Action of 5 July 1942
The Action of 5 July 1942 was a naval engagement fought during the Aleutian Islands Campaign of World War II. During the action, the American submarine USS Growler attacked three Japanese warships anchored off Kiska island and it was the first action of Growlers career and ended with the loss of dozens of Japanese sailors. Over the course of the Pacific War, Growler—under various commanders—sank 17 enemy vessels and she was a Gato-class submarine and had a complement of 60 officers and men. Her armament included ten 21 in torpedo tubes and one 3 in /50-caliber deck gun, on her first patrol from Pearl Harbor to Alaska, she was commanded by Lieutenant Commander Howard Gilmore. Japanese forces included the 2,490 long tons Kagerō-class destroyer Shiranui with 240 crewmen and six 5 in guns, several anti-aircraft guns, eight large torpedo tubes and 36 depth charges. There were the two 2,370 long tons Asashio-class destroyers Arare and Kasumi, each with about 200 men, the three vessels were assigned to the occupation of Kiska and had participated in the Battle of Pearl Harbor.
Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army troops had occupied the island since 6 June 1942 and had met little resistance, the following action proved to be the deadliest encounter between the opposing forces in the Kiska area. Growler was cruising 7 mi east of Kiska Harbor naval base when she came across the three Japanese destroyers at anchor a distance away. Submerged, the submarine closed on the enemy and launched a spread of torpedoes from her six torpedo tubes at a position in which the enemy vessels appeared to be overlapping one another. The Japanese were completely unaware of Lieutenant Commander Gilmores attack, of the six torpedoes fired, two of the destroyers were hit amidship almost simultaneously and were severely damaged. Just before the destroyer was hit in the bow, it maneuvered and fired two torpedoes of her own. Growler was almost destroyed when one of the torpedoes swished by just off her port side, both missed their target though so the Americans dived deep to avoid depth charges and escaped.
Japanese forces did not continue the battle however, Arare exploded, over 200 Japanese naval personnel were killed or wounded. Of Arares 200 man complement, only 42 men were saved by Shiranui, finding no more enemy ships in Aleutian waters, Growler returned to Hawaii and ended her first patrol. For his distinguished leadership, Howard Gilmore was promoted to the rank of commander, Gilmore was killed off the Philippines during the Action of 7 February 1943 when he rammed Growler into a Japanese gunboat. In a quick action, Commander Gilmore was wounded by machine gun fire. The commander became one of the seven American submariners to be awarded the Medal of Honor for duty in World War II, Growler went on the engage in nine more successful patrols in the Pacific. Bauer K. Jack, Roberts S. Stephen, Register of Ships of the U. S. Navy, 1775–1990, Connecticut Greenwood Press pg#271 ISBN 0-313-26202-0
Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army or IJA, literally Army of the Greater Japanese Empire, was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1871 to 1945. Later an Inspectorate General of Military Aviation became the agency with oversight of the army. During the Meiji Restoration, the forces loyal to Emperor Meiji were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist daimyōs of Satsuma. This central army, the Imperial Japanese Army, became even more essential after the abolition of the han system in 1871. One of the differences between the samurai and the peasant class was the right to bear arms, this ancient privilege was suddenly extended to every male in the nation. In 1878, the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, based on the German General Staff, was established directly under the Emperor and was given broad powers for military planning and strategy. The Japanese invasion of Taiwan under Qing rule in 1874 was an expedition by Japanese military forces in response to the Mudan Incident of December 1871.
The Paiwan people, who are indigenous peoples of Taiwan, murdered 54 crewmembers of a merchant vessel from the Ryukyu Kingdom on the southwestern tip of Taiwan. 12 men were rescued by the local Chinese-speaking community and were transferred to Miyako-jima in the Ryukyu Islands and it marked the first overseas deployment of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. Not surprisingly, the new led to a series of riots from disgruntled samurai. One of the riots, led by Saigō Takamori, was the Satsuma Rebellion. Thenceforth, the military existed in an intimate and privileged relationship with the imperial institution, top-ranking military leaders were given direct access to the Emperor and the authority to transmit his pronouncements directly to the troops. The sympathetic relationship between conscripts and officers, particularly junior officers who were mostly from the peasantry, tended to draw the military closer to the people. In time, most people came to look more for guidance in matters more to military than to political leaders.
By the 1890s, the Imperial Japanese Army had grown to become the most modern army in Asia, well-trained, well-equipped, however, it was basically an infantry force deficient in cavalry and artillery when compared with its European contemporaries. The Sino-Japanese War would come to symbolize the weakness of the military of the Qing dynasty and this was the result by Japans 120, 000-strong western-style conscript army of two armies and five divisions, which was well-equipped and well-trained when compared with their Qing counterparts. The Treaty of Shimonoseki made the Qing defeat official, with a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan. In 1899–1900, Boxer attacks against foreigners in China intensified eventually resulting in the siege of the legations in Beijing
7th Infantry Division (United States)
The 7th Infantry Division is an infantry division of the United States Army. Today, it exists as a unique 250-man deployable headquarters based at Joint Base Lewis-McChord overseeing several units, the division was first activated in December 1917 in World War I, and based at Fort Ord, California for most of its history. Following the Japanese surrender in 1945, the division was stationed in Japan and South Korea and it took part in the Inchon Landings and the advance north until Chinese forces counter-attacked and almost overwhelmed the scattered division. The 7th would fight in the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, from 1953 to 1971, the 7th Infantry Division defended the Korean Demilitarized Zone. Its main garrison was Camp Casey, South Korea, during these occupation duties, the division saw a complete reorganization in compliance with the Reorganization Objective Army Divisions plan. The divisions former headquarters company grew into the 1st Brigade, 7th Infantry Division while the 13th Infantry Brigade was reactivated as the 2nd Brigade, the 14th Infantry Brigade was reactivated as the 3rd Brigade, 7th Infantry Division.
In 1965 the division received its distinctive insignia, which alluded to its history during the Korean War. On 2 April 1971, the returned to the United States and was inactivated at Fort Lewis. In October 1974 the 7th reactivated at its former garrison, Fort Ord, in the late 1980s, it briefly saw action overseas in Operation Golden Pheasant in Honduras and Operation Just Cause in Panama. In the early 1990s, it provided support to the civil authorities in Operation Green Sweep. In 1994, the division was inactivated at Ft. Ord and Ft Ord was closed, as per BRAC rulings. Reactivated in 1999 at Ft Carson, where the final role was as a training and evaluation unit for Army National Guard brigades. On 26 April 2012, the Department of Defense announced the 7th Infantry Division headquarters would be reactivated as an administrative unit and this was done on 10 October 2012 at Joint Base Lewis McChord. The 7th Infantry Division was activated on 6 December 1917, exactly eight months after the American entry into World War I, as the 7th Division of the Regular Army at Camp Wheeler, Georgia.
One month later, it prepared to deploy to Europe as a part of the American Expeditionary Force, two brigades were assigned to the division, the 13th Infantry Brigade and 14th Infantry Brigade, together with supporting units. Most of the division sailed to Europe aboard the SS Leviathan, while on the Western Front, the 7th Division did not see action at full divisional strength, though its infantry and reconnaissance elements did engage German forces. On 11 October 1918, it first came under fire and later, at Saint-Mihiel. Elements of the 7th probed up toward Prény near the Moselle River, capturing positions and it was at this time that the division first received its shoulder sleeve insignia
Aleutian Islands Campaign
The islands strategic value was their ability to control Pacific transportation routes, which is why U. S. General Billy Mitchell stated to the U. S. Congress in 1935, I believe that in the future, I think it is the most important strategic place in the world. The Japanese reasoned that control of the Aleutians would prevent a possible U. S. attack across the Northern Pacific, the U. S. feared that the islands would be used as bases from which to launch aerial assaults against the West Coast. A battle to reclaim Attu was launched on May 11,1943, on 15 August 1943, an invasion force landed on Kiska in the wake of a sustained three-week barrage, only to discover that the Japanese had withdrawn from the island on July 29. The campaign is known as the Forgotten Battle, due to its being overshadowed by the simultaneous Guadalcanal Campaign, in the past, many Western military historians believed it was a diversionary or feint attack during the Battle of Midway, meant to draw out the U. S. Pacific Fleet from Midway Atoll, as it was launched simultaneously under the same commander, before Japan entered World War II, its Navy had gathered extensive information about the Aleutians, but it had no up-to-date information regarding military developments on the islands.
With that force, Hosogaya was first to launch an air attack against Dutch Harbor, Hosogaya was instructed to destroy whatever American forces and facilities were found on Adak—the Japanese did not know the island was undefended. The naval commander was Rear Admiral Robert A. Theobald, commanding Task Force 8 afloat, Task Force 8 consisted of five cruisers, thirteen destroyers, three tankers, six submarines, as well as naval aviation elements of Fleet Air Wing Four. Once the enemy planes were removed, Naval Task Force 8 would engage the enemy fleet, on the afternoon of 2 June, a naval patrol plane spotted the approaching Japanese fleet, reporting its location as 800 miles southwest of Dutch Harbor. Eleventh Air Force was placed on full alert, shortly thereafter bad weather set in, and no further sightings of the fleet were made that day. Making use of cover, the Japanese first raided the naval base at Dutch Harbor on June 3,1942. The striking force was composed of Nakajima B5N2 Kate torpedo bombers from the carriers Junyō, only half of the striking force reached their objective.
The rest either became lost in the fog and darkness and crashed into the sea or returned to their carriers, seventeen Japanese planes found the naval base, the first arriving at 05,45. Startled by the American response, the Japanese quickly released their bombs, made a strafing run. As a result, they did damage to the base. On June 4, the Japanese returned to Dutch Harbor and this time the Japanese pilots were better organized and prepared. When the attack ended that afternoon Dutch Harbor oil storage tanks were burning, the partly demolished. However, the weather in turn caused the Japanese to cancel plans to invade Adak with 1,200 men
Battle of the Komandorski Islands
The Battle of the Komandorski Islands was a naval battle between American and Imperial Japanese forces which took place on 27 March 1943 in the North Pacific, south of the Soviet Komandorski Islands. The battle was a surface engagement in which air support played a negligible role. The fleet consisted of the heavy cruiser Salt Lake City, the light cruiser Richmond, American intelligence estimated that the Japanese escort consisted of one heavy cruiser, one light cruiser, and four destroyers. Although the Japanese cruisers heavily outgunned the American force, the engagement was tactically inconclusive, both fleets suffered damage, with the U. S. Navy warships escaping almost by luck. This amounted to a defeat, as it ended Japanese attempts to resupply the Aleutian garrisons by surface ship. Hosogaya was accordingly retired from service after the battle. 0600, The United States ships were formed in a line at six-mile intervals zig-zagging at 15 knots on base course 020°. 0730, Lead ships Coghlan and Richmond made radar contact with the two trailing Japanese transports and a destroyer on course 080° at 13 kn, a navigating officer on one of the transports visually observed the American force minutes later.
0740, The Americans changed course to 080° and the ships increased speed to operate as a compact group. 0755, The Japanese turned northward to course 340° and the Americans came to course 000° to follow,0811, The Americans visually identified the radar contacts as two transports, two light cruisers, and a destroyer. 0820, The Americans sighted the masts of four more Japanese ships on the horizon,0835, The Americans identified the masts as two heavy cruisers and two destroyers and turned to course 240°. 0838, The Japanese transports swerved off to the northwest,0839, The Americans increased speed to 25 kn. 0840, Nachi opened fire on Richmond at a range of 20,000 yd, the second and third salvos were straddles. 0841, Richmond opened fire on Nachi, the third salvo was a straddle. 0842, Salt Lake City opened fire on Nachi at a range of 21,000 yd, the second salvo was a straddle. As the range closed, Bailey opened fire on Nachi at a range of 14,000 yd, Coghlan opened fire on Nachi at a range of 18,000 yd.0845, Nachi launched eight torpedoes.
0850, One of Richmond′s 6 in shells hit the side of Nachi′s signal bridge, killing 11. Another shell hit Nachi′s mainmast and severed the flagship radio communication,0852, One of Richmond′s 6-inch shells hit Nachi′s torpedo compartment
John L. DeWitt
DeWitt was born at Fort Sidney, Nebraska, on January 9,1880. On October 10,1898, he was appointed as a lieutenant with the U. S. Army Infantry. He would ultimately serve nearly fifty years, from 1898 to 1947 and his early assignments included service during the Philippine Insurrection and in Mexican Punitive Expedition. In 1918, DeWitt shipped out with the 42nd Division to the battlefields of France as a quartermaster in the division headquarters, other noteworthy members of the division included Douglas MacArthur and William J. Donovan. In July 1918, DeWitt was promoted to colonel. He received the Distinguished Service Medal at the end of World War I, between 1919 and 1930, DeWitt served in various quartermaster positions, including assistant commandant of the General Staff College, Chief of the Storage and Issue Branch, and the Supply Division. In 1930, he was promoted to general and assigned as Quartermaster General of the U. S. Army. DeWitt assumed control of the Gold Star Mothers Pilgrimage, General DeWitt was responsible for all logistics involving this Congressionally approved event.
After returning to the infantry, DeWitt assumed control of the Philippine Division, in July 1937, he became commandant of the Army War College. At the end of the internment of more than one hundred thousand Japanese-American citizens, stated in DeWitts obituary, The Evacuation of these citizens was motivated by. The greed of some special-interest groups who were in a position to profit from the property losses of these citizens and he died in Washington, D. C. on June 20,1962 and was buried in Section 2 of Arlington National Cemetery. His son, John Lessesne DeWitt, Jr. lieutenant colonel, United States Army and his wife, John Lessesne DeWitt, Jr. survived by John Lessesne DeWitt. From December 5,1939, to June 15,1943, DeWitt was assigned command of the IX Corps Area and its 1942 successor, the Western Defense Command, both headquartered at the Presidio of San Francisco. DeWitt was in San Francisco on the evening of December 8,1941, one day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, an estimated 35 Japanese warplanes were supposedly sighted above San Francisco Bay on a reconnaissance mission.
DeWitt was furious at the lack of blackout precautions during the air raids and he blasted city leaders at a Civil Defense Council meeting the next day, saying and destruction are likely to come to this city at any moment. The people of San Francisco do not seem to appreciate that we are at war in every sense, I have come here because we want action and we want action now. Unless definite and stern action is taken to correct last nights deficiencies and those planes were over our community. They were over our community for a definite period and they were tracked out to sea
The Aleutian Islands are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the United States and Russia. Crossing longitude 180°, at which point east and west longitude end, the westernmost U. S. island in real terms, however, is Attu Island, west of which runs the International Date Line. The islands, with their 57 volcanoes, are in the part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Physiographically, they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province. These Islands are most known for the battles and skirmishes occurred there during the Aleutian Islands Campaign of World War II. It was one of two attacks on the United States during that war. The largest islands in the Aleutians are Attu, and Unalaska and Unimak in the Fox Islands. The largest of those is Unimak Island, with an area of 1,571.41 mi², followed by Unalaska Island, the axis of the archipelago near the mainland of Alaska has a southwest trend, but near 179° its direction changes to the northwest. This change of direction corresponds to a curve in the line of fissures that have contributed their products to the building of the islands.
Such curved chains are repeated about the Pacific Ocean in the Kuril Islands, the Japanese chain, and in the Philippines. All these island arcs are at the edge of the Pacific Plate and experience much seismic activity, but are still habitable, the general elevation is greatest in the eastern islands and least in the western. The island chain is a continuation of the Aleutian Range on the mainland. The coasts are rocky and surf-worn, and the approaches are exceedingly dangerous and these volcanic islands reach heights of 6,200 feet. Makushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, is not quite visible from within the town of Unalaska, though the steam rising from its cone is visible on a clear day. Residents of Unalaska need only to one of the smaller hills in the area, such as Pyramid Peak or Mt. Newhall. The volcanic Bogoslof and Fire Islands, which rose from the sea in 1796 and 1883 respectively, in 1906 a new volcanic cone rose between the islets of Bogoslof and Grewingk, near Unalaska, followed by another in 1907.
These cones were demolished by an explosive eruption on September 1,1907. Newly found information in 2017, the volcanic cone erupted sending ash, the Aleutians seen from space The climate of the islands is oceanic, with moderate and fairly uniform temperatures and heavy rainfall
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Japanese occupation of Attu
The Japanese occupation of Attu was the result of an invasion of the Aleutian Islands during World War II. Imperial Japanese Army troops landed on 6 June 1942 at the time as the invasion of Kiska. The occupation ended with the Allied victory in the Battle of Attu on 30 May 1943, in May 1942, the Japanese began a campaign against Midway, their objective being to occupy the islands and destroy the remaining United States Navy forces in the Pacific. In order to deceive the American Pacific Fleet, an attack was ordered to take place in the Aleutians. During the Battle of Midway, Japanese forces were repulsed in an action, meanwhile on 6 June, Japanese naval forces under Boshirō Hosogaya landed troops unopposed at Kiska. A force consisting of 1,140 infantry under Major Matsutoshi Hosumi took control of the island and captured forty-five Aleut civilians, the school teachers husband was killed during the invasion, the Japanese Army was suspected of executing him. All of the prisoners were removed to Japan.
After landing, the soldiers began constructing an airbase and fortifications, the nearest American forces were on Unalaska Island at Dutch Harbor and at an airbase on Adak Island. Throughout the occupation, American air and naval forces bombarded the island, initially the Japanese intended to hold the Aleutians only until the winter of 1942, the occupation continued into 1943 in order to deny the Americans use of the islands. In August 1942, the garrison of Attu was moved to Kiska to help repel a suspected American attack, from August to October 1942, Attu was unoccupied until a 2, 900-man force under Colonel Yasuyo Yamasaki arrived. The new garrison of Attu continued constructing the airfield and fortifications until 11 May 1943, on 12 May, I-31 was forced to surface five miles northeast of Chichagof Harbor, she was sunk in a surface engagement with USS Edwards. Allied forces under General John L. DeWitt took control of the island on 30 May after the remaining Japanese troops conducted a massive banzai charge, American forces lost 549 killed and 1,148 wounded, another 2,100 evacuated due to weather-related injuries.
During the Battle of Attu, all but 29 men of the Japanese garrison were killed, the occupation ended with an American victory and American forces deemed the half-completed airfield as not ideally situated. In 2012, for the 70th anniversary of the occupation, a memorial to Attu village was dedicated at the site of the town. Attacks on North America during World War II Fern Chandonnet, memorial placed in Attu honoring villagers. Attu, A Lost Village of the Aleutians, alaska Park Science, Volume 10, Issue 2
Colonel Yasuyo Yamasaki (Japanese, 山崎保代, was a professional Army officer who commanded the Japanese forces on Attu during the Battle of the Aleutian Islands. Yamasaki was a native of what is now part of Tsuru, Yamanashi and he graduated from the 25th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1913, and served in the Siberian Intervention from April 1918 to December 1920. In May 1928, he was part of the Japanese expeditionary force to mainland China during the Jinan Incident, Yamasaki was promoted to colonel in March 1940. Later that year he assumed command of the 130th Infantry Regiment, in February 1943 Yamasaki became commanding officer of the 2nd District Force of the North Sea Defense Force, the capacity in which he went to the Aleutians. He arrived on Attu in April 1943 by submarine and his orders were to hold the island without outside help. The 2,650 defenders under Yamasaki did not contest the American landings on Attu, the battle produced some of the bloodiest fighting in the Pacific Theatre, similar to the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
On May 29, the last of the Japanese forces suddenly attacked near Massacre Bay in one of the largest banzai charges of the Pacific campaign, the charge was led by Yamasaki himself, who was killed that day, sword in hand, assaulting Engineer Hill. His attack penetrated American lines far enough to encounter shocked rear-echelon units of the American force. After furious, close-quarter, and often hand-to-hand combat, American burial teams counted 2,351 Japanese dead, but it was presumed that hundreds more had been buried by bombardments over the course of the battle. Garfield, Brian The Thousand Mile War, Aurum Press,1995 ISBN 1-84513-019-7 Chen, C
Empire of Japan
The Empire of Japan was the historical Japanese nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan. Imperial Japans rapid industrialization and militarization under the slogan Fukoku Kyōhei led to its emergence as a world power, after several large-scale military successes during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War, the Empire gained notoriety for its war crimes against the peoples it conquered. A period of occupation by the Allies followed the surrender and reconstruction continued well into the 1950s, eventually forming the current nation-state whose full title is the State of Japan or simply rendered Japan in English. The historical state is referred to as the Empire of Japan or the Japanese Empire or Imperial Japan in English. In Japanese it is referred to as Dai Nippon Teikoku, which translates to Greater Japanese Empire and this is analogous to Großdeutsches Reich, a term that translates to Greater German Empire in English and Dai Doitsu Teikoku in Japanese.
This meaning is significant in terms of geography, encompassing Japan, due to its name in kanji characters and its flag, it was given the exonym Empire of the Sun. After two centuries, the policy, or Sakoku, under the shoguns of the Edo period came to an end when the country was forced open to trade by the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. The following years saw increased trade and interaction, commercial treaties between the Tokugawa shogunate and Western countries were signed. In large part due to the terms of these Unequal Treaties, the Shogunate soon faced internal hostility, which materialized into a radical, xenophobic movement. In March 1863, the Emperor issued the order to expel barbarians, although the Shogunate had no intention of enforcing the order, it nevertheless inspired attacks against the Shogunate itself and against foreigners in Japan. The Namamugi Incident during 1862 led to the murder of an Englishman, Charles Lennox Richardson, the British demanded reparations but were denied.
While attempting to exact payment, the Royal Navy was fired on from coastal batteries near the town of Kagoshima and they responded by bombarding the port of Kagoshima in 1863. For Richardsons death, the Tokugawa government agreed to pay an indemnity, shelling of foreign shipping in Shimonoseki and attacks against foreign property led to the Bombardment of Shimonoseki by a multinational force in 1864. The Chōshū clan launched the coup known as the Kinmon incident. The Satsuma-Chōshū alliance was established in 1866 to combine their efforts to overthrow the Tokugawa bakufu, in early 1867, Emperor Kōmei died of smallpox and was replaced by his son, Crown Prince Mutsuhito. On November 9,1867, Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned from his post and authorities to the Emperor, while Yoshinobus resignation had created a nominal void at the highest level of government, his apparatus of state continued to exist. On January 3,1868, Satsuma-Chōshū forces seized the palace in Kyoto. On January 17,1868, Yoshinobu declared that he would not be bound by the proclamation of the Restoration, on January 24, Yoshinobu decided to prepare an attack on Kyoto, occupied by Satsuma and Chōshū forces