Mahalia Jackson was an American gospel singer. Possessing a powerful voice, she was referred to as The Queen of Gospel. She became one of the most influential singers in the world and was heralded internationally as a singer. She was described by entertainer Harry Belafonte as the single most powerful woman in the United States. She recorded about 30 albums during her career, and her 45 rpm records included a dozen golds—million-sellers, I sing Gods music because it makes me feel free, Jackson once said about her choice of gospel, adding, It gives me hope. With the blues, when you finish, you still have the blues and she was born on October 26,1911, as Mahala Jackson and nicknamed Halie. Jackson grew up in the Black Pearl section of the Carrollton neighborhood of uptown New Orleans, the three-room dwelling on Pitt Street housed thirteen people and a dog. This included Little Mahala, her brother Roosevelt Hunter, whom they called Peter, and her mother Charity Clark, several aunts and cousins lived in the house as well.
Aunt Mahala was given the nickname Duke after proving herself the boss of the family. The extended family consisted of her mothers siblings, Mahala, Porterfield, Alice, Bessie, their children and patriarch Rev. Paul Clark, a former slave. Jacksons father, John A. Jackson Sr. was a stevedore and he fathered five other children besides Mahalia and Yvonne, Edna and Johnny Jr. Her fathers sister, Jeanette Jackson-Burnett, and her husband, were vaudeville entertainers, at birth, Jackson suffered from genu varum, or bowed legs. The doctors wanted to perform surgery by breaking her legs, Jacksons mother would rub her legs down with greasy dishwater. The condition never stopped young Jackson from performing her dance steps for the woman for whom her mother. Jackson was four years old when her mother Charity died, leaving her family to decide who would raise Halie, Aunt Duke assumed this responsibility, and the children were forced to work from sun-up to sun-down. Aunt Duke would always inspect the house using the white glove method, if the house was not cleaned properly, Jackson was beaten.
If one of the other relatives could not do their chores or clean at their job, Jackson loved to sing and church is where she loved to sing the most. Her Aunt Bell told her one day she would sing in front of royalty
The Mothers of Invention
The Mothers of Invention were an American rock band from California that served as the backing musicians for Frank Zappa. Formed in 1964, their work is marked by the use of experimentation, innovative album art. Originally an R&B band called the Soul Giants, the original lineup included Ray Collins, David Coronado, Ray Hunt, Roy Estrada. Zappa was asked to take over as the guitarist following a fight between Collins and Coronado, the bands original saxophonist/leader, Zappa insisted that they perform his original material, changing their name on Mothers Day to the Mothers. After record executives objected to the name it was changed, Zappa said out of necessity, we became the Mothers of Invention. After early struggles, the Mothers earned substantial popular commercial success, the band first became popular playing in Californias underground music scene in the late 1960s. Under Zappas helm, it was signed to jazz label Verve Records as part of the labels diversification plans, Verve released the Mothers of Inventions début double album Freak Out.
in 1966, featuring a lineup including Zappa, Black and Elliot Ingber. Don Preston joined the band soon after, in 1970, he formed a new version of the Mothers that included Ian Underwood, Jeff Simmons, George Duke, Aynsley Dunbar and singers Mark Volman and Howard Kaylan. Later adding another ex-Turtle, bassist Jim Pons, this lineup endured through 1971, the final album using the Mothers as a backing band, Bongo Fury, featured guitarist Denny Walley and drummer Terry Bozzio, who continued to play for Zappa on non-Mothers releases. The Soul Giants were formed in 1964, in 1964, Frank Zappa was approached by Ray Collins who asked him to take over as the guitarist following a fight between Collins and the groups original guitarist. Zappa accepted, and convinced the members that they should play his music to increase the chances of getting a record contract. Original leader David Coronado did not think that the band would be if they played original material. Zappa soon assumed leadership and the role as singer, even though he never considered himself a singer.
The band was renamed the Mothers, coincidentally on Mothers Day, the group increased their bookings after beginning an association with manager Herb Cohen, while they gradually gained attention on the burgeoning Los Angeles underground music scene. In early 1966, they were spotted by leading record producer Tom Wilson when playing Zappas Trouble Every Day, the label suggested the name The Mothers Auxiliary, which prompted Zappa to come up with the name The Mothers of Invention. With Wilson credited as producer, the Mothers of Invention, augmented by a studio orchestra, preceded by Bob Dylans Blonde on Blonde, was the second rock double album ever released. It mixed R&B, doo-wop, musique concrète, and experimental sound collages that captured the freak subculture of Los Angeles at that time, the sound was raw, but the arrangements were sophisticated. The lyrics praised non-conformity, disparaged authorities, and had dadaist elements, there was a place for seemingly conventional love songs
William John Clifton Bill Haley was an American rock and roll musician. He has sold over 25 million records worldwide, Bill Haley was born July 6,1925 in Highland Park, Michigan, as William John Clifton Haley. In 1929, the four-year-old Haley underwent an inner-ear mastoid operation which accidentally severed an optic nerve, leaving him blind in his left eye for the rest of his life. As a result of the effects of the Great Depression on the Detroit area, his father moved the family to Boothwyn, near Chester, Haley told the story that when he made a simulated guitar out of cardboard, his parents bought him a real one. Very soon after this he formed a group of enthusiastic youngsters. The sleeve notes continue, When Bill Haley was fifteen he left home with his guitar and very little else and set out on the road to fame. The next few years, continuing this story in a manner, were hard and poverty-stricken. Eventually he got a job with a group known as the Down Homers while they were in Hartford.
Soon after this he decided, as all people must decide at some time or another, to be his own boss again –. These notes fail to account for his band, known as the Four Aces of Western Swing. During the 1940s Haley was considered one of the top cowboy yodelers in America as Silver Yodeling Bill Haley. The sleeve notes conclude, For six years Bill Haley was a director of Radio Station WPWA in Chester, Pennsylvania. It was known as Bill Haleys Saddlemen, indicating their definite leaning toward the tough Western style and they continued playing in clubs as well as over the radio around Philadelphia, and in 1951 made their first recordings on Ed Wilsons Keystone Records in Philadelphia. On June 14,1951 the Saddlemen recorded a cover of Rocket 88.15 on Billboard, soon after, the bands name was revised to Bill Haley & His Comets. In 1953, a song called Rock Around the Clock was recorded by Haley, initially, it was relatively successful, peaking at no.23 on the Billboard pop singles chart and staying on the charts for a few weeks. A month it re-entered at number 1 and he retained elements of the original, but sped it up with some country music aspects into the song and changed up the lyrics.
Haley and his band were important in launching the music known as Rock, when Rock Around the Clock appeared as the theme song of the 1955 film Blackboard Jungle starring Glenn Ford, it soared to the top of the American Billboard chart for eight weeks. The single is used as a convenient line of demarcation between the rock era and the music industry that preceded it
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London. They achieved international acclaim with their progressive and psychedelic music, Pink Floyd were founded in 1965 by students Syd Barrett on guitar and lead vocals, Nick Mason on drums, Roger Waters on bass and vocals, and Richard Wright on keyboards and vocals. Guitarist David Gilmour joined in December 1967, Barrett left in April 1968 due to deteriorating mental health. Waters became the primary lyricist and conceptual leader, devising the concepts behind their albums The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, The Wall. The Dark Side of the Moon and The Wall became two of the albums of all time. Following creative tensions, Wright left Pink Floyd in 1979, followed by Waters in 1985, Gilmour and Mason continued as Pink Floyd, Wright rejoined them as a session musician and, later, a band member. The three produced two more albums—A Momentary Lapse of Reason and The Division Bell —and toured through 1994, Barrett died in 2006, and Wright in 2008.
The final Pink Floyd studio album, The Endless River, was recorded without Waters, Pink Floyd were inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. By 2013, the band had more than 250 million records worldwide. Roger Waters met Nick Mason while they were both studying architecture at the London Polytechnic at Regent Street and they first played music together in a group formed by Keith Noble and Clive Metcalfe with Nobles sister Sheilagh. Richard Wright, an architecture student, joined that year. Waters played lead guitar, Mason drums, and Wright rhythm guitar, the band performed at private functions and rehearsed in a tearoom in the basement of the Regent Street Polytechnic. They performed songs by the Searchers and material written by their manager and songwriter, Mason moved out after the 1964 academic year, and guitarist Bob Klose moved in during September 1964, prompting Waters switch to bass. Sigma 6 went through several names, including the Meggadeaths, the Abdabs and the Screaming Abdabs, Leonards Lodgers, in 1964, as Metcalfe and Noble left to form their own band, guitarist Syd Barrett joined Klose and Waters at Stanhope Gardens.
Barrett, two younger, had moved to London in 1962 to study at the Camberwell College of Arts. Waters and Barrett were childhood friends, Waters had often visited Barrett and Metcalfe left the Tea Set in late 1963, and Klose introduced the band to singer Chris Dennis, a technician with the Royal Air Force. In December 1964, they secured their first recording time, at a studio in West Hampstead, through one of Wrights friends, who was taking a break from his studies, did not participate in the session. When the RAF assigned Dennis a post in Bahrain in early 1965, that year, they became the resident band at the Countdown Club near Kensington High Street in London, where from late night until early morning they played three sets of 90 minutes each
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed. The term cold is used there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides. The Cold War split the temporary alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and secret police, the Party controlled the press, the military, the economy and all organizations. In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press, a small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, it sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945, the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the USSR and USA competed for influence in Latin America, and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was stopped by the Soviets, the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. The early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, the United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation.
In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the reforms of perestroika and glasnost. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in Eastern Europe, especially Poland, Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Warsaw Pact regimes as had occurred in the past. The result in 1989 was a wave of revolutions that peacefully overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. The United States remained as the only superpower. The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy and it is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfare
Louis Armstrong, nicknamed Satchmo or Satch, was an American trumpeter, composer and occasional actor who was one of the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades, from the 1920s to the 1960s and he was skilled at scat singing. Armstrong was one of the first truly popular African-American entertainers to cross over and he rarely publicly politicized his race, often to the dismay of fellow African Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation in the Little Rock crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him socially acceptable access to the upper echelons of American society which were restricted for black men of his era. Armstrong often stated that he was born on July 4,1900, although he died in 1971, it was not until the mid-1980s that his true birth date, August 4,1901, was discovered by the researcher Tad Jones through the examination of baptismal records. Armstrong was born into a family in New Orleans, Louisiana. He spent his youth in poverty, in a neighborhood known as the Battlefield.
His father, William Armstrong, abandoned the family when Louis was an infant and his mother, Mary Mayann Albert, left Louis and his younger sister, Beatrice Armstrong Collins, in the care of his grandmother, Josephine Armstrong, and at times his uncle Isaac. At five, he moved back to live with his mother, her relatives and he attended the Fisk School for Boys, where he most likely had early exposure to music. He hung out in dance halls close to home, where he observed everything from licentious dancing to the quadrille, after dropping out of the Fisk School at age eleven, Armstrong joined a quartet of boys who sang in the streets for money. He started to get into trouble, Cornet player Bunk Johnson said he taught Armstrong to play by ear at Dago Tonys Tonk in New Orleans, although in his years Armstrong gave the credit to Oliver. It has given me something to live for and he worked for a Lithuanian-Jewish immigrant family, the Karnofskys, who had a junk-hauling business and gave him odd jobs.
They took him in and treated him like family, knowing he lived without a father and he wrote a memoir of his relationship with the Karnofskys, Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La. the Year of 1907. Armstrong wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them, how to live—real life, professor Peter Davis instilled discipline in and provided musical training to the otherwise self-taught Armstrong. Eventually, Davis made Armstrong the band leader, the home band played around New Orleans and the thirteen-year-old Louis began to draw attention by his cornet playing, starting him on a musical career. At fourteen he was released from the home, living again with his father and new stepmother, Armstrong got his first dance hall job at Henry Ponces, where Black Benny became his protector and guide. He hauled coal by day and played his cornet at night, later, he played in brass bands and riverboats of New Orleans, and began traveling with the well-regarded band of Fate Marable, which toured on a steamboat up and down the Mississippi River.
He described his time with Marable as going to the University, in 1919, Joe Oliver decided to go north and resigned his position in Kid Orys band, Armstrong replaced him
Maximillian Adolph Otto Siegfried Max Schmeling was a German boxer who was heavyweight champion of the world between 1930 and 1932. His two fights with Joe Louis in 1936 and 1938 were worldwide cultural events because of their national associations, starting his professional career in 1924, Schmeling went to the United States in 1928 and, after a ninth-round technical knockout of Johnny Risko, became a sensation. He became the first to win the championship by disqualification in 1930. Max retained his crown successfully in 1931 by a knockout victory over Young Stribling. A rematch in 1932 with Sharkey saw the American gaining the title from Schmeling by a controversial split decision. In 1933, Schmeling lost to Max Baer by a technical knockout. The loss left people believing that Schmeling was past his prime, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party took over control in Germany, and Schmeling came to be viewed as a Nazi puppet. Schmeling finally got a chance to regain his title in 1938, during World War II, Schmeling served with the German Air Force as an elite paratrooper.
After the war, Schmeling mounted a comeback, but retired permanently in 1948, after retiring from boxing, Schmeling worked for the Coca-Cola Company. Schmeling became friends with Louis, and their friendship lasted until the death in 1981. Schmeling died in 2005 aged 99, an icon in his native Nazi Germany. Long after the Second World War, it was revealed that Schmeling had risked his own life to save the lives of two Jewish children in 1938, in 2003, Schmeling was ranked 55 on The Ring magazines list of 100 greatest punchers of all time. He died 2 years on 2 February 2005 at the age of 99, Schmeling was born in the Pomeranian town of Klein Luckow. He first became acquainted with boxing as a teenager, when his father took him to film of the heavyweight championship match between Jack Dempsey and Georges Carpentier. Impressed with Dempseys performance in fight, young Schmeling became determined to imitate his new hero. He began boxing in amateur competitions and, by 1924, won Germanys national amateur title in the heavyweight division.
Ironically, though he idolised the raging, brawling Dempsey, Schmeling developed a careful, using this style, he won seventeen of his first twenty-three bouts, thirteen by knockout. In 1925, he got into the ring with Dempsey, who was still heavyweight champion of the world and was touring Europe, Dempsey boxed for two rounds with the then-unknown German and, according to a story told by Schmeling, was greatly impressed
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany. The party, led by Chairman Martin Schulz since 2017, has one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany, along with the Christian Democratic Union. The SPD has governed at the level in Germany as part of a grand coalition with the CDU. The SPD participates in 14 state governments, nine of them governed by SPD Minister-Presidents, the SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and of the Socialist International, and became a founding member of the Progressive Alliance on 22 May 2013. Established in 1863, the SPD is the oldest extant political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world. The General German Workers Association, founded in 1863, and the Social Democratic Workers Party, founded in 1869, merged in 1875, under the name Socialist Workers Party of Germany. From 1878 to 1890, any grouping or meeting that aimed at spreading socialist principles was banned under the Anti-Socialist Laws, in 1890, when the ban was lifted and it could again present electoral lists, the party adopted its current name.
In the years leading up to World War I, the party remained ideologically radical in official principle, by 1912, the party claimed the most votes of any German party. Despite the agreement of the Second International to oppose the First World War, after 1918 the SPD played an important role in the political system of the Weimar Republic, although it took part in coalition governments only in few years. Adolf Hitler prohibited the party in 1933 under the Enabling Act – party officials were imprisoned, killed or went into exile, in exile, the party used the name Sopade. In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, the Soviets forced the Social Democrats to form a party with the Communists. In the Western zones, the Communist Party was banned by West Germanys Federal Constitutional Court, since 1949, in the Federal Republic of Germany, the SPD has been one of the two major parties, with the other being the Christian Democratic Union. From 1969 to 1982 and 1998 to 2005 the Chancellors of Germany were Social Democrats whereas the other years the Chancellors were Christian Democrats, the SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875.
After World War II, under the leadership of Kurt Schumacher, the SPD re-established itself as a socialist party, representing the interests of the working class and the trade unions. With the Godesberg Program of 1959, the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within capitalism. The current party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy, according to the party platform, freedom and social solidarity, form the basis of social democracy. The coordinated social market economy should be strengthened, and its output should be distributed fairly, the party sees that economic system as necessary in order to ensure the affluence of the entire population. The SPD tries to protect the poor with a welfare state
The Nice were an English progressive rock band active in the late 1960s. They blended rock and classical music and were keyboardist Keith Emersons first commercially successful band, the group was formed in 1967 by Emerson, Lee Jackson, David OList and Ian Hague to back soul singer P. P. Arnold. After replacing Hague with Brian Davison, the set out on their own. The groups sound was centred on Emersons Hammond organ showmanship and abuse of the instrument, the band achieved commercial success with an instrumental rearrangement of Leonard Bernsteins America, following which OList left the group. The remaining members carried on as a trio, releasing albums, before Emerson decided to split the band in early 1970 to form Emerson. The group briefly reformed in 2002 for a series of concerts, the Nice evolved from Gary Farr and the T-Bones, which keyboardist Keith Emerson and bassist Keith Lee Jackson were both members of before the band dissolved in early 1967. Meanwhile, P. P. Arnold, a performer who reached a level of popularity in the UK than her native US, was unhappy with her backing band, The Blue Jays.
Her driver suggested Emerson would be able to put such a group. Emerson agreed, but only on the condition the band could perform on their own as a warm-up act, since it effectively meant getting two bands for the price of one, manager Andrew Loog Oldham readily agreed. The name came from Arnold saying, Here comes the Naz, the band played its first gig in May 1967, and had its first major break at the 7th National Jazz and Blues Festival in Windsor on 13 August. Oldham had managed to secure a set for the group in a side tent away from accompanying Arnold on the main stage. The next week, Welch wrote in the Melody Maker that it was the first time I had seen a group actually in the act of winning its first following in quite dramatic circumstances. When Arnold went back to her family in the US shortly afterwards, Hague was not interested in the progressive direction the group wanted to go in, so he was replaced by former Mark Leeman Five and Habits drummer Brian Davison. They spent the end of 1967 on a tour with Jimi Hendrix, Pink Floyd.
The Floyds leader, Syd Barrett, missed several gigs, the groups first album was recorded throughout the autumn of 1967, and in October of that year they recorded their first session for John Peels Top Gear. The group clashed with producer Oldham in the studio over the length of the track, but eventually won the argument, for their second single, the Nice created an arrangement of Leonard Bernsteins America which Emerson described as the first ever instrumental protest song. The track used the theme of the Bernstein piece but included fragments of Dvořáks New World Symphony. The single concludes with Arnolds three-year-old son speaking the lines America is pregnant with promise and anticipation, the new arrangement was released under the title America as a pointed reference to the US Bill of Rights provision for the right to bear arms
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Battle of Stalingrad
Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians by air raids, it is often regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses, the German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the German 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble, the fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting, and both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, the Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out, attempts were made to supply the army by air.
Heavy fighting continued for two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition, the remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days, the war had been progressing well, the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been very successful and Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, they had stabilized their front in a running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not particularly threatening, neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been particularly hard pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again, with the initial operations being very successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union. The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the capacity of the city.
The river was a key route from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to central Russia and its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields when they captured Rostov on 23 July, the capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. On 23 July 1942, Hitler personally rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign, both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union. The expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germanys failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence, the Soviets realized that they were under tremendous constraints of time and resources and ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny I must finish this war, Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there