5 ft and 1520 mm gauge railways
Railways with a railway track gauge of 5 ft/1,524 mm were first constructed in the United Kingdom and the United States. This gauge is commonly called Russian gauge because this gauge was chosen as the common track gauge for the Russian Empire. The gauge was redefined by Russian Railways to be 1520 mm, the primary region where Russian gauge is used is the former Soviet Union and Finland, with about 225,000 km of track. Russian gauge is the second most common gauge in the world, in 1748, the Wylam waggonway was built to a 5 ft gauge for the shipment of coal from Wylam to Lemington down the River Tyne. In 1839, the Eastern Counties Railway was constructed, and in 1840, in 1844, both lines were converted to 1,435 mm standard gauge. In 1903, the East Hill Cliff Railway, a funicular, was opened. In 1827, Horatio Allen, the engineer of the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company, prescribed the usage of 5 ft gauge. The presence of several distinct gauges was a disadvantage to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
In 1886, when around 11,500 miles of 5 ft gauge track existed in the United States, while of almost no practical importance the railway did demonstrate that this gauge was viable. The second railway in the Russian Empire was the Warsaw–Vienna railway which was built to 1,435 mm, for the building of Russias first major railway, the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway, engineer Pavel Melnikov hired as consultant George Washington Whistler, a prominent American railway engineer. Melnikov, of the Construction Commission overseeing the railway, recommended 6 ft following the example of the first railway and his study of US Railways. Following a report sent by Whistler the head of the Main Administration of Transport and Buildings recommended 5 ft and it was approved for the railway by Tsar Nicholas I on February 14,1843. The next lines built were approved with this gauge but it was not until March 1860 that a Government decree stated all major railways in Russia would be 5 ft gauge. It is widely and incorrectly believed that Imperial Russia chose a gauge broader than standard gauge for military reasons, in 1841 a Russian army engineer wrote a paper stating that such a danger did not exist since railways could be made dysfunctional by retreating forces.
Finally for the Moscow - Saint Petersburg Railway, which became the benchmark, despite this the difference in gauge did play a role in hindering invading armies, especially in World War II, it was just not selected with that in mind. The 5-foot gauge became the standard in the whole Russian Empire and that includes the Baltic states, Belarus, the Caucasian and Central Asian republics, and in the once Soviet-influenced Mongolia. This formed a break of gauge between Changchun and Kuancheng, until the rest of the former Chinese Eastern Railway was converted to standard gauge, unlike in South Manchuria, the Soviet Unions reconquest of southern Sakhalin from Japan did not result in regauging of the railway system. Southern Sakhalin has continued with the original Japanese 1,067 mm gauge simultaneously with the Russian gauge railway, constructed in the northern part of the island in 1930-1932
The 9th Company
The 9th Company is a 2005 Russian war film directed by Fedor Bondarchuk and set during the Soviet War in Afghanistan. The film is based on a real-life battle that took place at Elevation 3234 in early 1988. At a farewell ceremony in Krasnoyarsk, a band of young Soviet army recruits is preparing for their departure to their place of military service, during their training, the recruits overcome their differences and build bonds. Between the training sessions, they receive lessons in operating plastic explosives, on their arrival at Baghram air base they greet a group of VDV troops who have fulfilled their military service and are due to return home. One of the departing soldiers gives one of the new arrivals, homeward bound, the departing soldiers transport plane is hit by enemy fire from the nearby mountains and crashes, giving the new recruits their first taste of war. Shortly thereafter, the soldiers are assigned to the 9th company, the company is soon deployed to the front as part of Operation Magistral and is instructed to hold a nameless hill at all costs.
After some preliminary skirmishes, the position comes under sustained attack by a large number of Mujahedin fighters and is overrun. In the end, the company holds the hill until reinforcements arrive, in the film, only one soldier from the company is shown to have survived unscathed and the company is said to have been forgotten by command because of the Soviet withdrawal. In reality, the 9th Company, 345th Independent Guards Airborne Regiment was pinned down under fire on Hill 3234 from 7–8 January 1988. They managed to three attacks by an estimated 200-250 mujahideen. The company lost a total of 6 men, another 28 out of the total 39 were seriously wounded. Four of the soldiers were posthumously awarded the golden star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. Although first released in 2005, and broadcast on TV in several nations, it was not released in the US until 2010 on DVD.7 million in its first five days of release alone, a new domestic record. In 2006, Russia selected the film as its candidate for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film nomination and it was given the Golden Eagle Award for Best Feature Film by the Russian Academy of Cinema Arts
The 2S5 Giatsint-S is a Soviet/Russian 152 mm self-propelled gun. The 2S5 is capable of engaging targets at longer ranger and at a rate of fire than the more widely produced 2S3 Akatsiya 152mm self-propelled gun. Production of the 2S5 Giatsint-S started in 1976 along with the version the 2A36 Giatsint-B. In addition to high explosives, the gun can fire HEAT, smoke, deploying to fire the gun takes 3 minutes, and it can sustain a rate of fire of 5 to 6 rounds per minute. Most of the crew, with the exception of the gunner and it is usually accompanied by an ammunition carrier with an additional 30 rounds of ammunition. The 2S5 was first used in combat by the Soviet Union in Soviet-Afghan War, Russian forces used it in the First Chechen War. The 2S5 has been employed by the Ukrainian Army in the War in Donbass, belarus 120 Ethiopia 10 Finland Finnish Army, known as 152 TELAK91. Russia Army,399 units Navy,170 units Ukraine -24 Soviet Union Infantry fighting vehicle List of AFVs List of artillery, 2S5 Giatsint-S description at the website of its manufacturer - scroll down the page
The 2K12 Kub mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack. 2К12 is the GRAU designation of the system, each 2K12 battery consists of a number of similar tracked vehicles, one of which carries the 1S9125 kW G/H band radar equipped with a continuous wave illuminator, in addition to an optical sight. The battery usually includes four triple-missile transporter erector launchers, and four trucks, the TEL is based on a GM-578 chassis, while the 1S91 radar vehicle is based on a GM-568 chassis, all developed and produced by MMZ. The development of the 2K12 was started after 18 July 1958 at the request of the CPSU Central Committee.7, the systems design was the responsibility of the now Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design. Before 1963 only 11 of 83 missiles fired had the seeker head installed, Kub downed its first ever air target on February 18,1963 during the state trials at Donguz test site, Orenburg Oblast.
It was an Ilyushin Il-28 bomber, the 2K12 Kub was recommended for modernisation work in 1967 with the goal of improving combat characteristics. A modernised variant underwent trial testing in 1972 eventually being adopted in 1973 as the Kub-M1, the system underwent another modernisation between 1974 and 1976, against the general combat characteristics of the system were improved with the Kub-M3 clearing testing and entering service in 1976. The final major development of the Kub missile system was achieved during the development of its successor, although the Buk is the successor to Kub it was decided that both systems could share some interoperability, the result of this decision was the Kub-M4 system. The Kub-M4 used Kub-M3 components which could receive fire control information from the 9А310 transporter erector launcher, the advantage of interoperability was an increase in the number of fire control channels and available missiles for each system as well as a faster service entry for Buk system components.
The Kub-M4 was adopted into service in 1978 following completion of trials, some early development interpretations of the Buk missile system heavily utilized Kub components, including the 3M9 missile. There are several plans to integrate active radar homing missiles into Kub, for instance, Polish WZU of Grudziadz demonstrated a project of a Sparrow-armed Kub at the MSPO2008 defence exhibition in Kielce. It is reported that Vympel initiated some work to use its RVV-AE air-to-air missile to modernise the Kvadrat SAM system, the Czech company RETIA presented a SURN upgrade featuring an optical channel and new multiple-function color displays as well as the radar upgrade and the IFF system. In 2011 a Kub upgraded launcher with three Aspide 2000 missiles in launch containers was presented at the International Exhibition of Defence and Security Technologies exposition in Brno, the modifications were made by Retia. The 2K12 system shares many components with the 2K11 Krug system, in many ways they are designed to complement each other, 2K11 is effective at long ranges and high altitudes, 2K12 at medium ranges and intermediate altitudes.
The system is able to acquire and begin tracking targets using the 1S91 Самоходная установка разведки и наведения at 75 km and begin illumination, IFF is performed using this radar. It can only guide one or two missiles to a target at any time. The missile is initially command guided with terminal semi-active radar homing, detonation is via either the impact or proximity fuze. The optical tracking method allows engagements to altitudes below that where the radar is able to track targets, maximum target speed is around Mach 2 for head-on engagements and Mach 1 for tail-chase engagements
22nd Mechanised Brigade (Ukraine)
The 22nd Mechanised Brigade was a formation of the Ukrainian Ground Forces from 2000 to 2003. However most of its historical traditions stem from the 66th Guards Rifle Division, originally a formation of the Red Army, Major General Akim Yakshin became Divisions new commander after Pavel Lagutin was promoted to Executive officer of the 21st Army. On February 7,1943 most of the Divisions units were renamed, on March 17,1943 the 66th was assigned to 6th Guards Rifle Corps, 1st Guards Army, Southwestern Front, from May 5,1943 the 66th was assigned to 5th Guards Army Steppe Military District. From May 9,1943 the 66th was with 32nd Guards Rifle Corps 5th Guards Army, during Battle of Kursk and Lower Dnepr strategic offensive operation the 66th was with 33rd Guards Rifle Corps 5th Guards Army, she was again assigned to 32nd Guards Corps. On September 23,1943 the 66th was awarded with the honorable name Poltava by Supreme Commander, by the end of October the 66th was with 53rd Army, 2nd Ukrainian Front.
On November 28,1943 Major General Sergey Frolov became new Divisions commander, on November 30,1943 the 66th was with 20th Guards Rifle Corps 4th Guards Army. On January 3,1944 66th was assigned to 48th Rifle Corps 53rd Army, while taking part in Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive Operation, 66th was with 75th Rifle Corps, she was assigned to 26th Guards Rifle Corps. On March 1,1943 66th was with 69th Army reserve of Stavka near Shpola Cherkasy Oblast, on April 11,1944 Division was relocated by rail to Zaporizhia with 1st Ukrainian Front. During Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive 66th was with 95th Rifle Corps 18th Army 1st Ukrainian Front, during the East Carpathian Strategic Offensive Operation the division was assigned to 18th Guards Rifle Corps 18th Army 4th Ukrainian Front. From September 16,1944, Division took part in Carpathian-Uzhgorod Offensive Operation, on November 14,1944 66th with 18th Guards Rifle Corps was assigned to 2nd Ukrainian Front where she took part in Battle of Budapest. On January 23,1943 66th was with 104th Rifle Corps 4th Guards Army 3rd Ukrainian Front, on April 5,1945 the Division was awarded Order of the Red Banner by Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
From April 15,1945 66th was with 21st Guards Rifle Corps 4th Guards Army, Division finished combat operations in Austria on May 8,1945 After Victory Day 66th with 27th Army from June 3 to August 23,1945 was relocating to Ukraine into Carpathian Military District. First base was in Haisyn Vinnytsia Oblast, from October 1946 Division was assigned to 38th Army in Chernivtsi. Division took part in Hungarian Revolution of 1956, on June 15,1957 66th Guards Rifle Division became 66th Guards Motor Rifle Division. On September 15,1960, 66th became 66th Guards Training Motor Rifle Division, in 1987, 66th Guards Training Motor Rifle Division became 110th Guards Separate Training Center for junior specialists of motor rifle troops of the Carpathian Military District. The Training Center became under Ukrainian control after Ukraine declared independence from the Soviet Union, on January 19,1992 the Training Center along with all other units stationed in Ukraine, pledged their allegiance to Ukrainian people.
In May 1992, the 110th Guards Districts Training Center was disbanded by the directive of the Ministry of Defense, on September 1,1992 a new 66th Mechanized Division started forming on the basis of units from the disbanded Training Center. A few units from the 17th Guards Motor Rifle Division were added to the Division, Division was a part of the 38th Army Corps Western Operational Command
4th Air and Air Defence Forces Army
The 4th Air Army was a Soviet Air Force formation and from 1992 to 2009 was part of the Russian Air Force. From 1998 the army was designated the 4th Army of Air Forces and it was first established on 22 May 1942 from the Air Forces of the Soviet Southern Front, and fought on the Eastern Front until 1945. In 1949 it was redesignated the 37th Air Army and it was reformed on 4 April 1968 in Poland, and was active there with the Northern Group of Forces for over twenty years, shifting to the North Caucasus Military District in August 1992. The arrival of the Sukhoi Su-24 drastically changed its tasking in the 1980s, in February 1943 it was reorganized into 46th Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment and in October 1943 it became the 46th Taman Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment. In 1943, the Army supported the Kerch-Eltigen Operation and assisted in the battle for air superiority over the Kuban, two regiments that formed part of the Army, the 57th GIAP and 821st IAP, flew lend-lease Supermarine Spitfires in 1943 for a period.
Alexander Pokryshkin was one of its members, and one of the most successful aces of WW2, on 17 July 1943 the 216 SAD/IAD was redesignated the 9th Guards Fighter Aviation Division. It was commanded by Colonel Alexander Pokryshkin from April 1944 to May 1945, in summer 1944 the Army covered the Separate Coastal Army during the Battle of the Crimea. It was reassigned to the 2nd Belorussian Front and participated in Operation Bagration, the East Prussian Offensive, the East Pomeranian Offensive, overall during the war it flew about 300,000 sorties. After World War II the 4th Air Army remained in Poland, on 22 February 1968, in accordance with a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR the 37th Air Аrmy was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. On 4 April 1968 the 37th Air Аrmy was redesignated again into the 4th Air Army which the army had during the Second World War. After the Su-24s started arriving, as part of General Nikolai Ogarkovs reforms,4 VA became an independent army with operative designation, the 24th Air Army of the South-Western Direction shared that status.
Those were the air force armies with Su-27 fighters, tasked with cover of the Fencers. Over the border in the Kaliningrad Oblast, but still part of the Army, was the 132 Bomber Sevastopol Red Banner Air Division at Chernyakhovsk, following withdrawal from Poland from 1992 it became the aviation component of the North Caucasus Military District. On 22 August 1992, the headquarters of the 4th Red Banner VА was relocated to the city of Rostov-on-Don, on 16 June 1997 the President of the Russian Federation signed the decree About prime measures on reforming Armed forces of the Russian Federation and perfection of their structure. According to that decree, on the basis of the 4th Air Army, the 10th Bombardment Aviation Division, headquartered at Yeysk with up to 90 Su-24s in three regiments was part of the army during the 1990s. At some point between January 2001 and September 2005 the division headquarters disbanded, Yeysk airfield, the previous home of a training aviation institute directing around three regiments of L-39s, was turned over to Russian Naval Aviation in September 2009.
In February 2004 regional command staff trainings took place in Kabardino-Balkaria,02.2006 comd staff exercises jointly with the 58th Army of the North Caucasus Military District. 8 Su-25 took part in Peace Mission 2007 joint Russia-Sino exercises, the commanding officer of the 4th Air Army from February 2007 was Lieutenant General Igor Miroshnichenko
.338 Lapua Magnum
The.338 Lapua Magnum is a rimless, centerfire rifle cartridge. It was developed during the 1980s as a high-powered, long-range cartridge for military snipers and it was used in the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War. As a result of this, it more widely available. The loaded cartridge is 14.93 mm in diameter and 93.5 mm long and it can penetrate better-than-standard military body armour at ranges up to 1,000 metres and has a maximum effective range of about 1,750 metres. British military issue overpressure.338 Lapua Magnum cartridges with a 91.4 mm overall length, in addition to its military role, it is increasingly used by hunters and civilian long-range shooting enthusiasts. In Namibia the.338 Lapua Magnum is legal for hunting Africas Big five game if the loads have ≥5,400 J muzzle energy, the.416 Rigby is an English big game cartridge that was designed to accommodate 325 MPa pressures. One of the disadvantages of these old cartridge cases, which were intended for firing cordite charges instead of modern smokeless powder, is the thickness of the sidewall just forward of the web, during ignition, the cartridges base, forward to the bolt face, is not supported.
The case is back against the bolt face, which results in the stretching of the case. When the sidewall resists the outward expansion against the chamber, the pressure stretches the case, thereby increasing its length, RAI found that the BELL cases did not fulfill the requirements. Pressed by military deadlines RAI looked for another producer and contacted Lapua of Finland in 1984. RAI was forced to out of the program due to financial difficulties. Subsequently, Lapua of Finland put this cartridge into limited production, the. 338/416 rifle program was canceled when the contractors were unable to make the cartridge meet the projects velocity target of 914 m/s for a 16.2 g bullet, due to weak brass cases. Lapua opted to redesign the. 338/416 cartridge, in the new case design, particular attention was directed toward thickening and metallurgically strengthening the cases web and sidewall immediately forward of the web. In modern solid head cases, the hardness of the brass is the factor that determines a cases pressure limit before undergoing plastic deformation.
Lapua tackled this problem by creating a hardness distribution ranging from the head and web to the mouth as well as a strengthened case web and sidewall immediately forward of the web. This resulted in a very pressure resistant case, allowing it to operate at high pressure, Lapua designed a 16. 2-gram.338 calibre Lock Base B408 full metal jacket bullet, modeled after its.30 calibre Lock Base bullet configuration. The result was the.338 Lapua Magnum cartridge which was registered with C. I. P. in 1989, with the procurement by the Dutch Army, the cartridge became NATO codified. The.338 Lapua Magnum fills the gap between weapons chambered for standard military rounds such as the 7. 62×51mm NATO and large, weighty rifles firing the.50 BMG cartridge
9K114 Shturm is a SACLOS radio guided anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union. Its NATO reporting name is AT-6 Spiral, the missile itself is known as the 9M114 Kokon. The missile was developed by the Kolomna Machine Design Bureau, which was responsible for the 3M6 Shmel. Work on the began in 1967, with the hope of using the missile on Mi-24s. However, delays forced the design of an upgraded Falanga system using SACLOS guidance as a stopgap, testing of the missile was completed in 1974, and it was accepted into service in 1976. The missile has no direct western counterpart, though, in role, it is closest to the AGM-114 Hellfire and it was originally given the NATO designation AS-8, before being redesignated as AT-6. The missile can be deployed on a variety of platforms, including the Mi-24V, there is a shipborne version of the missile, with the launcher holding six missiles. The missile is transported and launched from a plastic tube. The missile uses a Soyuz NPO solid-rocket sustainer, with a booster stage to launch the missile from its tube.
The missile is SACLOS with a command link. The use of a link allows the missile to travel much faster and further than if it were wire guided. The radio link is a VHF system with five frequency bands, the system comprises a KPS-53AV 8x daylight-only direct vision sight with an integrated laser rangefinder. After the missile is launched, the gunner has to keep the crosshairs on the target until impact. Appropriate steering commands are transmitted to the missile via the radio link, the missile flies above the gunners line of sight to the target. With the range of the target determined by the laser rangefinder and this is done primarily to clear obstacles, instead of achieving a top-attack, and can be switched off. It is possible to engage low and slow moving helicopters with the system, since the missile only has a contact fuze, Soviet sources report kill ratios of 75-85% during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Both missiles passed within 1 m of their aiming point and it is possible there were problems with early models of the missile— Soviet stocks of the missile were rebuilt to AT-6B and C standard by 1994.
The export price of the missile in 1992 was $50,000, 9M114 AT-6A Spiral Shturm SACLOS 9M114M HEAT warhead
15th Transport Aviation Brigade (Ukraine)
The 15th Transport Aviation Brigade is a formation of the Ukrainian Air Force. In 2001 the Brigade was known as 15th Aviation Special Purpose Brigade, 1st Squadron 2nd Squadron 3rd Helicopter Squadron An-24 An-26 An-30 Tu-134 Mi-8 Karpov, Victor V. Tabachnyk, Dmytro V. Ukrainian Military Symbols