Yang Sen was a warlord and general of the Sichuan clique who had a long military career in both China and Taiwan. Although he was a warlord, he loyally served Chiang Kai-shek and his Kuomintang government. He served as governor of Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, after the Communists defeated the KMT in the Chinese Civil War, he retreated with the KMT government to Taiwan. He was known as a Taoist master and had numerous wives, concubines and he published a book about the supercentenarian Li Ching-yuen, who supposedly lived 250 years. He was a mountaineer and the Chairman of the Taiwan Mountain Climbing Association as well. He had 12 wives and 43 children at least. General Yang knew the Taoist Master Li Ching-yuen personally and became his disciple, in 1927 he invited him to his residence in Wanxian, Sichuan. After his masters death, General Yang wrote the report A Factual Account of the 250 Year-Old Good-Luck Man. Where he described Li Ching Yuens appearance, He has good eyesight and a stride, Li stands seven feet tall, has very long fingernails.
The Tai Chi Chuan Master T. T. Liang learned from General Yang the practice of the Eight Brocade Qigong. His student Stuart Alve Olson wrote in 2002 the book Qigong Teachings of a Taoist Immortal, The Eight Essential Exercises of Master Li Ching-Yun, order of battle of Battle of Wuhan Warlord Era Daniel Reid, Tao of Health and Longevity. Fireside, New York,1989, pp 345–349, ISBN 0-671-64811-X Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing,33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Qigong Teachings of a Taoist Immortal, The Eight Essential Exercises of Master Li Ching-yun. A Factual Account of the 250 Year-Old Good-Luck Man, published by the Chinese and Foreign Literature Storehouse, Taiwan
Shizuichi Tanaka was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, who, at the end of World War II, was commander of the Eastern District Army, which covered the Tokyo-Yokohama area. A native of Hyōgo prefecture, Tanaka graduated from the 19th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and he went on to earn a degree in English literature at Oxford University where he studied the works of William Shakespeare. He led the Japanese troops in Londons victory parade at the end of World War I, from 1930-1932, he was commander of the IJA 2nd Infantry Regiment. Tanaka was subsequently posted as a military attaché to Washington D. C. where he met Douglas MacArthur while MacArthur was Chief of Staff of the United States Army. As a result of his service in the United States and United Kingdom. From 1934-1935, Tanaka was Chief of Staff of the IJA 4th Division, with the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Tanaka was assigned to the IJA 5th Infantry Brigade, and was at the 1938 Battle of Wuhan. He was recalled to Japan shortly thereafter and appointed head of the Kempeitai and he returned to China as commander of the IJA 13th Division from 1939-1940.
At the start of the Pacific War, Tanaka was commander in Chief of the Eastern District Army and he was vocal in his opposition to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Tanaka was sent to the Philippines in 1942 as commander of the IJA 14th Army and he was promoted to full general in 1943, but forced to return to Japan in early 1944 to recover from malaria. Tanaka was appointed to the Supreme War Council from 1944–1945 and served as the Commandant of the Army War College, on 19 March 1945, was assigned to head the Eastern District Army. As acting commander of the 1st Imperial Guards Division, his cooperation was crucial to the 15 August 1945 rebellion planned by Major Kenji Hatanaka, Hatanaka sought to occupy the Imperial Palace, and to prevent the Emperors announcement of Japans surrender from being broadcast. When Tanaka was asked to join the rebellion, he refused, after making a number of phone calls, and ordering troops to relieve the Palace, he drove there himself and berated Hatanaka and the other conspirators.
After the war, Tanaka told his subordinates to destroy the unit colors, Tanaka intended to commit suicide himself, on behalf of all his men. Behind Japans Surrender, The Secret Struggle That Ended an Empire, Saburo, Alvin D. Kogun, The Japanese Army in the Pacific War. Quantico, VA, The Marine Corps Association, the Generals of World War II
Battle of Rehe
The battle was fought from February 21 to March 1,1933. The province of Rehe, on the side of the Great Wall was the next target. Declaring the province to be historically a portion of Manchuria, the Japanese Army initially hoped to secure it through the defection of General Tang Yulin to the Manchukuo cause, when this failed, the military option was placed into action. The Japanese armys Chief of Staff requested Emperor Hirohitos sanction for the operation against Chinese forces in Rehe. On February 23,1933, the offensive was launched, on February 25, Chaoyang and Kailu were taken. On March 2, the Japanese 4th Cavalry Brigade encountered resistance from the forces of Sun Dianying, Sun Dianying mounted a counterattack against the Japanese 6th Division on the same day, and at one time penetrated to near the Japanese headquarters. On March 4, Japanese cavalry and the 1st Special Tank Company with Type 89 Tanks. took Chengde the capital of Rehe, Rehe was subsequently annexed to Manchukuo. Zhang Xueliang was forced by the Kuomintang government to relinquish his posts for “medical reasons, this would prove to be only a temporary respite before the full scale combat of the Second Sino-Japanese War erupted in earnest in 1937.
Order of battle Operation Jehol Fenby, chiang Kai-shek, Chinas Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War 2nd Ed.1971, translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing,33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taiwan Republic of China. 中國抗日戰爭正面戰場作戰記, Guo Rugui, editor-in-chief Huang Yuzhang, Jiangsu Peoples Publishing House, Date published, 2005-7-1, ISBN 7-214-03034-9 Jowett, rays of the Rising Sun, Volume 1, Japans Asian Allies 1931–45, China and Manchukuo. Battles of the Great Wall THE HISTORY OF BATTLES OF IMPERIAL JAPANESE TANKS Jan
Eleventh Army (Japan)
The Japanese 11th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The 11th Army played a role in the Battle of Wuhan. From September 1939, it came under the newly formed China Expeditionary Army and was transferred to the control of the Japanese Sixth Area Army in September 1944 and it was disbanded at Quanzhou County in Guangxi province at the surrender of Japan. The Sino-Japanese War, 1937–41, From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor, Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937–1945
Guan Linzheng was born in a rural peasant family in Hu County, Shaanxi. In 1925, Guan a member of the first graduating class the Academy, in 1926, Guan was appointed to be the battalion commander of the Central garrison regiment and participated in the Northern Expedition. In September 1928, Guan was promoted to commander of the 11th division. He was promoted to command the 25th division because of this accomplishment and he personally led an infantry charge against a Japanese position and was severely wounded in the action, his deputy commander Du Yuming took over command of the division. The nationalist government awarded him the Order of Blue Sky and White Sun after the conclusion of the battle, General Guans unit stayed in Beijing after this clash as part of the garrison and was post in Luoyang in 1935. In 1936, he led his unit into Shanxi province to help the local warlord Yan Xishan to drive away the communist troops commanded by his former classmate Lin Biao and was successful in his mission.
General Guan again successfully accomplished his mission and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek promoted him to commander of the 52nd corps when the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out the next year. Guan led his unit in successive battles against the Japanese Army, which included the Battle of Taierzhuang, Battle of Wuhan, because of his personal bravery, he was nicknamed Guan the Brave and the Iron Fist. In 1940, Guan led his unit into Yunnan province, and was put in charge of defend the border between China and Vietnam. In 1944, General Guan received another promotion as deputy commander-in-chief of the 1st Area Army and was one of the most successful Chinese commanders in the entire war, on November 25, college students went on strike in Kunming to protest the resumption of the Chinese Civil War. Four days later, General Guan held a conference and stated the government troops has the right to use force to quell the strike. In 1947, Guan succeeded President Chiang Kai-shek as commandant of the Whampoa Military Academy and he formally resigned his position as commander-in-chief of the army in 1950.
During his stay in Hong Kong, Guan declined any political activities and spent most of his time in calligraphy, Guans relationship with General Chen Cheng was very rivalrous throughout their career, Guan maintained a close friendship with General Hu Lien, one of Chen Chengs ablest subordinates. Guan formed a relationship with his own former adjutant. In April 1975 Guan travelled to Taiwan to show his last respect to Chiang Kai-sheks funeral, in 1980, General Guan Linzheng himself died at age 75. General Guan Linzheng and his wife are buried in Rosehills Memorial Park in Whittier, General Guan Linzheng is survived by two sons, four daughters, twelve grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War 2nd Ed.1971, translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing,33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taiwan Republic of China. Http, //www. generals. dk/general_/China. html Ministry of National Defense R. O. C http, //www. guanlinzheng. com 抗日名将關麟徵 青天白日勋章获颁者履历 莫非王土整理
Yasuji Okamura was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II. He was convicted of war following the war. Born in Tokyo in 1884, Okamura enrolled in Sakamachi Elementary School, in 1897, he entered Waseda Junior High School. In 1898, he was transferred to Tokyo Junior Army School, Okamura entered the 16th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1899 and graduated in 1904. His classmates included the future generals Itagaki Seishiro, Kenji Doihara and he was commissioned a lieutenant in the IJA 1st Infantry Regiment. In 1910, Okamura entered the 25th class of the Army War College and he served in a number of staff positions on the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff during and after World War I. He moved briefly to China in the early 1920s, and served as an advisor to a Chinese warlord. From 1932 to 1933, Okamura was Vice chief-of-staff of the Shanghai Expeditionary Army under the aegis of the Kwantung Army, according to Okamuras own memoirs, he played a role in the recruitment of comfort women from Nagasaki prefecture to serve in military brothels in Shanghai.
He served as military attaché to Manchukuo from 1933-1934, Okamura was promoted to lieutenant general in 1936, and assigned command of the IJA 2nd Division. According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, Okamura was authorized by Emperor Hirohito to use chemical weapons during those battles, in April 1940, Okamura was promoted to the rank of full general. In July 1941, he was appointed the commander-in-chief of the Northern China Area Army, according to historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta, the scorched earth campaign was responsible for the deaths of more than 2.7 million Chinese civilians. In 1944, Okamura was overall commander of the massive and largely successful Operation Ichigo against airfields in southern China, a few months later, he was appointed the commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army. As late as January 1945, Okamura was still confident of the victory of Japan in China, with the surrender of Japan on 15 August 1945, Okamura represented the Imperial Japanese Army in the China Burma India Theater official surrender ceremony held at Nanjing on 9 September 1945.
General Okamura is the first confirmed officer in the Japanese army who instituted forced prostitution, widely known as the system of comfort women. His order can be traced back to 1932 with documentation of Japanese Lieutenant-General Okamura Yasuji’s proposal for a “shipment” of comfort women to be sent to Shanghai. First, it is true that tens of thousands of acts of violence, such as looting and rape, front-line troops indulged in the evil practice of executing POWs on the pretext of rations. Okamura returned to Japan in 1949 and died in 1966, Herbert P. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Dupuy, Trevor N. Encyclopedia of Military Biography, Saburo, Alvin D. Kogun, The Japanese Army in the Pacific War
1938 Changsha fire
The Changsha fire of 1938, known as Wenxi fire, was the greatest human-caused citywide fire in Chinese history. Kuomintang officials ordered the city be set on fire in 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War to keep its wealth from the Japanese, the result of this fire made Changsha one of the most damaged cities during World War II, alongside Stalingrad and Nagasaki. On October 25,1938, the city of Wuhan fell to the Empire of Japan, soon after, a great number of refugees and injured soldiers, in addition to government institutions and factories, were relocated to Changsha. This caused a boom in the city, and the number of residents jumped from 300,000 to more than 500,000. Though the city did prepare for this type of scenario for a time, due to the limited transport capacity of Changsha, it still could not hold this amount of goods. On November 8, the Imperial Japanese Army entered northern Hunan, soon and Japanese armies faced off along the Xinqiang River just outside Changsha. The situation in the city became increasingly tense, because of a lack of confidence in holding the city, Chiang Kai-shek suggested that the city should be burned to the ground, so that Japan would gain nothing even if it chose to forcefully enter it.
On November 10, the chairman of the Hunan government, Zhang Zhizhong, an arson team was immediately organized. The team was dispatched to every corner of the city and was ordered to set the fire once a signal fire was set off on the top of Tianxin Building in the southwest of Changsha. At around 2 oclock in the morning of November 13,1938, the arson team took it as a signal and started to set the fire. The burning lasted for five days, destroying several 2, city residents tried their best to escape, resulting in a severe boat accident at a river ford on the Xiang River. More than 30,000 people lost their lives during the fire, over 90%, or 56,000, of the citys buildings were burned. The fire disabled commercial trading, academic institutions and government organizations throughout the city, the fire cost a total economic loss of $1 billion, which accounted for 43% of the total output of the city. More than 31 schools, including Hunan University, were burned down. Banks destroyed include the Bank of Hunan, Bank of Shanghai, more than 40 factories were burned.
The one that suffered the most was the First Textiles Factory of Hunan, the damage to this factory include $270,000 loss due to burned workshops, $960,000 to raw materials, $600,000 to machinery. Of the citys 190 rice mills and storage buildings, only 12 survived the fire, more than $2 million, or about 80% of the total, were lost in the silk industry. Forty Hunan embroidery factories were completely destroyed, except for the Xiangya Hospital, every hospital in Changsha was burned to ground
Empire of Japan
The Empire of Japan was the historical Japanese nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan. Imperial Japans rapid industrialization and militarization under the slogan Fukoku Kyōhei led to its emergence as a world power, after several large-scale military successes during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War, the Empire gained notoriety for its war crimes against the peoples it conquered. A period of occupation by the Allies followed the surrender and reconstruction continued well into the 1950s, eventually forming the current nation-state whose full title is the State of Japan or simply rendered Japan in English. The historical state is referred to as the Empire of Japan or the Japanese Empire or Imperial Japan in English. In Japanese it is referred to as Dai Nippon Teikoku, which translates to Greater Japanese Empire and this is analogous to Großdeutsches Reich, a term that translates to Greater German Empire in English and Dai Doitsu Teikoku in Japanese.
This meaning is significant in terms of geography, encompassing Japan, due to its name in kanji characters and its flag, it was given the exonym Empire of the Sun. After two centuries, the policy, or Sakoku, under the shoguns of the Edo period came to an end when the country was forced open to trade by the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. The following years saw increased trade and interaction, commercial treaties between the Tokugawa shogunate and Western countries were signed. In large part due to the terms of these Unequal Treaties, the Shogunate soon faced internal hostility, which materialized into a radical, xenophobic movement. In March 1863, the Emperor issued the order to expel barbarians, although the Shogunate had no intention of enforcing the order, it nevertheless inspired attacks against the Shogunate itself and against foreigners in Japan. The Namamugi Incident during 1862 led to the murder of an Englishman, Charles Lennox Richardson, the British demanded reparations but were denied.
While attempting to exact payment, the Royal Navy was fired on from coastal batteries near the town of Kagoshima and they responded by bombarding the port of Kagoshima in 1863. For Richardsons death, the Tokugawa government agreed to pay an indemnity, shelling of foreign shipping in Shimonoseki and attacks against foreign property led to the Bombardment of Shimonoseki by a multinational force in 1864. The Chōshū clan launched the coup known as the Kinmon incident. The Satsuma-Chōshū alliance was established in 1866 to combine their efforts to overthrow the Tokugawa bakufu, in early 1867, Emperor Kōmei died of smallpox and was replaced by his son, Crown Prince Mutsuhito. On November 9,1867, Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned from his post and authorities to the Emperor, while Yoshinobus resignation had created a nominal void at the highest level of government, his apparatus of state continued to exist. On January 3,1868, Satsuma-Chōshū forces seized the palace in Kyoto. On January 17,1868, Yoshinobu declared that he would not be bound by the proclamation of the Restoration, on January 24, Yoshinobu decided to prepare an attack on Kyoto, occupied by Satsuma and Chōshū forces
Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge
It marked the start of the Jiangqiao Campaign. This bridge had been dynamited earlier by Mas forces during the fighting against the pro-Japanese collaborationist forces of General Chang Hai-Peng, a repair crew, guarded by 800 Japanese soldiers, went to work on 4 November 1931. Nearby were 2,500 Chinese troops under General Ma Zhanshan, each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation. The Japanese claimed the Chinese opened fire using rifles and machine guns late in the day during a fog when Japanese troops started across the span, the Japanese retaliated and the skirmish continued for over three hours. Only 15 Japanese were reported killed and 120 Chinese, as the Japanese advanced, General Ma Zhanshan returned to counterattack with a much larger force. Although dislodging the Japanese from their positions, he was unable to recapture the bridge. Ma was eventually forced to withdraw his troops in the face of Japanese tanks, the repaired bridge made possible the further advance of Japanese forces and their armored trains.
Despite his failure to hold the bridge, General Ma Zhanshan became a hero in China for his resistance at Nenjiang Bridge. The publicity inspired more volunteers to enlist in the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, although often led by army officers and with numbers of former regular troops among their ranks, most volunteers had no previous military experience. These irregular armies were to become the main anti-Japanese force in northeast China during 1932. Jiangqiao Campaign Japanese invasion of Manchuria Coogan, northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932, two War Lords, TIME Magazine, Nov.16,1931 NONNI RIVER BRIDGE The volunteer armies of northeast China
After the Mukden Incident, the Japanese Kwantung Army quickly overran the provinces of Liaoning and Jilin, occupying major cities and railways. At that time, the Chairman Wan Fulin of Heilongjiang Province was in Beijing, leaving the provincial government leaderless, General Ma Zhanshan arrived in the capital Qiqihar on October 19 and took office the next day. This bridge had been dynamited earlier by Mas forces during the fighting against pro-Japanese collaborationist forces of General Zhang Haipeng, a repair crew, guarded by 800 Japanese soldiers, went to work on 4 November 1931, but fighting soon erupted with the 2,500 Chinese troops nearby. Each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation, the skirmish continued for over three hours, until the Japanese drove General Mas troops off toward Qiqihar. Later General Ma Zhanshan returned to counterattack with a larger force. Japanese Major General Shogo Hasebe, had the river on his left. Wide swamplands made the Japanese left wing impregnable, forcing Ma to concentrate his cavalry against the exposed Japanese right wing, although dislodging the Japanese from their advance positions, Ma was unable to recapture the bridge, which the Japanese continued to repair.
Ma was eventually forced to withdraw his troops in the face of Japanese tanks, Ma became a national hero for his resistance to the Japanese which was widely reported in the Chinese and international press. The publicity inspired more volunteers to enlist in the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, on November 15,1931, despite having lost more than 400 killed and 300 wounded since November 5, General Ma declined a Japanese ultimatum to surrender Qiqihar. Japanese cavalry charged down the Chinese front line cutting a swath into which Japanese infantry followed, Mas right flank held at first. The Chinese cavalry tried to encircle the Japanese right flank, but were stopped by Japanese artillery, the superior Japanese firepower turned the battle. Chinese units broke and fled across the frozen steppes, on November 18, Ma evacuated Qiqihar. By November 19, he led his troops to the east to defend Baiquan and his forces had suffered serious casualties and their strength was now much reduced. However once Ma was forced to retire up the Nonni River valley, he managed to regroup his forces, Japanese troops attempting to press Mas men further up the Nonni River towards Koshen in the cold suffered large casualties on several occasions.
At the same time the Japanese began their occupation of Qiqihar, at Mukden and Kirin the Japanese had already established collaborationist Chinese governments. At Qiqihar they established another government under pro-Japanese General Zhang Jinghui, japan secured control of the central section of the Chinese Eastern Railway, the eastern section was still under the control of General Ting Chao in Harbin. Second Sino-Japanese War Mukden Incident Coogan, northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932
Defense of Sihang Warehouse
Defenders of the warehouse held out against numerous waves of Japanese forces and covered Chinese forces retreating west during the Battle of Shanghai. The successful defense of the warehouse provided a morale-lifting consolation to the Chinese army, the warehouses location just across the Suzhou Creek from the foreign concessions in Shanghai meant the battle took place in full view of the western powers. Moreover, the Japanese dared not use mustard gas here as they did elsewhere in Shanghai and this proximity drew the attention, if only briefly, of the international community to Chiang Kai-sheks bid for worldwide support against Japanese aggression. Using the Marco Polo Bridge Incident as a pretext, Japan launched an invasion of China on 7 July 1937, as the Imperial Japanese Army swept down from the north, fighting between Chinese and Japanese forces started in Shanghai on 13 August. Despite having logistical problems, inferior training, and a lack of air and artillery support, the Japanese did not attack the foreign concessions in the city and remained on peaceable terms with the foreign powers, though tensions were high.
They did not occupy the concessions until four years later, following Japans decision to go to war with the Allies, by 26 October 1937, Chinese resistance in the district of Zhabei was faltering. Gu was personally attached to the 88th and unwilling to leave the division behind, as he used to be the officer of the 2nd Division. Neither Gu, Sun nor Zhang were about to disobey Chiangs orders, in his words, How many people we sacrifice would not make a difference, it would achieve the same purpose. He proposed that a regiment from the division be left behind to defend one or two fortified positions, and Gu approved this plan. Zhang returned to the 88ths divisional headquarters at Sihang Warehouse, back at the headquarters, Sun decided that even a regiment would be a terrible waste of lives and decided on a single over-strength battalion instead. Xie Jinyuan, a new commander in the 88th Division. At 10 p. m. on 26 October, the 524th Regiment, based at the Shanghai North Railway Station, the warehouse, used as the divisional headquarters of the 88th Division prior to this battle, was stocked with food, first aid equipment and ammunition.
Most of the men were from the 1st Battalion, 5th Regiment of the Hubei Provincial Garrison, Hubei did not want to send its best troops, trained over a decade to fight against the Chinese Communists, to Shanghai. Thus, many of the soldiers sent as reinforcements to Shanghai were green recruits, eventually the 1st Battalion came to be equated with the 524th Regiment, even within official documents of the period. The regiment was assigned used equipment from the troops of the 88th. There was a total of 27 light machine guns, mostly Czech ZB vz.26, Japanese infantry used the Arisaka Type 38 Rifle. The various companies of the battalion were spread out across the front lines that night, Yang Ruifu sent the 1st Company to Sihang Warehouse and personally led the 2nd Company. The 3rd Company, Machine Gun Company and part of the 1st Company could not be contacted and that these men essentially volunteered for this suicidal mission was noted by Chiang Kai-shek as exemplary soldierly conduct