A paper cup is a disposable cup made out of paper and often lined or coated with plastic or wax to prevent liquid from leaking out or soaking through the paper. It may be made of recycled paper and is used around the world. Paper cups have been documented in imperial China, where paper was invented by 2nd century BC, paper cups were known as chih pei and were used for the serving of tea. They were constructed in different sizes and colors, and were adorned with decorative designs, textual evidence of paper cups appears in a description of the possessions of the Yu family, from the city of Hangzhou. The modern paper cup was developed in the 20th century, in the early 20th century, it was common to have shared glasses or dippers at water sources such as school faucets or water barrels in trains. This shared use caused public health concerns, the article was reprinted and distributed by the Massachusetts State Board of Health in November 1909. Based on these concerns, and as paper goods became cheaply and cleanly available, one of the first railway companies to use disposable paper cups was the Lackawanna Railroad, which began using them in 1909.
By 1917, the glass had disappeared from railway carriages. Paper cups are employed in hospitals for health reasons, in 1942 the Massachusetts State College found in one study that the cost of using washable glasses, re-used after being sanitized, was 1.6 times the cost of using single-service paper cups. These studies, as well as the reduction in the risk of cross-infection, professor Davisons study was instrumental in abolishing the public glass and opening the door for the paper cup. Soon, the devices, which would dispense cool water for one cent, the Dixie Cup was first called Health Kup, but from 1919 it was named after a line of dolls made by Alfred Schindlers Dixie Doll Company in New York. Success led the company, which had existed under a variety of names, to itself the Dixie Cup Corporation and move to a factory in Wilson. Atop the factory was a water tank in the shape of a cup. In 1957, Dixie merged with the American Can Company, the James River Corporation purchased American Cans paper business in 1982.
The assets of James River are now part of Georgia-Pacific, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, in 1983, production moved to a modern factory in Forks, Pennsylvania. The original factory in Wilson has sat vacant ever since, the closing of the factory prompted Conrail to abandon the Easton & Northern railroad branch, of which Dixie Cups was the last major customer. In 1969, the Dixie Cup logo was created by Saul Bass, the coupon collectors problem is sometimes called the Dixie cup problem. The base paper for paper cups are called cup board and are made on special paper machines and have a barrier coating for waterproofing
United States Declaration of Independence
Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast, a committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term Declaration of Independence is not used in the document itself, John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. The next day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail, The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, but Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was approved. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms and it was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for printing has been lost.
Jeffersons original draft, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, the best known version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is popularly regarded as the official document, is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, the sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric, and his policies and this has been called one of the best-known sentences in the English language, containing the most potent and consequential words in American history. The passage came to represent a standard to which the United States should strive. Believe me, dear Sir, there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose, and in this, I think I speak the sentiments of America.
By the time that the Declaration of Independence was adopted in July 1776, relations had been deteriorating between the colonies and the mother country since 1763. Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase revenue from the colonies, such as the Stamp Act of 1765, Parliament believed that these acts were a legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs to keep them in the British Empire. Many colonists, had developed a different conception of the empire, the colonies were not directly represented in Parliament, and colonists argued that Parliament had no right to levy taxes upon them. This tax dispute was part of a divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution and the extent of Parliaments authority in the colonies. In the colonies, the idea had developed that the British Constitution recognized certain fundamental rights that no government could violate, after the Townshend Acts, some essayists even began to question whether Parliament had any legitimate jurisdiction in the colonies at all
A pack or packet of cigarettes is a rectangular container, mostly of paperboard, which contains cigarettes. The pack is designed with a foil, paper or biodegradable plastic. By pulling the pull-tabs, the pack is opened, hard packs can be closed again after opening, whereas soft packs cannot. Cigarette packs often contain warning messages depending on which country they are sold in, the size of a pack is often regulated. Government agencies usually set a minimum pack size, in Australia, the most common quantity per pack is 25, although some brands have changed them to 26, second to 20 which by law, is the minimum. 30,40 and even 50 packs are sold, in Canada, most packs sold have 25 cigarettes, but packs of 20 are popular. In many European countries, increases of cigarette tax can cause the quantity of cigarettes in the pack to change, in Malaysia, the selling of packs containing fewer than 20 cigarettes is prohibited. In the United States of America, the quantity of cigarettes in a pack must be at least 20, certain brands, such as Export As, come in a pack of 25.
For many years, half-packs of 10 cigarettes were commonly available, in the United Kingdom brands are usually sold in packets of 20 but most popular brands are available in 10s. Vending machines often dispense packets containing 16 or 18 cigarettes, although the dimensions of the packaging are the same as the equivalent packet containing 20. Despite this, due to plain packaging laws being enforced in May 2017, packs of 10 will be banned from UK markets, a carton of cigarettes usually contains 10 packs, totaling 200 cigarettes. Some cartons contain twenty packs, totaling 400 cigarettes, a hard pack is the usual style of paperboard packaging for store bought cigarettes, which consists of a relatively stable box. This successfully prevents the crumpling of cigarettes when kept in a pocket or handbag. The flip-top hard pack cigarette case was introduced in 1955 by Philip Morris, a soft pack is a box packaging made of thin paper, usually containing 20 cigarettes. Soft packs may be considered inconvenient as they easily and cannot be resealed.
They offer the convenience of not having to open the package each time the smoker wants a cigarette. They require less physical space when fewer cigarettes remain in the pack. With American brands, cigarettes from a pack are usually a few millimeters longer than their hard-boxed counterparts
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Badger-baiting or badger baiting is a traditional Northern European blood sport in which badgers are baited with dogs. A baiting session typically results in the death of the badger, the badger is a usually quiet and docile creature in its own domain, when cornered or when a threat is perceived it can possess impressive courage. Weighing up to thirty-five pounds when fully grown, the badger has a dangerous bite. In addition, badgers have extremely powerful claws, used for digging in hard earth, a formidable adversary for any dog, the badger was a sought-after participant for the fighting pit. In order to use the ability to defend itself to test the dog, artificial badger dens were built, captured badgers were put in them. The badger would be placed in a box, which was furnished in imitation of its den, the owner of the badger puts his animal in the box. The timekeeper is equipped with a watch and the owner releases the dog for the fight. Whoever wants to pit his dog against the badger lets it slide into the tunnel, usually the dog is seized immediately by the badger and the dog in turn grips the badger.
Each bites and pulls the other all their might. The owner of the dog quickly pulls out the dog whose jaws are clamped obstinately onto the badger by its tail, the two are separated and the badger is returned to its den. Then the dog is sent back in to seize the badger and this scene is repeated over and over again. The more often a dog is able to seize the badger within a minute, drawing the badger came to England in the 18th century and soon became a very popular sideshow in the pit. It provided a new opportunity to win or lose money by betting, drawing the badger thus became a permanent part of the fight in the pit. Baits were staged outside the pit in cellars or taverns, as an attraction for the guests. Towards the middle 19th century Badger-baiting declined in popularity to be replaced by dog fighting, apart from the cruelty towards badgers, dogs are brutalized in the blood sport. Dogs usually suffer injuries of the face and neck, in some cases, the injuries are such that the dogs must be euthanized.
Today, baiters often refrain from taking injured dogs to veterinarians as the doctor might understand what has taken place, for this reason the badger is often crippled and/or restrained to minimise the risk of injury to dogs. The badgers long front claws may be filed off, the teeth may be pulled out
A greeting card is an illustrated piece of card or high quality paper featuring an expression of friendship or other sentiment. Although greeting cards are given on special occasions such as birthdays, Christmas or other holidays. Greeting cards, usually packaged with an envelope, come in a variety of styles, there are both mass-produced as well as handmade versions that are distributed by hundreds of companies large and small. While typically inexpensive, more cards with die-cuts or glued-on decorations may be more expensive. Hallmark Cards and American Greetings are the two largest producers of greeting cards in the world today, in Western countries and increasingly in other societies, many people traditionally mail seasonally themed cards to their friends and relatives in December. Many service businesses send cards to their customers in this season, the Greeting Card Association is an international trade organization representing the interests of greeting card and stationery manufacturers.
For me, there’s nothing like a card to send a special message. I’m proud to be a part of an industry not only keeps people connected. Standard Greeting Cards, A standard greeting card is printed on high-quality paper, inside is a pre-printed message appropriate for the occasion, along with a blank space for the sender to add a signature or handwritten message. A matching envelope is sold with the card, Some cards and envelopes feature fancy materials, such as gold leaf, ribbons or glitter. Photo Greeting Cards, In recent years, photo greeting cards have gained widespread popularity, the first type are photo insert cards in which a hole has been cut in the centre. A photo slides in just like a frame, the second type are printed photo cards in which the photo is combined with artwork and printed, usually on a high-end digital press, directly onto the face of the card. Both types are most popular for sending holiday greetings such as Christmas, personalised Greeting Cards, Websites using special personalisation technology, such as Moonpig, allow consumers to personalise a card which is printed and sent directly to the recipient.
Reusable Greeting Cards, These are greeting cards for the budget conscious, there are two common formats for reusable cards. Firstly there are cards with slits in them positioned to hold pages, secondly there are notepad style cards where pages stick to the back of the cards. The pages that have used for reusable cards can be removed after being received. Risqué Greeting Cards, Some companies offer risqué greeting cards, with adult-based humor, the humor in these cards can sometimes be offensive to more conservative parts of the population. Musical Greeting Cards, Recently greeting cards have made that play music or sound when they are opened
Jacco Macacco was a fighting ape or monkey who was exhibited in monkey-baiting matches at the Westminster Pit in London in the early 1820s. His ashes are housed at The True CRIME Museum in Hastings, most details on Jacco come from second-hand or fictionalized accounts. Lennox writes that after biting his owner he was sold to the proprietor of the Westminster Pit, although he was already somewhat famous, at the Westminster Pit Jaccos fights began to attract spectators from the higher reaches of society and considerable wagers were placed on his fights. Aistrop gave a different account of Jaccos history. In a statement published in 1825 he claimed that Jacco had belonged to a sailor who had him for three years. Jacco had always very calm but one day suddenly became aggressive over a saucer of milk. The sailor had sold him to a silversmith called Carter from Hoxton, Carter had taught Jacco many tricks, but because the ape was extremely aggressive Carter had to purchase a large sheet of iron to use as a shield whenever he approached him.
Carter finally tired of Jaccos constant attempts to him and took the ape into a nearby field where he set a dog on him. Jacco defeated both this dog and a dog, and was matched against a dog bred for fighting at Bethnal Green. When he defeated this dog, his reputation began to grow, reputable historians frequently point to this fight as the first documentable episode of exacting what came to be referred to as monkey justice. Lewis Strange Wingfield wrote in his 1883 novel Abigail Rowe, a Chronicle of the Regency of an advertisement for a hundred guinea match between Jacco and Belchers celebrated dog Trusty. It appears that there was at least one contest between Jacco and the equally renowned white Bull and Terrier bitch, who belonged to the former prizefighter Tom Cribb. The various accounts of the fight and its outcome appear contradictory, Aistrop puts the date of the contest as 13 June 1821. Thomas Landseer produced an etching from his own sketch of Fight between Jacko Maccacco a celebrated Monkey and Mr Tho, cribbs well known bitch Puss which shows the two combatants locked together tearing at one anothers throats.
He claimed that he had seen a bill advertising a fight between Jacco and Puss, Jacco Macacco, the monkey, will this day fight Tom Cribs white bitch. Jacco has fought battles with some of the first dogs of the day, and has beat them all. Martins bill passed, but his accounts of acts of cruelty were challenged in Parliament. Protected by Parliamentary privilege, he could not be accused of lying, according to Aistrop, Jacco was stuffed and sold to a Mr Shaw of Mitchum Common, which would have been impossible if the monkeys jaw was torn away
Continuous stationery or continuous form paper is paper which is designed for use with dot-matrix and line printers with appropriate paper-feed mechanisms. Other names for continuous stationery include fan-fold paper, sprocket feed paper, burst paper, tractor-feed paper and it can be single-ply or multi-ply, often described as multipart stationery or forms. After printing the separated sheets can be held in binders by using the holes when simply required as a record. The tear perforations may be slits, which leave noticeable serrations when torn apart. Where better appearance is necessary the perforations can be much finer, continuous form paper of all types remains in production, although largely supplanted with the introduction of fast laser printers with single-sheet feed. Continuous stationery printed on a printer is typically cheaper than laser printing although the output is of lower quality. If an impact printer is used multiple simultaneous copies can be printed on multipart forms, many laser printers can print on both sides of the paper, not possible with continuous stationery.
The highest grade of continuous form paper uses a heavy bond weight similar to typing paper and it is a very lightweight bond, usually without slit perforations to remove the engagement hole strips. Common sizes, 241mm x 279mm 381mm x 279mm A decollator separates multi-part continuous form paper into separate stacks of one-part continuous form paper, a burster is a machine that separates one-part continuous form paper into separate, sheets along the transverse perforations. A burster was typically used with printed continuous form paper applications such as advertising, invoices. Bursting is done by firmly gripping the second-to-last sheet while feed rollers grip the last sheet firmly, the continuous form paper advances into the feed rollers to burst the next sheet. Large continuous documents might not be split into separate sheets, with this technique, the stack is normally flipped top to bottom or bottom to top rather than side to side. IBM cards, optionally numbered and pre-punched, were available as continuous form cards and were used for checks, continuous form paper became widely used and well known to the general public in the 1980s due to the development of microcomputers and inexpensive dot-matrix consumer printers.
Continuous form paper began to disappear from the market in the 1990s as desktop publishing. Consumers were willing to pay more to get a laser printer or inkjet printer that could produce near-typeset-quality documents and these printers accept standard size cut sheets of paper and do not require continuous form paper. Continuous form paper continues to be used in specialty commercial and industrial markets and, as of 2013, is available from large retailers of office supplies such as OfficeMax. Film perforations The Free Online Dictionary of Computing Related info at the Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing Photo of a decollator in operation Photo of a decollator and a burster
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
A postcard or post card is a rectangular piece of thick paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an envelope. Shapes other than rectangular may be used, there are novelty exceptions, such as wood postcards, made of thin wood, and copper postcards sold in the Copper Country of the U. S. state of Michigan, and coconut postcards from tropical islands. In some places, one can send a postcard for a lower fee than for a letter, stamp collectors distinguish between postcards and postal cards. While a postcard is usually printed by a company, individual or organization. The worlds oldest postcard was sent in 1840 to the writer Theodore Hook from Fulham in London, the study and collecting of postcards is termed deltiology. Cards with messages had been created and posted by individuals since the beginning of postal services. The earliest known picture postcard was a design on card, posted in Fulham in London by the writer Theodore Hook to himself in 1840. He probably created and posted the card to himself as a joke on the postal service, since the image is a caricature of workers in the post office.
In 2002 the postcard sold for a record £31,750, in Britain, postcards without images were issued by the Post Office in 1870, and were printed with a stamp as part of the design, which was included in the price of purchase. These cards came in two sizes, the larger size was found to be slightly too large for ease of handling, and was soon withdrawn in favour of cards 13mm shorter. The first known printed picture postcard, with an image on one side, was created in France in 1870 at Camp Conlie by Léon Besnardeau, Conlie was a training camp for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian war. While these are certainly the first known picture postcards, there was no space for stamps, in the following year the first known picture postcard in which the image functioned as a souvenir was sent from Vienna. The first advertising card appeared in 1872 in Great Britain and the first German card appeared in 1874, Cards showing images increased in number during the 1880s. Images of the newly built Eiffel Tower in 1889 and 1890 gave impetus to the postcard, Early postcards often showcased photography of nude women.
These were commonly known as French postcards, due to the number of them produced in France. The first American postcard was developed in 1873 by the Morgan Envelope Factory of Springfield and these first postcards depicted the Interstate Industrial Exposition that took place in Chicago. Later in 1873, Post Master John Creswell introduced the first pre-stamped Postal Cards, Postcards were made because people were looking for an easier way to send quick notes. The first postcard to be printed as a souvenir in the United States was created in 1893 to advertise the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago, the United States government prohibited private companies from calling their cards postcards, so they were known as souvenir cards
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print, the block is cut along the wood grain. The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with a roller, leaving ink upon the flat surface. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks, single-leaf woodcut is a term for a woodcut presented as a single image or print, as opposed to a book illustration. Among these the best known are the 16th century Hieronymus Andreae, Hans Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, all of whom ran workshops, the formschneider in turn handed the block on to specialist printers. There were further specialists who made the blank blocks and this is why woodcuts are sometimes described by museums or books as designed by rather than by an artist, but most authorities do not use this distinction.
The division of labour had the advantage that a trained artist could adapt to the medium relatively easily, there were various methods of transferring the artists drawn design onto the block for the cutter to follow. Either the drawing would be made directly onto the block, or a drawing on paper was glued to the block, either way, the artists drawing was destroyed during the cutting process. Other methods were used, including tracing, in both Europe and the Far East in the early 20th century, some artists began to do the whole process themselves. In Japan, this movement was called sōsaku-hanga, as opposed to shin-hanga, in the West, many artists used the easier technique of linocut instead. Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and engraving, only low pressure is required to print, as a relief method, it is only necessary to ink the block and bring it into firm and even contact with the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print. In Europe a variety of woods including boxwood and several nut and fruit woods like pear or cherry were commonly used, in Japan, there are three methods of printing to consider, Used for many fabrics and most early European woodcuts.
Used for European woodcuts and block-books in the fifteenth century, used for many Western woodcuts from about 1910 to the present. The block goes face up on a table, with the paper or fabric on top, the back is rubbed with a hard pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a leather frotton. A traditional Japanese tool used for this is called a baren, in Japan, complex wooden mechanisms were used to help hold the woodblock perfectly still and to apply proper pressure in the printing process. This was especially helpful once multiple colors were introduced and had to be applied with precision atop previous ink layers, printing in a press, presses only seem to have been used in Asia in relatively recent times. Printing-presses were used from about 1480 for European prints and block-books, simple weighted presses may have been used in Europe before the print-press, but firm evidence is lacking