A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the energy of the shock into another form of energy which is dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form of dashpot and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with cushions and springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves and orifices to control the flow of oil through an internal piston, one design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is where that energy will go. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside the viscous fluid, in hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air cylinders, the hot air is usually exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of shock absorbers, such as electromagnetic types, in general terms, shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on uneven roads. In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved ride quality, while shock absorbers serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring oscillations.
Shock absorbers use valving of oil and gasses to absorb energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the based on the weight of the vehicle. Some people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the correct use, along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning shocks to an optimal resistance, spring-based shock absorbers commonly use coil springs or leaf springs, though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, are not shock absorbers, as only store. Vehicles typically employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and springs or torsion bars, in this combination, shock absorber refers specifically to the hydraulic piston that absorbs and dissipates vibration. Now, composite suspension system are used mainly in 2 wheelers, in common with carriages and railway locomotives, most early motor vehicles used leaf springs. However the amount of damping provided by leaf spring friction was limited and variable according to the conditions of the springs and it operated in both directions.
Motorcycle front suspension adopted coil sprung Druid forks from about 1906, and similar designs added rotary friction dampers and these friction disk shock absorbers were fitted to many cars. One of the problems with motor cars was the variation in sprung weight between lightly loaded and fully loaded, especially for the rear springs. What was called for was damping that operated on the rebound, horock came up with a design in 1901 that had hydraulic damping, it worked in one direction only
A grand tourer is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement, the grand touring concept is eurocentric, the definition implies material differences in performance at speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In post-war United States, the Interstate Highway System and wide availability of powerful Straight-six, European GTs did find success penetrating the American personal luxury car market, notably the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class. Grand touring car design evolved from vintage and pre-World War II fast touring cars, italy developed the first gran turismo cars. The small, light-weight and aerodynamic coupé, named the Berlinetta, independent carrozzeria provided light and flexible fabric coachwork for powerful short-wheelbase fast-touring chassis by manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo. Later, Carrozzeria Touring of Milan would pioneer sophisticated Superleggera aluminium bodywork, the additional comfort of an enclosed cabin was beneficial for the Mille Miglia road-race held in Italys often wintry north.
An improved and supercharged version, the 6C1750 GTC Gran Turismo Compressore, from the basic Fiat 508 Balilla touring chassis came the SIATA and Fiat aerodynamic gran turismo-style Berlinetta Mille Miglias of 1933 and 1935. The first recognised motor race for gran turismo cars was the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa held at Monza, the Fiat based 1100 cc four-cylinder Cisitaila was no match on the race track for Ferraris new hand-built 2000 cc V12, and Ferrari dominated, taking the first three places. An 1100 cc class was created, but not in time to save Cisitalias business fortunes—the companys bankrupt owner Piero Dusio had already decamped to Argentina. The Maserati A61500 won the 1500 cc class at the 1949 Coppa-Europa and it was driven by Franco Bordoni, former fighter ace of the Regia Aeronautica who had debuted as a pilota da corsa at the 1949 Mille Miglia. The body of the A61500 was an elegant two-door fast-back coupe body, the first car constructed in Ferraris name, the V12125 S, a racing sports car, debuted in 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit.
The Ferrari 166 Inter S coupé model won the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa, regulations stipulated body form and dimensions but did not at this time specify a minimum production quantity. The car was driven by Bruno Sterzi, and is recognized as the first Ferrari gran turismo, Ferraris response for the new Gran Tursimo championship was the road/race Ferrari 212. All versions came with the standard Ferrari five-speed non-synchromesh gearbox and hydraulic drum brakes, all 1951 Ferraris shared a double tube frame chassis design evolved from the 166. Double-wishbone front suspension with leaf spring, and live rear axle with semi-elliptic leaf springs. Even more impressive than the new Ferrari in 1951 was the debut of Lancias Aurelia B20 GT. Lancia had begun production in 1950 of their technically advanced Aurelia sedan, at the 1951 Turin Motor Show, the Pinin Farina-bodied Gran Tursimo B20 Coupé version was unveiled to an enthusiastic motoring public. In the B20 are elements of the Cistalia of 1947, coupés which Pinin undertook on a 6C Alfa Romeo and Maserati in 1948, in addition the B20 had a shorter wheelbase and a higher rear axle ratio, making it a 100 mph car
Double wishbone suspension
In automobiles, a double wishbone suspension is an independent suspension design using two wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel. Each wishbone or arm has two mounting points to the chassis and one joint at the knuckle, the shock absorber and coil spring mount to the wishbones to control vertical movement. The double-wishbone suspension can be referred to as double A-arms, though the arms themselves can be A-shaped, L-shaped, a single wishbone or A-arm can be used in various other suspension types, such as variations of the MacPherson strut. The upper arm is shorter to induce negative camber as the suspension jounces. When the vehicle is in a turn, body roll results in positive camber gain on the lightly loaded inside wheel, between the outboard end of the arms is a knuckle. The knuckle contains a kingpin for horizontal radial movement in older designs, in newer designs, a ball joint at each end allow for all movement. Attached to the knuckle at its center is a hub, or in many older designs.
To resist fore-aft loads such as acceleration and braking, the arms require two bushings or ball joints at the body. At the knuckle end, single ball joints are used, in which case the steering loads have to be taken via a steering arm. An L-shaped arm is generally preferred on passenger vehicles because it allows a better compromise of handling and comfort to be tuned in. The bushing in line with the wheel can be kept relatively stiff to effectively handle cornering loads while the joint can be softer to allow the wheel to recess under fore-aft impact loads. For a rear suspension, a pair of joints can be used at both ends of the arm, making them more H-shaped in plan view. Alternatively, a fixed-length driveshaft can perform the function of a wishbone as long as the shape of the other wishbone provides control of the upright and this arrangement has been successfully used in the Jaguar IRS. In elevation view, the suspension is a 4-bar link, and it is easy to work out the camber gain, the various bushings or ball joints do not have to be on horizontal axes, parallel to the vehicle centre line.
If they are set at an angle, anti-dive and anti-squat geometry can be dialled in, in many racing cars, the springs and dampers are relocated inside the bodywork. The suspension uses a bellcrank to transfer the forces at the end of the suspension to the internal spring. This is known as a rod if bump travel pushes on the rod. As the wheel rises, the push rod compresses the spring via a pivot or pivoting system
Compared to OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance. The fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the ability to exchange induction. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs, with no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length. The OHC design allows for higher speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output, in earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design in which one camshaft is placed within the cylinder head, in the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves directly, traditionally via a bucket tappet, or via an intermediary rocker arm. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads.
Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure, SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared to overhead valve designs — when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the side of the engine block. This did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs, in the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated, SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder. The Toyota system used hydraulic tappets, the Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve clearance adjustment. Honda used a similar system in their motorcycles, using the term Unicam for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the valve and indirectly, through a short rocker arm. This allows a compact, light valvetrain to operate valves in a combustion chamber.
The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes, a dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves. This design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with a SOHC engine, a DOHC design permits a wider angle between intake and exhaust valves than do SOHC engines. This can allow for a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds, DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug which, in turn, improves combustion efficiency
David Brown Ltd.
David Brown Engineering Limited is an English engineering company, principally engaged in the manufacture of gears and gearboxes. Their major gear manufacturing plant is in Swan Lane, Huddersfield and it is named after the companys founder, David Brown, though it is more closely associated with his grandson, Sir David Brown. Founded in 1860 as a manufacturing company by 1873 David Brown had begun to concentrate on gear systems. The company moved in 1902 to Park Works at Huddersfield, where the firm is based today and its foundry makes steel and non-ferrous castings. Including motor vehicles, ships as well as a range of British industry. In 1951 the Huddersfield and Tractor groups freehold land and buildings at Huddersfield, another 260,000 square feet of floor space were held under lease. Gearing manufactured by David Brown Ltd. and powered by electric motors manufactured by Brook Crompton Motors, in 1913 they established a joint venture in America with Timken for Radicon worm drive units. By the end of World War I the workforce had increased from 200 to 1000 as they started building propulsion units for warships, by 1921 the company was the largest worm gear manufacturer in the world.
In 1930 the company took over P. R. Jackson Ltd, another firm of gear manufacturers. Percys eldest son became managing director in 1931 following Percys death in June that year, W S Roe was appointed joint managing director with David but he died in April 1933. The firm formed another joint venture with Richardson Gears Ltd of Footscray. In 1934 the company moved into an old Silk Mill on a site at Meltham, Brown started building tractors with Harry Ferguson there in 1936. The first vehicle to use system was the Churchill tank, and it was subsequently used on the Centurion tank. Personally controlled since its inception by David Brown the first venture into tractor production was in a joint project with Harry Ferguson in 1936 building the Ferguson-Brown tractor. David Brown became one of the biggest British tractor manufactures in the post war period, with a manufacturing plant at Meltham. The company broke new ground which others were only to follow later, the Ferguson-Brown had a lot of innovative features, including the use of cast alloy for many the components, which was light but prone to damage.
The Ferguson-Brown used a Coventry Climax engine for the first 350 tractors, Browns developed their own engine which was fitted to subsequent production. Total production was 1350 +1 built from parts in 1940 after production finished and Ferguson disagreed over tractor design details in the late 30s, which led David Brown to design his own version, the VAK1, in secret
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Cooper Tire & Rubber Company
With headquarters in Findlay, Cooper Tire has 60 manufacturing, distribution and design facilities within its worldwide family of subsidiary companies. In July 1960, the became a publicly held corporation and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Cooper tires are most often sold by independent dealers, and can be purchased online, Cooper owns the UK-based Avon Tyres brand, which produces tires for motorcycles, road cars and for motor racing. The company slogan is The tire with two names, the company and the man who built it. The earliest corporate lineage for Cooper Tire was the M and M Manufacturing Company, founded in 1914 in Akron, Ohio by John F. Schaefer and Claude E. Hart and their new company produced tire patches, tire cement and tire repair kits. The Cooper name originates from 1919 when Cincinnati auto-parts dealer I. J. Cooper formed The Cooper Corporation in Findlay, the Cooper Corporation, the M and M Company, and The Falls Rubber company merged in 1930 to form the Master Tire and Rubber Company.
The company name was changed to Cooper Tire & Rubber Company in 1946, the Cooper oval trademark with the Cooper Knight headgear was first registered and used in 1941. In those early years of the identification, the logo included a banner proclaiming the tires armored-cord construction. The companys red and blue logo would become one of the most easily recognized emblems in the tire industry, the U. S. government recognized the companys contribution to the war effort in a 1945 ceremony bestowing the Army-Navy ‘E’ Award. Soon after the war the name was changed to Cooper Tire & Rubber Company. From 1946 to 1982, Cooper Tire was headed by a member of the Brewer family, first W. B. Brewer, his sons, another son, was a vice president. Brewer took Cooper Tire public, and on July 11,1960, the company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the callsign CTB, throughout their tenure, the Brewers set a tone for hands-on leadership, management mingling with workers, and taking care of them. They built the trust and loyalty of the workers, under the Brewers leadership, Cooper Tire grew significantly.
By 1983, the joined the ranks of Fortune 500 companies as one of the largest industrial companies in the United States. In 1997, Cooper purchased Avon Tyres Ltd, based in Melksham, the companys largest growth acquisition occurred in 1999 when it bought The Standard Products Company, which increased Coopers total workforce by 10,000 employees. Dearborn, Mich. -based Standard Products produced sealing, plastic trim, the purchase included Standard Products subsidiaries Oliver Rubber Company and Holm Industries Inc. Oliver Rubber manufactured tread rubber and equipment for the truck-retread industry. Holm produced seals for home and commercial refrigerators, in 2003, Cooper purchased Mickey Thompson Performance Tires & Wheels. In December,2003, Cooper agreed to a joint venture with Kenda Rubber Industrial Company, Two of the businesses of the joint venture are Cooper Chengshan Passenger Tire, and Cooper Chengshan Tire
They are made of an elastic material formed into the shape of a helix which returns to its natural length when unloaded. Under tension or compression, the material of a coil spring undergoes torsion, the spring characteristics therefore depend on the shear modulus, not Youngs Modulus. A coil spring may be used as a torsion spring, the material of the spring is thereby subjected to a bending moment, either reducing or increasing the helical radius. In this mode, it is the Youngs Modulus of the material determines the spring characteristics. Metal coil springs are made by winding a wire around a shaped former - a cylinder is used to form cylindrical coil springs, types of coil spring are, Tension/extension coil springs, designed to resist stretching. They usually have a hook or eye form at each end for attachment, compression coil springs, designed to resist being compressed. A typical use for compression coil springs is in car suspension systems, volute springs are used as heavy load compression springs. A strip of plate is rolled into the shape of both a helix and a spiral, when compressed, the strip is stiffer edge-on than a wire coil, but the spiral arrangement allows the turns to overlap rather than bottoming out on each other.
Torsion springs, designed to resist twisting actions, often associated to clothes pegs or up-and-over garage doors. Spring Helical Spring by Sándor Kabai at The Wolfram Demonstrations Project, Institute of Spring Technology Spring Manufacturers Institute, tutorial by Dave Silberstein. You Spring From Morning To Night, April 1949, Popular Science article on the basics of steel coil springs manufacturing
Zagato is an independent coachbuilding company and total design center located northwest of Milan in the Terrazzano frazione of Rho, Italy. The companys premises occupy an area of 23,000 square metres, Ugo Zagato began his coachbuilding career in 1919 when he left Officine Aeronautiche Pomilio to set up his own business in Milan. This was, “the construction and repair of bodies for automobiles and he did so with the intent of transferring sophisticated constructional techniques that combined lightness with strength from the aeronautics to the automotive sector. Cars of the time were bulky and heavy, Ugo Zagato conceived them as lightweight structures. This change in direction came to represent a chapter in the history of taste and saw, in Europe. During the 20s Zagato concentrated on racing cars, in the beginning of the decade he was asked by Alfa Romeo to dress some Alfa Romeo RLs. But in 1925 Vittorio Jano, Alfa Romeo’s Chief Engineer, asked him to create a body for the Alfa 6C1500, the Alfa Romeo P2’s heir, which should have been light and fast.
Zagato, using his Aeronautics culture, succeeded in creating a sleek and light body for the car, the 6C1500 technical qualities were improved on the Alfa Romeo 6C1750, which was introduced in 1927. It was bodied in several versions and achieved victories in the Mille Miglia in 1929 and 1930. Enzo Ferrari started his career at Alfa Romeo in 1929 founded Scuderia Ferrari as the team for race Alfas. Also Bugatti, Diatto, OM and even Rolls-Royce were clients of Zagato since the beginning, thirty-six these decades, Zagato continued building a variety of aerodynamic cars. Thirty-six Zagato bodied cars were at the start of 1938 Mille Miglia, at the outbreak of the Second World War, Ugo Zagato escaped from Milan and sought refugee at Lake Maggiore. On 13 August 1943 a RAF bombing raid destroyed his coachworks in Corso Sempione road and he found new premises at Saronno, alongside the Isotta Fraschini works, on behalf of which he constructed trucks and military vehicles and a futuristic Monterosa. He returned to Milan at the end of the war and re-established his company and he searched for more spacious and more comfortable car greenhouses.
They eventually crystallised in a new type-form characterised by airiness and visibility thanks to large glazed areas made with a new material, Plexiglas, in place of the traditional heavy glass. He called it “Panoramica” body, destined to mark the rebirth of his coachwork, Lancia, Fiat, in 1949 he built for Antonio Stagnoli a Panoramic body for his Ferrari 166 Mille Miglia. As a gift for his graduation at Bocconi University of Milan, Elio Zagato, Ugo’s first-born son and this car represented the beginning of his career as a gentleman driver and as a manager of the family company. They were, cars capable of being used on a basis and well-finished, yet sufficiently sleek
Steering is the collection of components, etc. which allows any vehicle to follow the desired course. An exception is the case of transport by which rail tracks combined together with railroad switches provide the steering function. The primary purpose of the system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle. Other arrangements are found on different types of vehicles, for example. The basic aim of steering is to ensure that the wheels are pointing in the desired directions and this is typically achieved by a series of linkages, rods and gears. The angle the wheels make with the plane influences steering dynamics as do the tires. The rack and pinion design has the advantages of a degree of feedback. A disadvantage is that it is not adjustable, so that when it does wear and develop lash, BMW began to use rack and pinion steering systems in the 1930s, and many other European manufacturers adopted the technology. American automakers adopted rack and pinion steering beginning with the 1974 Ford Pinto, older designs use two main principles, the worm and sector design and the screw and nut.
Both types were enhanced by reducing the friction, for screw and nut it is the ball mechanism. The steering column turns a large screw which meshes with nut by recirculating balls and this design is still in use in trucks and other large vehicles, where rapidity of steering and direct feel are less important than robustness and mechanical advantage. The worm and sector was a design, used for example in Willys and Chrysler vehicles. To reduce friction the sector is replaced by a roller or rotating pins on the rocker shaft arm, other systems for steering exist, but are uncommon on road vehicles. Power steering helps the driver of a vehicle to steer by directing some of its power to assist in swiveling the steered road wheels about their steering axes. To alleviate this auto makers have developed power steering systems, or more correctly power-assisted steering, there are two types of power steering systems and electric/electronic. A hydraulic-electric hybrid system is possible, a hydraulic power steering uses hydraulic pressure supplied by an engine-driven pump to assist the motion of turning the steering wheel.
In EPS, the amount of assistance is easily tunable to the type, road speed. An added benefit is the elimination of environmental hazard posed by leakage, an outgrowth of power steering is speed sensitive steering, where the steering is heavily assisted at low speed and lightly assisted at high speed
Sir Stirling Moss, OBE is a British former Formula One racing driver. In a seven-year span between 1955 and 1961 Moss finished as championship runner-up four times and third the other three, Moss was born in London, son of Alfred Moss, a dentist of Bray and Aileen. He was brought up at Long White Cloud house on the bank of the River Thames. His father was a racing driver who had placed 16th at the 1924 Indianapolis 500. Stirling was a horse rider as was his younger sister, Pat Moss. Moss raced from 1948 to 1962, winning 212 of the 529 races he entered, like many drivers of the era, he competed in several formulae, often on the same day. He preferred to race British cars, Better to lose honourably in a British car than win in a foreign one, at Vanwall, he was instrumental in breaking the German/Italian stranglehold on F1 racing. He remained the English driver with the most Formula One victories until 1991 when Nigel Mansell overtook him after competing in more races. Moss was one of the Cooper Car Companys first customers, using winnings from competing in horse-riding events to pay the deposit on a Cooper 500 racing car in 1948.
He persuaded his father, who opposed his racing and wanted him to be a dentist, to let him buy it. His first major race victory came on the eve of his 21st birthday at the wheel of a borrowed Jaguar XK120 in the 1950 RAC Tourist Trophy on the Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland. He went on to win the six more times, in 1951,1955,1958 and 1959. Also a competent rally driver, he is one of three people to have won a Coupe dOr for three consecutive penalty-free runs on the Alpine Rally. He finished second in the 1952 Monte Carlo Rally driving a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 with Desmond Scannell, in 1954, he became the first non-American to win the 12 Hours of Sebring, sharing the Cunningham teams 1. 5-liter O. S. C. A. In 1953 Mercedes-Benz racing boss Alfred Neubauer had spoken to Mosss manager, Ken Gregory, having seen him do well in a relatively uncompetitive car, and wanting to see how he would perform in a better one, Neubauer suggested Moss buy a Maserati for the 1954 season. In the Italian Grand Prix at Monza he passed both drivers who were regarded as the best in Formula One at the time—Juan Manuel Fangio in a Mercedes, Ascari retired with engine problems, and Moss led until lap 68 when his engine failed.
Fangio took the victory, and Moss pushed his Maserati to the finish line, already impressed when Moss had tested a Mercedes-Benz W196 at Hockenheim, promptly signed him for 1955. Mosss first Formula One victory was in the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree, leading a 1–2–3–4 finish for Mercedes, it was the first time he beat Fangio, his teammate and arch rival, who was his friend and mentor