following the Treaty of Greenville. The battle, which was a victory for the United States, ended major hostilities in the region until Tecumsehs War. The Ohio River boundary line established by Britain in the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix recognized certain lands as belonging to the Native American nations, the Native Americans involved rejected the idea of the British or Americans to dispose of their tribal lands without their consent. They had no representation at the Paris Treaty negotiations, had not signed the treaty, as American settlers began moving into the Ohio Country, the Native Americans viewed them as unwelcome intruders. The United States government, on the hand, insisted it had the right to occupy the lands.
The Western Confederacy, an alliance of Native American nations, was formed to defend their traditional lands, the confederacy achieved several victories over poorly led United States military forces in 1790 and 1791, alarming the administration of President George Washington. Washington understood that the settlers were to blame for much of the violence, nevertheless, he took steps to defeat the alliance as the conflict became more serious. In 1792, Washington ordered Revolutionary War hero General Mad Anthony Wayne to build, Wayne realized that the previous campaigns had failed because of poor training and a lack of discipline. Peace negotiations were undertaken in the summer of 1793, which meant he had time to build and they rejected the subsequent treaties awarding the lands north of the Ohio River to the United States, since they had never signed them. The American government found itself fighting a war over Ohio under the direction of Secretary of War Henry Knox, matters came to a head in what became known as Little Turtles War.
As more American settlers moved into the part of the area following its division under the Land Ordinance of 1785. The Miami chieftain Michikinikwa led a confederation of tribes against ill-conceived expeditions led by General Josiah Harmar in 1790 and General Arthur St. Clair in 1791, harmars and St. Clairs armies consisted mainly of untrained militia, frontiersmen with rifles but little training or discipline. The green soldiers often broke ranks and ran when confronted by Native American warriors. In late August 1794, Little Turtle and his Shawnee ally, faced a new U. S. Army, Wayne had spent the better part of two years turning his soldiers into professionals. Waynes new army, the Legion of the United States, marched north from Fort Washington in Cincinnati in 1793, Wayne commanded about 2,000 men, with Choctaw and Chickasaw men serving as his scouts. Blue Jacket took a position along the Maumee River, not far from present-day Toledo, Ohio. They thought the trees would slow the advance of Waynes Legion, Fort Miami, a nearby British outpost on American soil, had supplied the Native American confederacy with provisions
Battle of Rorke's Drift
The Battle of Rorkes Drift, known as the Defence of Rorkes Drift, was a battle in the Anglo-Zulu War. Just over 150 British and colonial troops successfully defended the garrison against an assault by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors. The massive but piecemeal Zulu attacks on Rorkes Drift came very close to defeating the much smaller garrison but were ultimately repelled, eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders, along with a number of other decorations and honours. Rorkes Drift, known as kwaJimu in the Zulu language, was a station and the former trading post of James Rorke. It was located near a drift, or ford, on the Buffalo River, on 9 January 1879, the British No.3 Column, under Lord Chelmsford and encamped at the drift. On 11 January, the day after the British ultimatum to the Zulus expired, on 20 January, after reconnaissance patrolling and building of a track for its wagons, Chelmsfords column marched to Isandlwana, approximately 6 miles to the east, leaving behind the small garrison.
A large company of the 2nd/3rd Natal Native Contingent under Captain William Stevenson was ordered to remain at the post to strengthen the garrison and this company numbered between 100 and 350 men. Sometime around noon on the 22nd, Major Spalding left the station for Helpmekaar to ascertain the whereabouts of Rainforths G Company and he left Chard in temporary command. Chard rode down to the drift itself where the camp was located. Once the British officers decided to stay and Bromhead directed their men to make preparations to defend the station, with the garrisons some 400 men working quickly, a defensive perimeter was constructed out of mealie bags. This perimeter incorporated the storehouse, the hospital, and a stone kraal. The buildings were fortified, with loopholes knocked through the external walls, at about 3,30 pm, a mixed troop of about 100 Natal Native Horse under Lieutenant Alfred Henderson arrived at the station after having retreated in good order from Isandlwana. They volunteered to picket the far side of the Oscarberg, the hill that overlooked the station.
Adendorff stayed, while the trooper who had ridden in with him galloped on to warn the garrison at Helpmekaar, the force was sufficient, in Chards estimation, to fend off the Zulus. Chard posted the British soldiers around the perimeter, adding some of the more patients, the casuals and civilians. The rest of the NNC, armed only with spears, were posted outside the mealie bag and this Zulu force was the loins or reserve of the army at Isandlwana and is often referred to as the Undi Corps. Most Zulu warriors were armed with an assegai and a made of cowhide. The Zulu army drilled in the personal and tactical use and coordination of this weapon, some Zulus had old muskets and antiquated rifles, though their marksmanship training was poor, and the quality and supply of powder and shot was dreadful
Siege of Baler
The Siege of Baler was a battle of the Philippine Revolution and concurrently the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War. Filipino revolutionaries laid siege to a fortified church manned by colonial Spanish troops in the town of Baler, Philippines for 11 months, the battle is considered part of the Spanish–American War since the Filipinos were allied with the United States at the outset. That war ended in December 1898 with Spains surrender and annexation of the Philippines to the United States, cut off from communications with their own government and military, the Spanish forces continued their defense against the Filipino forces until 1899. Baler, Aurora located on the eastern coast of Luzon, is some 225 kilometers distant from the Philippine capital city of Manila, the Philippine Revolution against Spanish colonial rule started 1896. The Spanish garrisoned Baler, in Sept.1897, with fifty cazadores under Lt. Jose Mota, motas forces were attacked on the night of 4 Oct. by Novicios men, killing Lt.
Mota and six other Spaniards, wounding several and capturing 30 Mauser rifles. The initial phase of the Philippine Revolution ended with a truce in 1897, during this phase of the revolution, the Philippines was involved in the Spanish-American War, and the Filipino rebels allied themselves with the American forces. This alliance would end with the outbreak of the Philippine-American War in 1899. On June 1,1898, Morenas began work to dig a well, stock food supplies and ammunition, the church was the only stone building in the area. On June 26, it was noticed that the residents were leaving. On the night of the 30th,800 Filipino troops under Teodorico Luna attacked, the town priest, Candido Gómez Carreño, quartered himself in the church. The first few days of the siege saw several attempts by the Filipinos to get the Spanish to surrender by leaving letters, on July 8 the Revolutionary Commander, Cirilo Gómez Ortiz, offered a suspension of hostilities until nightfall, which was accepted. On July 18, Calixto Villacorta took command of the Filipinos and he sent a warning letter, which was rebuffed.
The Spanish had to endure confinement in a small, hot, as the siege progressed, their food supply began to diminish through usage and spoilage. Enemy rifle fire did cause casualties but diseases such as beriberi, the first Spaniard to die was Gómez Carreño. In September, Lt. Alonso, and in November, command fell to Lt. Saturnino Martín Cerezo when Las Morenas died in December. More than once the Spanish made forays to burn nearby houses to deprive the Filipinos of much needed cover, the Filipinos attempted to smoke them out by setting fires beside the church wall but this was repulsed and their timber captured. At the start of the siege, the Spanish had provisions of flour, beans, bacon, canned Australian beef, wine and coffee - but no salt. Supplementing their food supplies, the Spanish foraged for pumpkins, pumpkin leaves, plantain shoots, various herbs, next Villacorta brought in Spanish civilians and ultimately a uniformed Spanish officer left behind to wrap up Spains affairs on the island, to no avail