4 Minutes is a song by American singer and songwriter Madonna from her eleventh studio album Hard Candy, featuring vocals by American singers Justin Timberlake and Timbaland. It was released as the single from the album on March 17,2008. According to Madonna, the song is about saving the environment and she cited the song as the inspiration for the documentary I Am Because We Are. The song was recorded at Sarm West Studios, in London, while the mixing of the track was finished at The Hit Factory studio, sound engineer Demo Castellon first worked on the vocals and on the beats, while the synths were composed by Timbaland and Danja. The songs lyrics carry a message of awareness, inspired by Madonnas visit to Africa. 4 Minutes received positive reviews critics, who called it a busy dance track and complimented its music. Some reviewers noted that it was Madonna who appeared more of a featured artist on the track, rather than Timberlake. The song peaked at three on the US Billboard Hot 100, giving Madonna her 37th top-ten single, breaking the record previously held by Elvis Presley.
It remains Madonnas best-selling digital single in the United States, with sales of three million copies. Internationally,4 Minutes topped the chart in 21 countries, including Australia, Germany, Spain, in the songs accompanying music video and Timberlake sing and run away from a giant black screen that devours everything in its path. At the end of the video, both of them are consumed by the screen,4 Minutes was performed by Madonna on the promotional tour for Hard Candy and the 2008–09 Sticky & Sweet Tour. In the latter, the served as the opener of the rave segment. During performances of the song and Timbaland appeared on video screens, the song received two Grammy Award nominations for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals and Best Remixed Recording, Non-Classical at the 2009 ceremony. Following the release of her studio album, Confessions on a Dance Floor. When asked by producer Stuart Price what kind of music appealed to her, Madonna replied that she loved the records of singer Justin Timberlake and producer Timbaland, so she collaborated with them.
4 Minutes was written by all three artists, along with Nate Danja Hills, and produced by Timbaland and Danja, the song, initially named 4 Minutes to Save the World, was one of the last to be produced for Madonnas album Hard Candy. In an interview with MTV News, Madonna said that the concept of the song was developed through discussions with Timberlake and she further explained the meaning of the song, I dont think its important to take it too literally. We cant just keep distracting ourselves we do have to ourselves and wake up
1936 in architecture
The year 1936 in architecture involved some significant events. May 27 - RMS Queen Mary begins her maiden Atlantic crossing, interior design, under the direction of E. C. Leach, is by Arthur Joseph Davis and J. C, whipp of Mewès & Davis and Benjamin Wistar Morris with much craftsmanship undertaken by the Bromsgrove Guild of Applied Arts. October 29 - Construction of Via della Conciliazione in Rome begins, johnson Wax Headquarters, Wisconsin, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Campana Factory, Illinois, designed by Frank D. Chase and Childs & Smith, owens-Illinois Glass Company building in Toledo, built. Lasipalatsi temporary office and commercial building in Helsinki, designed by Viljo Revell, Heimo Riihimäki and Niilo Kokko, peter Jones in London, designed by William Crabtree of Slater and Moberly, completed. Casa Bloc, designed by Josep Lluís Sert, casa del Fascio, designed by Giuseppe Terragni, completed. Vytautas the Great War Museum in Kaunas, Lithuania completed, olympic Stadium, designed by Werner March, opened.
Tilkka military hospital, Finland, designed by Olavi Sortta, florin Court, designed by Guy Morgan and Partners. Pullman Court, designed by Frederick Gibberd in 1933, beehive terminal at Gatwick Airport, designed by Frank Hoar of Hoar, Marlow & Lovett, opened. Airship hangar at Bartolomeu de Gusmão Airport, Rio de Janeiro, zwickau Hauptbahnhof, designed by Otto Falk, opened. Campion Hall, England, designed by Edwin Lutyens, kenwood House, Kenya, designed by Ernst May. The Laughing Water roadhouse, Kent, designed by Clough Williams-Ellis, obelisk of Buenos Aires designed by Alberto Prebisch. Canadian National Vimy Memorial, designed by Walter Seymour Allward, british General Post Office K6 Jubilee red telephone box, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, introduced. Olympic gold medal - Hermann Kutschera of Austria for Skistadium, olympic silver medal - Werner March of Germany for National sports field. Olympic bronze medal - Hermann Stieglholzer and Herbert Kastinger of Austria for Fighting site in Vienna, royal Gold Medal - Charles Holden.
Grand Prix de Rome, André Remondet for a naval museum
8th Army (Soviet Union)
The 8th Army was a field army of the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War. The 8th Army was formed in October 1939 from the Novgorod Army Operational Group of the Leningrad Military District with the task of providing security of the Northwestern borders of the USSR, on 30 November 1939 the Soviet Union attacked Finland in the Winter War. The strength of the 8th Army, or overall the Red Army, in the north of Lake Ladoga, the Finns deployed only two divisions, and they had a support group of three brigades, bringing their total strength to over 30,000 uniforms. The Soviets had a division for almost all roads leading west to the Finnish border, the Eighth Army was led by Ivan Khabarov, but on 13 December he was replaced by Grigori Shtern. The Vice Commander of the Southern Group was Vladimir Kurdyumov from December 1939, the mission was to destroy the Finnish troops in the area of Ladoga Karelia and advance to the area between Sortavala and Joensuu within ten days. The Soviets had the advantage of a ratio in men, five-to-one in artillery.
The Finnish troops conducted a retreat before the overwhelming opposition. On 7 December, in middle of the Ladoga Karelian front, the waterway itself did not offer any protection, but alongside there were ridges up to ten meters. The battle of Kollaa lasted until the end of war, up to north the Finns retreated from Ägläjärvi to Tolvajärvi on 5 December, and defeated Soviet attacks by the 139th Rifle Division and 75th Rifle Division in the battle of Tolvajärvi on 12 December. In the south, two Soviet divisions were united on the side of the coastal road of Lake Ladoga. As before, these divisions were in a trap as the Finns could make counterattacks from a north to columns flank, the Finns made counterattacks in all fronts but were not successful – however the Red Army was now facing a position of defence rather than attack. On 19 December the Finns temporarily ceased their assaults as the soldiers were exhausted and it was not until the period 6 to 16 January 1940 that the Finns made another major offensive, and cut the Soviet division into a smaller group of different sized mottis.
Contrary to Finnish expectation, the encircled Soviets divisions did not try to breakthrough to the east but instead they stayed put, the Soviets were expecting auxiliary troops and service shipments support to arrive by the air. However, the Finns repelled all efforts of the Soviet Eighth Army to resupply the encircled troops, in 1940 the Army became a part of the Baltic Special Military District. From the morning of 22 June 1941 as part of the Northwestern Front the army joined the fighting with superior forces of the German Wehrmacht on the Shyaulyay axis. After 30 June the 22nd Motor Rifle Division NKVD started operating as part of 10th Rifle Corps, during July–August the troops of the 8th Army conducted persistent defensive actions in the territory of Estonia. On 14 July, the army was transferred to the Northern Front, during November- December, they conducted persistent offensive combat for achieving Leningrad blockade break-through. On 9 June, the army was subordinated to the Volkhov Front, in August- September, it acted as a part of the Fronts assault group for the Sinyavinsk Offensive Operation
25 (Adele album)
25 is the third studio album by British singer and songwriter Adele. It was released on 20 November 2015, through XL Recordings, following the release and international success of her second studio album 21, Adele considered quitting the music industry and going out on a positive note. However, she decided to take a hiatus instead and raise her son, during her sabbatical, she suffered from writers block and rescheduled studio sessions for a new album, fearing she had lost her ability to write songs. In 2013, Adele had a breakthrough and the material eventually became 25 manifested. Titled as a reflection of her life and frame of mind at 25 years old,25 is a make-up record, in contrast to Adeles previous works, the production of 25 incorporated the use of electronic elements and creative rhythmic patterns, with elements of 1980s R&B and organs. Many journalists felt that the album impacted the industry by encouraging the public to return to buying physical albums. 25 received the BRIT Award for British Album of the Year, the album won the 2017 Grammy Awards for Album of the Year, and Best Pop Vocal Album.
Hello won Grammys for Record of the Year, Song of the Year, following the release of 21, Adele was considering quitting the music industry all together, stating she thought it was better to go out on a high. However, in early 2012 she announced she was taking a hiatus from music in order to take time. Her hiatus from music came to an end after the birth of her first child in October 2012, before the albums recording came under way, Adele made a conscious decision not to try and create another 21 and would not make another heartbreak record. Prior to the release,25 was listed as one of the most anticipated albums of 2015. Prior to the official announcement, music journalists and fans speculated that the album would be titled 25 continuing the age theme from Adeles previous releases 19 and 21. On the eve of her 26th birthday in May 2014, Adele posted a message via her Twitter account which prompted discussion about her next album. See you again in the year, was interpreted by outlets including Billboard and Capital FM as meaning that her album would be titled 25.
On 10 February 2013, Adele confirmed that she was in the early stages of her third album and was having meetings while staying in Los Angeles for the 85th Academy Awards. Initially recording sessions for 25 were unsuccessful, in which Adele suffered from writers block, Adele rescheduled the albums recording stating she did not feel ready, but returned to the studio when her son was eighteen months old, which inspired her to write an album about motherhood. In an interview on BBC One, it was revealed that an album about being a mother was written. Adele stated that the album took a time to write, saying she did not think the album was ever going to be finished
3 a.m. Eternal
Eternal is a song by the British acid house group The KLF. Numerous versions of the song were released as singles between 1989 and 1992, eternal with the crust punk band Extreme Noise Terror, during which The KLF co-founder Bill Drummond fired machine-gun blanks over the audience of music industry luminaries. A studio-produced version of song was issued as a limited edition mail order 7 single. The original 198912 single release constituted the second of The KLFs Pure Trance series, there were two issues, numbered 005T and 005R. A version heavily reworked for an audience,3 a. m. Eternal, was issued in January 1991 and reached #1 in the UK singles chart and this version had a rap by Ricardo da Force. Although a lot of crowd noise appears on the mix, it is in fact a purely studio-based creation, the S. S. L. in the subtitle refers to a Solid State Logic mixing desk. The seven inch version of this mix appears on the album The White Room, the main B-side was a dub-based version of the same song,3 a. m.
Eternal, featuring the bassline from The Clashs Guns of Brixton, concurrent with the chart-topping version, yet another 12 was released, with resolutely underground remixes by The Moody Boys. There are two versions for the SSL video. The American version includes an opening with a travel through the mythical Land of Mu Mu where the KLF are performing inside a pyramid scenery with singers in a stadium. The European version shows the KLF vehicle voyage around London with rapper Ricardo da Force singing in the backseat, in 1992, The KLF released a limited edition mail order only single containing a new version of 3 a. m. featuring the grindcore/crust punk band Extreme Noise Terror. The two bands performed a live version of the song at that years BRIT Awards ceremony. The Brits performance included by a limping, cigar-chomping Drummond firing blanks from an automatic weapon over the heads of the crowd. After viewing the rehearsals, the NME writer Danny Kelly said, Compared to whats preceded it, the noise is hardcore punk thrash through a disco Techno hit played by crusties.
At the end of the performance, Scott Piering announced to a crowd that The KLF have now left the music business. Within a few months, they did just that - their records were deleted, Danny Kelly described the Brits performance as The KLFs self-destruction in an orgy of punk rock. The Pure Trance Original was described by Record Mirror as a deep house pulser with atmospheric chanting
22 m² is the debut studio album by Finnish rapper Sini Sabotage. Released on 5 December 2013 via PME Records, the peaked at number 27 on the Finnish Albums Chart. Levikset repee, released on 19 April 2013, peaked at one on the Finnish Singles Chart. The second single Miks was released on 1 November 2013 and reached number 14
2 Legit 2 Quit
2 Legit 2 Quit is a single by MC Hammer featuring Saja aka Sonia Moore, released on September 5,1991 as both the title track and first single of his fourth studio album, Too Legit to Quit. It proved to be successful in the U. S. peaking at the Top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100, the single peaked at #60 on the UK Singles Chart. Hit songs This Is the Way We Roll and 2 Legit 2 Quit were performed by Hammer on Saturday Night Live, along with Addams Groove, and other songs,2 Legit 2 Quit was featured in the film, The Addams Family in 1991. In March 2003, MC Hammer released a version of the song featuring Saja, on October 2, Hammer opened the 2010 BET Hip Hop Awards performing 2 Legit 2 Quit in Atlanta along with Rick Ross, Diddy and DJ Khaled. At the 40th American Music Awards in November 2012, Hammer danced to Gangnam Style and 2 Legit 2 Quit alongside Psy, the performance idea for the collaboration with Hammer came from Psys manager. The mashup was released on iTunes. They both performed it again on December 31,2012 during Dick Clarks New Years Rockin Eve.
The music video was directed by Rupert Wainwright, and at almost 15 minutes in length, was one of the most expensive videos ever produced. The uncut version of the video begins with a newscaster reporting on Hammers apparent decision to quit the music business, Brown endows Hammer with several blasts of energy, before sending Hammer off to perform. The performance is high budget and laden with impressive pyrotechnics, the video ends with a purported Jackson having seen the performance and conceding Hammer to be the superior dancer, while doing the 2 Legit 2 Quit hand gesture. Hammer personally spoke with Jackson on the phone about the video, the songs music video features several athletes making cameo appearances. The video was number 5 in MAX musics Worlds Worst Ever Video countdown and it was voted number 24 on MTVs all-time 25 Lame countdown in 1999. However, it has selected as a viewers favorite by VH1. A hand gesture became popular as a result of the song and video which was shown in the Addams Groove movie video.
It involved forming the two for Too, an L for Legit, and a cut motion for Quit with the hand. It was a reference to Hammer wanting to challenge Jackson to a dance-off for rights to the famous glove and he explained how Jackson had seen the video and liked it, and both expressed they were a fan of each other. Hammer and Jackson would appear and perform at the service for James Brown in 2006. 2 Legit 2 Quit 2 Legit 2 Quit 2 Legit 2 Quit List of most expensive music videos
130 mm/50 B13 Pattern 1936
The 130 mm/50 B13 Pattern 1936 was a 130 mm 50 caliber Soviet Union naval gun. The gun was used as a standard weapon during World War II. The gun was produced in three different versions all had mutually incompatible ammunition and range tables. Mountings for the weapon included single open mounts and twin turrets, besides the Soviet Union, the gun was used on ships sold or donated to Poland, Peoples Republic of China and Indonesia. Finland captured five guns during Continuation War and used them until the 1990s, in 1929 design work began in the Soviet Union for a new 130 mm 45 caliber submarine deck gun that would have the same external ballistics as the older 130 mm/55 B7 Pattern 1913 gun. It was intended for the gun to use a lock and fixed ammunition. Blueprints and a prototype was ordered from Bolshevik Plant no.232 in 1930, the design bureau director was N. N. Magdasijev and project leader G. N. Rafalovits. Others involved in the design were S. A. Morozov, S. A. Zalazaev, B. A. Lever, V. M. Rosenberg, during test firing in 1934—35 several shortcomings were found in the gun design, particularly with the breech and loading mechanism.
In order to match the performance of the longer barreled 130 mm/55 Pattern 1913 gun it was necessary to use a barrel pressure in the 130 mm/50 B13 Pattern 1936. The solution to the excessive wear was found to be deeper rifling grooves. The original design had 1.0 millimetre deep grooves and a life of 130 rounds. Additionally there existed a model with 1.95 millimetres deep grooves, the gun had 40 grooves with a constant twist. All three gun models with different groove depths had different, mutually incompatible, sights, a loading platform that could be rotated next to the gun barrel was used to deliver the shell to a pneumatic loading mechanism. The gun could be loaded on any elevation angle, but the rate of fire was reduced on elevations higher than +25°, a modified dual-purpose model with 55 caliber barrel suitable for anti-aircraft fire was planned but the project was stopped due to the war. Early destroyers and coastal guns used single open mountings protected by a gun shield, an enclosed twin turret was developed for destroyer classes and monitors.
This was a single mounting open from the rear and protected by a 13 millimetres gun shield against shrapnel and this mounting was used in the destroyers constructed before Second World War and in coastal and railway guns. The weight of the mount was 12 metric tons and it was equipped with indicators for a fire control system but had hand-operated training. B-2LM was a twin turret used in destroyer classes and it was intended to use this turret to arm Opytny class destroyer, but the ship was equipped with B-13 mounts instead
12 Gauge (Kalmah album)
12 Gauge is the sixth studio album by the Finnish melodic death metal band Kalmah, released on February 24,2010. 12 Gauge was recorded in three sessions over a period at Tico-Tico Studios in Finland. Each of the members kept in touch with their fans by keeping track of their recording sessions online at the official websites studio diary. In addition, guitarist Antti Kokko videotaped the recording and photo shoot sessions, seven videos were posted online during the months leading up to the albums release. Promotion for the album was otherwise minimal,12 Gauge received generally favorable reviews by European and American critics, with a few considering it better than either of its immediate predecessors, For the Revolution and The Black Waltz. It was agreed that the band succeeded in producing a thrashier album,12 Gauge charted in two countries, peaking at number 32 in Canada and number 15 in the bands homeland. Because the band had not been offered a tour, support for the album would be limited to Europe.
When Kalmah began writing music for their death metal album. As a result, the songs were going to be, as vocalist Pekka Kokko described, quite straightforward, the album would not be entirely thrash metal, since the band planned on adding acoustic guitar sections and trumpets. Antti Kokko, the songwriter for 12 Gauge, composed the riffs. These ideas were developed into complete songs during rehearsals and keyboard solos were written, sometimes with both instruments soloing in the same song, trading off repeatedly. Two of the tracks and Sacramentum, were composed entirely by keyboardist Marco Sneck, when the music was completed, Pekka began working on the lyrics, which were inspired by various topics, including politics, religion. Several of the songs shared an environmental theme, hook the Monster was about fishing,12 Gauge was inspired by hunting, and the impact of land development in the swamps of Finland was the subject of Swampwar. Commenting further on the swamps, Pekka remarked, valuable areas are a part of our northern wilderness, people are interested in those areas as a source of energy.
Recording and mixing took place at Tico-Tico Studios in Kemi, the studios schedule was too full for a single recording session, so Kalmah had to book time to record the album in three separate sessions, between the months of May and August,2009. The majority of tracks were recorded in May, beginning with Janne Kusmins drums, kusmin was not able to play as well as he had hoped because he had not been practicing. As a result, several of his parts were changed. By the following week, Timo Lehtinen had finished laying down the bass tracks and his technique was to play nearly all his parts with downstrokes to bring more balls to the sound
2nd to None
2nd to None is a collection of songs by American rock and roll icon Elvis Presley. The album was released by on October 7,2003 by RCA Records as the sequel to the years highly successful ELV1S,30 #1 Hits. Although not as successful as its predecessor, 2nd to None made the top 10 in at least nine countries, 2nd to None was produced by Ernst Mikael Jorgensen and Ray Bardani. The releases primary artwork consists of a picture of Elvis head, the releases art direction and design was handled by Mike Jurkovac. The artwork and design for the European release of the album was different, being similar to ELV1S and having the art direction and design by the same person. To promote the album in the United Kingdom, an album titled Before Anyone Did Anything
76th Guards Air Assault Division
The 76th Guards Air Assault Division is a division of the Russian Airborne Troops based in Pskov. The division traces its lineage back to the 76th Guards Rifle Division, the division fought in the Battle of Kursk, the Battle of the Dnieper, Operation Bagration, the East Pomeranian Offensive, and the Berlin Offensive. Postwar, it was converted into an airborne division, the division moved to Pskov, its current base, in 1949. The division was involved in Black January and the January Events in Lithuania, after the Dissolution of the Soviet Union the division became part of the Russian Airborne Troops. The division fought in the First Chechen War, Second Chechen War, the division became an air assault division in 2006. It was involved in the Annexation of Crimea and the War in Donbass, the 76th Air Assault Division was originally established in 1939 as the 157th Rifle Division. On 1 March 1943 it became the 76th Guards Rifle Division for its actions in the Battle of Stalingrad, Major General Alexander Kirsanov commanded the division.
The division fought in the Battle of Kursk, fighting in the part of the Kursk Bulge. Until 3 July the division was part of the Bryansk Front in the area of Belyov, on 12 July the division began the crossing of the Oka. By the end of the day the division had captured bridgeheads, the division received thanks from the Supreme Commander for this action. On 8 September, the division began to advance from the Oryol area to Chernigov, after three days the division had advanced 70 kilometers and reached the village of Tolstoles on 20 September, three kilometers northeast of Chernigov. The division helped capture the city and advanced to the west, by an order of the Supreme Commander on 21 September the division was thanked and awarded the honorific Chernigov. The division advanced into Belarus and it became part of the 1st Belorussian Front. On 17 July 1944 it began an attack northwest of Kovel, on 21 July the vanguard of the division moved north towards Brest in heavy fighting. On 26 July, troops advancing from the north and south linked up 20 to 25 kilometers west of Brest, German troops in the area were surrounded.
For its actions in the capture of Brest, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, on 25 January 1945, the division, as part of the 2nd Belorussian Front, blocked the route out of Toruń, surrounding German forces. In late February, the division attempted to cut the road out of Konitz, German troops were able to escape in the fighting. On 23 March the division captured Sopot and advanced to the Baltic Sea, by 25 March it had captured Oliwa and was advancing towards Danzig