Sialkot is a city in, and the administrative headquarters for, Sialkot District, located in the north-east of the Punjab, Pakistan. Sialkot is Pakistans 12th most populous city, Sialkot is 5000 years old city. Sialkot was the capital of ancient Indo-Greek empire. Menander one of the Indo-Greek kings made his capital to Sialkot after the victory of Alexander the Great, Sialkot became a part of the Muslim Sultanate of Delhi when the Afghan noble Sultan Shahab-ud-Din Muhammad Ghauri conquered Punjab in 1185. He was unable to conquer Lahore but left a garrison in Sialkot, Sultan Khusro Malik tried to capture the city but failed to do so. Sialkot became a part of the Muslim Mughal Empire, the Mughal commander Usman Ghani Raza, advanced towards Delhi by way of Sialkot which capitulated to his armies. Zaheer-ud-Din Muhammad Babur records, At the end of the Mughal dynasty the suburbs, Sialkot itself was appropriated by powerful families of Pashtuns from Multan and Swat, the Kakayzai and Sherwani, and another family from Quetta.
In 1748 the four districts of Sialkot, Sambrial and Daska were given to the Afghan Pashtun ruler Ahmed Shah Durrani, after 1751 Ahmed Shah Durrani left his son Taimur to rule Lahore and the surrounding districts. During that time Raja Ranjit Deo of Jammu expanded his dominion over the peripheral areas but not the city of Sialkot. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Sialkot for about 40 years, the predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. After independence in 1947 the Hindu and Sikh minorities migrated to India, while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Sialkot district, Sialkot has become one of the major industrial centres of Pakistan. During the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, when Pakistani troops arrived in Kashmir, the Pakistan Army successfully defended the city and the people of Sialkot came out in full force to support the troops. In 1966 the Government of Pakistan awarded the Hilal-i-Istaqlal to the citizens of Sialkot and Sargodha for their courage, the armoured battles in the Sialkot sector like the Battle of Chawinda were the most intense since the Second World War.
Sialkot features a subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification. The post-monsoon season from mid-September to mid-November remains hot during the daytime but nights cool down substantially, in the winter from mid-November to March, days are pleasantly mild to warm and occasionally heavy rainfalls occur from the passage of frontal cloudbands. There is a child labour ban, the Atlanta Agreement. As of 2015, Sialkot exported US$2 billion worth of goods which is equal to 9% of Pakistans total exports, during the colonial era British Indias first bagpipe works opened in the city, today there are 20 pipe bands in the city. The 2014 FIFA World Cups soccer balls were made by Forward Sports, sialkot’s airport, funded by local businesses, is the only private one in Pakistan
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
2008 Indo-Pakistani standoff
After the 2008 Mumbai attacks and the ISI were believed by India to be directly responsible behind the attacks, leading to strained relations between the two countries for a period of time. An anti-Pakistan sentiment rose in India, causing many, including even the United States to call for probes into it, the standoff was significant because both these countries were nuclear nations, having first successfully tested nuclear weapons in 1974 and 1998 respectively. The countries had participated in 4 wars since their partition and independence in 1947. The lone surviving terrorist of the Mumbai attacks confirmed that the terrorists came from Pakistan, in 2011, he confessed that the ISI had been supporting them throughout the attacks. The Mumbai attacks lasted from 26 to 29 November 2008, at a state lunch in Lahore on 7 December, the US Arizona Senator John McCain relayed a message from Indian Prime Minister Dr. They wrote that, Indian military preparations, unlike previous cases, Indias Border Security Force has been put on high alert on the western sector, as well as the eastern sector, to prevent terrorist infiltration.
In mid December Indian fighter planes allegedly intruded Pakistans air space at two places, on 22 December, the PAF began combat air patrol over several cities, including Islamabad and Rawalpindi, to avert any further air intrusion. Pakistans Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi said, Pakistan defence forces and armed forces are ready to face any challenge, Pakistan PM Yousuf Raza Gilani said, Pakistan remains united and is ready to fight anyone to defend itself. Pakistani Defense Minister Ahmad Mukhtar Chaudhry said, If India tried to thrust war, the forces of Pakistan have all the potential. According to Pakistani media, India had started deploying troops along the Rajasthan border, more radars and quick reaction teams were deployed along the India-Pakistan border. Indian forces were on regular firing exercises at locations, like Lathi Firing Range in Jaisalmer, Mahsan in Bikaner, Suratgarh, a Pakistan airforce spokesperson said n view of the current environment, the PAF has enhanced its vigilance.
Pakistan army chief General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, said that Pakistan would mount a response within minutes. Pakistan continued to air patrol over several cities. The Taliban and affiliated groups openly declared their solidarity with Pakistan, the banned Tehrik-e-Taliban had proclaimed that they would send thousands of well-armed militants to wage jihad against India if war should break out. Hundreds of would-be bombers were equipped with suicide jackets and explosive-laden vehicles, the air officer commanding-in-chief of Western Air Command, said he IAF has earmarked 5,000 targets in Pakistan. But whether we will cross the LoC or the International Border to hit the targets will have to be decided by the political leadership of the country. India Today reported that Indian Air Force fighter planes are engaged in round the clock sorties, an unusual hectic activity of Indian Air Force has been visible along the border for past some days. On the same day, Stratfor confirmed that the government of Rajasthan has ordered residents of its border villages to be prepared for relocation
In India, the conflict is referred to as Operation Vijay which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector. The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. The Indian Army, supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions on the Indian side of the LOC infiltrated by the Pakistani troops, facing international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC. The war is one of the most recent examples of high-altitude warfare in mountainous terrain and it is one of the very few instances of direct, conventional warfare between nuclear states. After Pakistans defeat in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the two signed the Simla Agreement promising not to engage in armed conflict with respect to that boundary. The town of Kargil is located 205 km from Srinagar, facing the Northern Areas across the LOC, like other areas in the Himalayas, Kargil has a temperate climate.
Summers are cool with frigid nights, while winters are long, an Indian national highway connecting Srinagar to Leh cuts through Kargil. The area that witnessed the infiltration and fighting is a 160 km long stretch of ridges overlooking this only road linking Srinagar, the military outposts on the ridges above the highway were generally around 5,000 metres high, with a few as high as 5,485 metres. Kargil was targeted partly because the terrain was conducive to the seizure of several unoccupied military positions. With tactically vital features and well-prepared defensive posts atop the peaks, Kargil is just 173 km from the Pakistani-controlled town of Skardu, which was capable of providing logistical and artillery support to Pakistani combatants. In an attempt to defuse the situation, both signed the Lahore Declaration in February 1999, promising to provide a peaceful and bilateral solution to the Kashmir conflict. Pakistan believed that any tension in the region would internationalise the Kashmir issue, yet another goal may have been to boost the morale of the decade-long rebellion in Indian Administered Kashmir by taking a proactive role.
Pakistani Lieutenant general Shahid Aziz, and head of ISI analysis wing, has confirmed there were no mujahideen, there were no Mujahideen, only taped wireless messages, which fooled no one. Our soldiers were made to occupy barren ridges, with hand weapons and ammunition. Some writers have speculated that the objective may have been retaliation for Indias Operation Meghdoot in 1984 that seized much of Siachen Glacier. According to Indias army chief Ved Prakash Malik, and many other scholars, some analysts believe that the blueprint of attack was reactivated soon after Pervez Musharraf was appointed chief of army staff in October 1998. Sharif attributed the plan to Musharraf and just two or three of his cronies, a view shared by some Pakistani writers who have stated that four generals, including Musharraf. Musharraf, asserted that Sharif had been briefed on the Kargil operation 15 days ahead of Vajpayees journey to Lahore on 20 February, there were three major phases to the Kargil War
4th Horse (Hodson's Horse)
4th Horse is a cavalry regiment of the Indian Army which originated as part of the British Indian Army. It was raised by Brevet Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the first risala or troop was raised by Risaldar-Major Man Singh. The force was raised as a cavalry regiment to assist with putting down the rebellion. The official designation has changed several times since the inception in 1857. In 1859, the regiment was split up two regiments which survived broadly as the 9th Bengal Lancers and 10th Bengal Lancers. In 1878, the 10th Bengal Lancers came to be known as the Duke of Cambridges own, in 1921, the British decided to cut down on the number of cavalry regiments, and re-amalgamated the two as the 10th Duke of Cambridges Own Lancers. The regiment fought at the Battle of the Somme and the Battle of Cambrai in the First World War and it still recalls the latter as the regiments most splendid battle, and celebrates Cambrai Day every year. The regiment is now a regiment of the post-independence Indian Army.
He possibly invented the wristwatch in the 1890s, getting a relative and he commanded the Regiment 1894 -1901. Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson, Commanding officer on formation and this is a photograph about whose subjects there is disagreement in reputable academic circles. National Army Museum, names the European officers as, Lt. Clifford Henry Mecham, Asst. The Bridgman Art Library gives the European officer seated as Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson, officer standing, Lt. McDowell, there appears to be no disagreement as to the title of the photograph, or its year. Reputable officers, Major Bhupinder Singh, Mahavir Chakra, posthumous, a Register of Titles of the Units of the H. E. I. C. Sons of John Company, The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903–1991, uniforms of the late 19th Century
The 19th Lancers is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army. Before 1956, it was known as 19th King George Vs Own Lancers and it was formed in 1922, by the amalgamation of 18th King Georges Own Lancers and 19th Lancers. On Partition of India in 1947, the regiment was allotted to Pakistan, the regiment was raised at Gwalior during the upheaval of the Indian Mutiny in 1858, as the 2nd Regiment of Mahratta Horse. In December, it was joined by a body of independent cavalry of Punjabi Rajput Muslims called the Tiwana Horse. In 1861, it was redesignated as the 18th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry, the regiment served in the Second Afghan War during 1879-80 and took part in the 1897 Tirah Campaign on the North West Frontier of India. During World War I, the regiment was sent to France in 1914 with the Indian Cavalry Corps and participated in the Battles of the Somme, in 1918, it moved to Egypt joining the 13th Cavalry Brigade and took part in General Allenbys brilliant campaign in Palestine. The regiment fought in the Battle of Megiddo and the subsequent dash towards Damascus - riding 550 miles in 38 days, in China, the regiment fought in several sharp actions including those at Sinho, Chan-chi-wan and Pa-le-chiao.
It took part in the capture of Chinese capital of Pekin, in 1861, the regiment was redesignated as the 19th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry, becoming Lancers in 1864. It served in the Second Afghan War and fought in the Battle of Ahmad Khel in 1880, during World War I, the regiment served in France in the 2nd Cavalry Brigade and participated in the Battles of the Somme and Cambrai. In 1918, it took part in the Palestinian Campaign and fought with distinction in the Battle of Megiddo, instead of disbanding the surplus units, it was decided to amalgamate them in pairs. This resulted in renumbering and renaming of the cavalry line. The 18th King Georges Own Lancers and 19th Lancers were merged to form the 18th/19th Cavalry, in 1923, the regiment was redesignated as the 19th King Georges Own Lancers, and in 1937 as 19th King George Vs Own Lancers. Their uniform was scarlet with white facings and blue overalls, the badge consisted of crossed lances with the cypher of King George V at the intersection, a crown above, and the title scroll below.
The new class composition of the regiment was one each of Punjabi Muslims, Sikhs. During the Second World War, the 19th KGVO Lancers was the divisional Reconnaissance Regiment of 25th Indian Infantry Division, in November 1944, the 25th Indian Division cleared the Mayu Range down to Foul Point and occupied Akyab Island. These actions included the decisive Battle of Kangaw and landings at Myebon, the regiment was actively engaged in these battles. In May, a squadron of 19th KGVO Lancers took part in the assault landing near Rangoon. In April 1945 the 25th Indian Division was withdrawn to South India to prepare for the invasion of Malaya, although Japan surrendered in August, the operation proceeded as planned and the 25th Division along with 19th KGVO Lancers was the first formation to land in Malaya
Lieutenant Colonel Ardeshir Burzorji Tarapore, PVC, was an officer in the Indian Army and a recipient of the Param Vir Chakra. Ardeshir belonged to the family of General Ratanjiba, who had led the army of Shivaji and was awarded 100 villages of which Tarapore was the main village, Ardeshirs grandfather relocated to Hyderabad and started working in the Excise Department of the Nizam of Hyderabad. When Ardeshir was quite young he saved his sister, when he was seven years old he was sent to the Sardar Dastur Boys Boarding School in Pune. He completed his matriculation in 1940, after school he applied to the army and was selected. He did his training in the Officers Training School Golconda. He was commissioned in the 7th Hyderabad Infantry as a Second Lieutenant, popularly known as Adi, Ardeshir Tarapore was unhappy joining the infantry, as he wanted to join an armored regiment. One day, his battalion was inspected by Major General El Edroos, at the grenade throwing range, due to an accident, a live grenade fell into the bay area.
Adi was quick to pick it up and throw it, the grenade exploded which left him injured when flying shrapnel hit his chest. Major General Edroos was a witness to this event, impressed by the courage displayed, summoned Ardeshir to his office. Ardeshir took the opportunity to request a transfer to a regiment. Ardeshir was transferred to the 1st Hyderabad Imperial Service Lancers, which fought The Poona Horse, Ardeshirs unit and he saw active service in West Asia during World War II during this part of his career. Hyderabad merged with the Union of India, and its forces eventually amalgamated with the Indian Army, Ardeshir was shifted to The Poona Horse with commission date of 1 April 1951. He rose to become Commanding Officer in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, while leading his regiment in securing a major objective in Pakistan, Lieutenant Colonel Tarapore was mortally wounded. He was awarded Param Vir Chakra for his action in the battle, on 11 September 1965, the The Poona Horse regiment launched attack on Phillora in the Sialkot sector during the Battle of Chawinda.
The southern thrust of the attack, commanded by Tarapore, advanced on the right flank, between Phillora and Chawinda, the attack met with the Pakistani Armys heavy armour charge from Wazirwali. Tarapore held his ground and attacked Phillora under continuous enemy tank, when wounded, he refused to be evacuated. He led his regiment to capture Wazirwali on 13 September, and Jassoran, though his own tank was hit several times, he maintained his pivots at both these places, supporting the infantry attacking Chawinda. Inspired by his leadership, the regiment attacked the enemy armor and destroyed approximately sixty Pakistani Army tanks, Tarapore was killed when his tank was hit and was enveloped in flames
Battle of Asal Uttar
The Battle of Asal Uttar was one of the largest tank battles fought during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. It was fought from 8 to 10 September 1965, when the Pakistan Army thrust its tanks and infantry into Indian territory, the Indian troops retaliated, and after three days of bitter fighting, the battle ended with the Pakistani forces being repulsed near Asal Uttar. Factors that contributed to this were the fight put up by Indian army, conditions of the plains, better Indian tactics. This battle is compared with the Battle of Kursk in the Second World War for how it changed the course of the India Pakistan war of 1965 in Indias favour. War historians, including Dr. Philip Towle, regard the Indian resistance near Khem Karan as one of the key turning points of the war, one which tilted the balance of the war in favour of India. Peter Wilson states that the defeat of Pakistan Army in the battle of Asal Uttar was one of the greatest defeats suffered by Pakistan forces in the course of the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965.
The battle is described as one of the greatest tank battles since the Battle of Kursk in the world war. Pakistans invading force, consisting of the 1st Armoured Division and 11th Infantry Division, crossed the International Border, considering the situation, GOC Indian 4th Mountain Division immediately ordered the division to fall back and assume a horseshoe shaped defensive position with Asal Uttar as its focal point. The swampy ground slowed down the advance of the Pakistani tanks, ninety nine Pakistani tanks mostly Pattons, and a few Shermans and Chaffees, were destroyed or captured while the Indians, by their account, lost only 10 tanks during this counter offensive. Despite the initial thrust of the Pakistani Army into Indian territory, the commander of Pakistani forces Maj. Gen. Nasir Ahmed Khan was killed in action. According to military historian Steven Zaloga, Pakistan admitted that it lost 165 tanks during the 1965 war, pervez Musharraf, Army Chief of Staff and President of Pakistan, participated in this battle as a lieutenant of artillery in the 16 Field Regiment, 1st Armoured Division Artillery.
This battle led to the creation of Patton Nagar at the site of the battle and this is because a large number of Patton tanks fielded by the Pakistani forces were either captured or destroyed at the scene
11th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
The 11th Cavalry, is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army. It was previously known as the 11th Prince Albert Victors Own Cavalry and was a cavalry regiment of the old British Indian Army. It was formed in 1921 by the amalgamation of the 21st Prince Albert Victor’s Own Cavalry, the 21st Prince Albert Victors Own Cavalry was raised as the 1st Punjab Irregular Cavalry by Lieutenant Henry Daly at Peshawar on 18 May 1849. It was one of five regiments of Punjab Cavalry raised to guard the North West Frontier of India, over the next decades, the regiment saw extensive service on the Frontier. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58, the regiment operated in North India and took part in the Siege of Delhi and the Relief of Lucknow, during the Second Afghan War of 1878-80, it formed part of Kandahar Field Force and fought in the Battle of Ahmad Khel. In 1890, Prince Albert Victor, the Crown Prince of Britain was gazetted as their Colonel-in-Chief, giving his name to the regiment, during the First World War, the regiment served in the Mesopotamian Campaign as part of 6th Indian Cavalry Brigade.
It fought on the Tigris Front and took part in the capture of Kut al Amara and it fought in the Actions of Istabulat, Ramadi and Tikrit. Later it saw service in Kurdistan and took part in the capture of Kirkuk, during the Second Afghan War, it took part in Lord Roberts famous march from Kabul to Kandahar as part of the Kabul Field Force and fought in the Battle of Kandahar. During the First World War, the regiment served in Mesopotamia as part of the 11th Indian Cavalry Brigade and was part of General Townsends failed advance towards Baghdad and it served on the Tigris Front. Later on, it moved to the Euphrates Front and fought in the Battles of Khan Baghdadi, one of its squadron served in Persian Arabistan. On their return to Indian they saw service in the Third Afghan War of 1919, instead of disbanding the surplus units, it was decided to amalgamate them in pairs. This resulted in renumbering and renaming of the cavalry line. The 21st and 23rd Cavalry were amalgamated in 1921 to form 11th Prince Albert Victor’s Own Cavalry, the uniform of PAVO Cavalry was blue with scarlet facings.
The new regiments badge consisted of the Kandahar Star representing the five rivers of the Punjab and its class composition was one squadron each of Punjabi Muslims and Dogras. The regiment was mechanised in 1940, during the Second World War, it initially served in Syria and Iran, and went on to North Africa, where it fought in the Battle of Gazala. It moved to Burma, where it distinguished itself against the Japanese. In 1946, the regiment was sent to the Dutch East Indies to pacify the country after the surrender of the Japanese, on Partition of India in 1947, PAVO Cavalry was allotted to Pakistan. The regiment was engaged in fighting the Indians in Kashmir
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Lasting just 13 days, it is one of the shortest wars in history. Officially, East Pakistan had earlier called for its seccession from the unity of Pakistan on 26 March 1971, the remaining 10,324 to 15,000 prisoners were civilians, either family members of the military personnel or collaborators. It is estimated that between 300,000 and 3,000,000 civilians were killed in Bangladesh, as a result of the conflict, a further eight to ten million people fled the country at the time to seek refuge in neighbouring India. Which made it difficult to govern both wings. In addition, there were religious and racial tensions between Bengalis and multi-ethnic Pakistanis as Bengalis looked a lot different from their dominant Western Pakistanis. The Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman stressed his political position to resolve the crises by presenting his Six Points. The Awami Leagues election dominancy feared many Pakistanis that would allow the Bengalis to draft the constitution on towards the six-points, the mission was not supported by the elements in the National Security Council and was subsequently vetoed.
President Yahya Khan postponed the inauguration of the National Assembly and this caused a shattering disillusionment to the Awami League, in early March 1971, approximately ~300 Biharis were slaughtered in rioting by Bengali mobs in Chittagong alone. The Government of Pakistan used the Bihari massacre to justify its deployment of the military in East Pakistan on 25 March when it initiated its military crackdown. Mass arrests of dissidents began and after days of strikes and non-cooperation movement. The Awami League was declared outlawed by the government and many of its members and sympathizers took refuge in Eastern India, Mujib was arrested on the night of 25/26 March 1971 at about 1,30 am and taken to Pakistan. The next action carried out was Operation Searchlight followed by Operation Barisal, on 26 March 1971, Major Ziaur Rahman of Pakistan Army declared the independence of Bangladesh on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. In April, the exiled Awami League leaders formed a government-in-exile in Baidyanathtala of Meherpur, the East Pakistan Rifles, Bengali officers in Pakistans army and marines, defected to the rebellion after taking refuge in different parts of India. M.
The resulting flood of impoverished East Pakistani refugees placed a strain on Indias already overburdened economy. Unlike his contemporary Yaqub who was a pacifist and knew well of the limits of force, confessing at the hearings of War Enquiry Commission, Lieutenant-General A. A. K. Niazi reportedly comment on his actions and noted, On the night between 25/26 March 1971, Tikka struck, peaceful night was turned into a time of wailing and burning. Tikka let loose everything at his disposal as if raiding an enemy, the military action was a display of stark cruelty more merciless than the massacres at Bukhara and Baghdad by Chengiz Khan and Halaku Khan. Resorted to the killing of civilians and a scorched earth policy and his orders to his troops were, I want the land not the people