Operation Sea Lion
Operation Sea Lion was Nazi Germanys code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War. A large number of barges were gathered together on the Channel coast, Adolf Hitler hoped for a negotiated peace with the UK, and made no preparations for amphibious assault on Britain until the Fall of France. At the time, the forces with experience of, or modern equipment for naval landings were the Japanese. In September 1939, the German invasion of Poland was a success, on 9 October, Hitlers Directive No. Reinicke spent five days on this study and set forth the following prerequisites, Eliminating or sealing off Royal Navy forces from the landing, destroying all Royal Navy units in the coastal zone. Preventing British submarine action against the landing fleet, the OKW considered the options and Hitlers 29 November Directive No. This directive remained in force in the first phase of the Battle of Britain, in December 1939, the German Army issued its own study paper and solicited opinions and input from both the Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe.
The paper outlined an assault on Englands eastern coast between The Wash and the River Thames by troops crossing the North Sea from ports in the Low Countries. The Kriegsmarine response was focused on pointing out the difficulties to be surmounted if invading England was to be a viable option. It could not envisage taking on the Royal Navy Home Fleet, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, responded with a single-page letter in which he stated, combined operation having the objective of landing in England must be rejected. It could only be the act of an already victorious war against Britain as otherwise the preconditions for success of a combined operation would not be met. Germanys swift and successful occupation of France and the Low Countries gained control of the Channel coast, on 21 May 1940 Raeder met Hitler and raised the topic of invasion, but warned of the risks and expressed a preference for blockade by air and surface raiders. British parliamentarians still arguing for peace negotiations were defeated in the May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis, in a report presented on 30 June, the OKW Chief of Staff Alfred Jodl reviewed options to increase pressure on Britain to agree to a negotiated peace.
The first priority was to eliminate the Royal Air Force and gain air supremacy, Intensified air attacks against shipping and the economy could affect food supplies and civilian morale in the long term. Reprisal attacks of terror bombing had the potential to cause quicker capitulation, at a meeting that day, OKW Chief of Staff General Franz Halder heard from Secretary of State Ernst von Weizsäcker that Hitler had turned his attention to Russia. On 1 July Halder met Admiral Otto Schniewind, and they shared views without understanding each others position, both thought that air superiority was needed first, and could make the invasion unnecessary. They agreed that minefields and U-boats could limit the threat posed by the Royal Navy, a Luftwaffe report presented to the OKW at a meeting on 11 July said that it would take 14 to 28 days to achieve air superiority. The meeting heard that England was discussing an agreement with Russia, Hitler agreed with him that invasion would be a last resort
The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most numerous battle tank used by the United States and some of the other Western Allies in World War II. The M4 Sherman proved to be reliable, relatively cheap to produce, thousands were distributed through the Lend-Lease program to the British Commonwealth and Soviet Union. The tank was named by the British for the American Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman, the M4 Sherman evolved from the interim M3 Medium Tank, which had its main armament in a side sponson mount. The M4 retained much of the mechanical design, but put the main 75 mm gun in a fully traversing turret. The designers stressed mechanical reliability, ease of production and maintenance, standardization of parts and ammunition in a number of variants. These factors, combined with the Shermans then-superior armor and armament, outclassed German light, the M4 went on to be produced in large numbers. It spearheaded many offensives by the Western Allies after 1942, for this reason, the US Army believed that the M4 would be adequate to win the war, and no pressure was exerted for further tank development.
Logistical and transport restrictions, such as limitations imposed by roads, Tank destroyer battalions using vehicles built on the M4 hull and chassis, but with open-topped turrets and more potent high-velocity guns, entered widespread use in the Allied armies. Even by 1944, most M4 Shermans kept their dual purpose 75 mm gun, some Shermans were produced with a more capable gun, the 76 mm gun M1, or refitted with a 17-pounder by the British. These factors combined to give the Allies numerical superiority in most battles, the U. S. Army Ordnance Department designed the M4 medium tank as a replacement for the M3 medium tank. The M3 was a development of the M2 Medium Tank of 1939. The M3 was developed as a stopgap measure until a new turret mounting a 75 mm gun could be devised, though reluctant to adopt the British army weapons in their entirety the American designers were prepared to accept proved British ideas. British ideas, as embodied with in a designed by the Canadian General Staff. Before long American Services and designers had accumulated sufficient experience to forge ahead on several points, in the field of tank armament the American 75mm and 76mm dual-purpose tank guns won the acknowledgement of British tank experts.
On 18 April 1941, the U. S, Armored Force Board chose the simplest of five designs. Known as the T6, the design was a modified M3 hull and chassis and this would became the Sherman. The goals were to produce a fast, dependable medium tank able to support infantry, provide breakthrough striking capacity, the T6 prototype was completed on 2 September 1941. The T6 upper hull was a large casting
The 105 mm M2A1 howitzer was a howitzer developed and used by the United States. It was the standard U. S. light field howitzer in World War II, entering production in 1941, it quickly gained a reputation for accuracy and a powerful punch. The M101A1 fired 105-millimetre high explosive semi-fixed ammunition and had a range of 11,270 metres, all of these qualities of the weapon, along with its widespread production, led to its adoption by many countries after the war. Its ammunition type became the standard for foreign countries models. During the Second World War, U. S. artillery regiments consisted of an HQ detachment, one 155mm artillery battalion, both the 155mm and 105mm battalions had twelve guns each, divided into three batteries of four guns. That gave each regiment a total of twelve 155mm howitzers, with an HE M1 shell fired at 9000 meters, the probable error in range was 41 meters, while the probable error in line was 10 meters. The U. S. military artillery designation system was changed in 1962, the gun continued to see service in the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
Though a similar model, the M102 howitzer, shared the roles in battle. Today, the M101A1 has been retired by the U. S. military, though it continues to see service with many other countries. By the end of the Second World War,8,536 105mm towed howitzers had been built and post-war production continued at Rock Island Arsenal until 1953, by which time 10,202 had been built. The Canadian Forces continued to use the M2A1 as the C2 Howitzer until 1997, the changes include a longer barrel, a muzzle brake, reinforced trails and the removal of shield flaps. It remains the standard light howitzer of Canadian Forces Reserve units, the C3 is used by Reserve units in Glacier National Park in British Columbia as a means of avalanche control. In addition, the M101 has found a use in the U. S. as an avalanche control gun. Today upgraded M2A1 howitzers are still being used by the Peoples Army of Vietnam and it continues to remain as the primary tactical field-howitzer of the VPA. M2 Howitzers are still in limited service in the Australian Army Reserve, in regular service they were replaced by the 105mm L119 Hamel gun and the 155-millimetre M198 howitzers.
Two M2 howitzers are employed in providing the gun salute at Kristiansten Fortress, in Trondheim. M101/M2 is one of three approved salute guns in the Norwegian armed forces, and have reduced to a caliber of 75 millimetres for this purpose. They are used for gun salute at Rena and Setermoen, M2 - minor changes to the chamber to allow use of fixed ammunition
The tank destroyer on the other hand is specifically designed to take on enemy armour. Many are based on a tank chassis, while others are wheeled. Since World War II, gun-armed tank destroyers have fallen out of favor as armies have favored multirole main battle tanks, lightly armored anti-tank guided missile carriers are commonly used for supplementary long-range anti-tank work. Dedicated anti-tank vehicles made their first major appearance in the Second World War as combatants developed effective armored vehicles, some were little more than stopgap solutions, mounting an anti-tank gun on a tracked vehicle to give mobility, while others were more sophisticated designs. Except for most American designs, tank destroyers were all turretless and had fixed or casemate superstructures, the turretless design allowed accommodation of a more powerful gun, typically a dedicated anti-tank gun that had a longer barrel than could be mounted in a turreted tank on the same chassis. The lack of an increased the vehicles internal volume, allowing for increased ammunition stowage.
Eliminating the turret allowed the vehicle to carry thicker armor than would otherwise be the case, sometimes there was no armored roof to keep the overall weight down to the limit that the chassis could bear. Variants of the Polish TKS and TK-3 tankettes up-armed with 20 mm gun were operationally deployed in the invasion of Poland and they were used as an anti-tank component of the reconnaissance units. Due to the defeat of France, few French vehicles were built. The Laffly W15 TCC was an attempt to build a light tank destroyer by mounting a 47 mm SA37 anti-tank gun onto a lightly armored Laffly W15T artillery tractor. Other French tank destroyers were being developed, including the SOMUA SAu-40, ARL V39, for instance,202 obsolete Panzer I light tanks were modified by removing the turret and were rebuilt as the Panzerjäger I self-propelled 4.7 cm PaK. Similarly, Panzer II tanks were used on the eastern front, captured Soviet 76.2 mm anti-tank guns were mounted on modified Panzer II chassis, producing the Marder II self-propelled anti-tank gun.
The most common mounting was a German 75 mm anti-tank gun on the Czech Panzer 38 chassis to produce the Marder III, the Panzer 38 chassis was used to make the Jagdpanzer 38 casemate style tank destroyer. The Panzerjäger series continued up to the 88 mm equipped Nashorn, German tank destroyers based on the Panzer III and German tanks were unique in that they had more armor than their tank counterparts. One of the more successful German tank destroyers was actually designed as an artillery gun. Based on the Panzer III tank chassis, the Sturmgeschütz III was originally fitted with a low-velocity gun, after encountering Soviet tanks, it was refitted with a comparatively short-barreled high-velocity anti-tank gun, usually with a muzzle brake, enabling it to function as a tank destroyer. The Sturmgeschütz III from its 1938 origin used a new superstructure with an integrated design similar to the Jagdpanzer to completely enclose the crew. It was employed in support and offensive armored operations as well as in the defensive anti-tank role
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 52 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire. The Commonwealth dates back to the century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the states as free. The symbol of free association is Queen Elizabeth II who is the Head of the Commonwealth. The Queen is the monarch of 16 members of the Commonwealth, the other Commonwealth members have different heads of state,31 members are republics and five are monarchies with a different monarch. Member states have no obligation to one another. Instead, they are united by language, history and their values of democracy, free speech, human rights. These values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games, the Commonwealth covers more than 29,958,050 km2, 20% of the worlds land area, and spans all six inhabited continents.
She declared, So, it marks the beginning of that free association of independent states which is now known as the Commonwealth of Nations. As long ago as 1884, Lord Rosebery, while visiting Australia, had described the changing British Empire—as some of its colonies became more independent—as a Commonwealth of Nations. Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, the Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, Newfoundland joined Canada as its 10th province in 1949. Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1942 and 1947 respectively, after World War II ended, the British Empire was gradually dismantled. Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, there remain the 14 British overseas territories still held by the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word British was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature and Aden are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence.
Hoped for success was reinforced by such achievements as climbing Mount Everest in 1953, breaking the four minute mile in 1954, the humiliation of the Suez Crisis of 1956 badly hurt morale of Britain and the Commonwealth as a whole. More broadly, there was the loss of a role of the British Empire. That role was no longer militarily or financially feasible, as Britains withdrawal from Greece in 1947 painfully demonstrated, Britain itself was now just one part of the NATO military alliance in which the Commonwealth had no role apart from Canada
Starting before the Manhattan Project in the United States, the British efforts were kept classified and as such had to be referred to by code even within the highest circles of government. The possibility of weapons was acknowledged early in the war. This led to the formation of the MAUD Committee, which called for an effort to develop nuclear weapons. Wallace Akers, who oversaw the project, chose the deliberately misleading name Tube Alloys and his Tube Alloys Directorate was part of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. The Tube Alloys programme in Britain and Canada was the first nuclear weapons project, due to the high costs, and the fact that Britain was fighting a war within bombing range of its enemies, Tube Alloys was ultimately subsumed into the Manhattan Project. The Soviet Union gained valuable information through its spies, who had infiltrated both the British and American projects. The United States terminated co-operation after the war ended and this prompted the United Kingdom to launch its own project, High Explosive Research.
Production facilities were established and British scientists continued their work under the auspices of an independent British programme, finally in 1952, Britain performed a nuclear test under codename Operation Hurricane. In December 1938, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann conducted experiments in Hahns laboratory in Berlin-Dahlem that involved bombarding uranium with slowed neutrons and they discovered that barium had been produced, and therefore that the uranium nucleus had been split. Atoms had been split before, by John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in 1932, the neutron had been discovered by James Chadwick at Cavendish only in 1932. Experiments with bombardment of elements by slow neutrons had always produced heavier elements and this phenomenon was a new type of nuclear disintegration and was radioactively more powerful than ever seen before. Frisch and Meitner calculated this energy released by each disintegration to be approximately 200,000,000 electron volts, by analogy with the division of biological cells, they named this process fission.
This was followed up by a group of scientists at the Collège de France in Paris, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Hans von Halban, Lew Kowarski, in February 1939, the Paris Group showed that when fission occurs in uranium, two or three extra neutrons are given off. This important observation suggested that a nuclear chain reaction might be possible. It was immediately apparent to scientists that, in theory. The term atomic bomb was already familiar to the British public through the writings of H. G. Wells, Perrin defined a critical mass of uranium to be the smallest amount that could sustain a chain reaction. Thus, in order to create a chain reaction, there existed a need for a neutron moderator to contain. The College de France found that water and graphite could be used as acceptable moderators
The Sherman Firefly was a tank used by the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth and Allied armoured formations in the Second World War. It was based on the US M4 Sherman, but fitted with the powerful 3-inch calibre British 17-pounder anti-tank gun as its main weapon. Originally conceived as a stopgap until future British tank designs came into service, though the British expected to have their own new tank models developed soon, British Major George Brighty championed the already rejected idea of mounting the 17-pounder in the existing Sherman. With the help of Lieutenant Colonel Witheridge, and despite official disapproval and this proved fortunate, as both the Challenger and Cromwell tank designs experienced difficulties and delays. After the difficult problem of getting the gun to fit in the Shermans turret was solved by W. G. K. Kilbourn, a Vickers engineer, the Firefly was put into production in early 1944 and it soon became highly valued as its gun could almost always penetrate the armor of the Panther and Tiger tanks it faced in Normandy.
In recognition of this, German tank and anti-tank gun crews were instructed to attack Fireflies first, between 2,100 and 2,200 were manufactured before production wound down in 1945. The idea of fitting a 17-pounder gun into a Sherman tank had initially rejected by the Ministry of Supplys Tank Decision Board. Although the British Army had made use of the American-built Sherman tank. The second was the A30 Challenger, which was based on the Cromwell, several unofficial attempts were made to upgun the Sherman. The earliest attempt can be credited to Major George Brighty of the Royal Tank Regiment while he was at Lulworth Armoured Fighting School in early 1943, despite the A30 Challenger undergoing initial trials at Lulworth, Brighty was convinced that the Sherman was a better mount for the 17-pounder. However, he was limited by the turret of the Sherman, around June 1943, a colleague of Brighty, Lieutenant Colonel George Witheridge of the Royal Tank Regiment, arrived at Lulworth. During the disastrous Battle of Gazala in mid-1942, Witheridge had been out of his Grant tank.
Instead, in January 1943, he was posted to Fort Knox in the United States for six months to advise on gunnery, while at Lulworth, Witheridge inspected the A30 Challenger, and joined in the chorus of complaints about the tank. Upon looking up Brighty and learning of his attempts to use the Sherman and he advised Brighty on methods to solve the recoil issue. Not long after and Brighty received a notice from the Department of Tank Design to cease their efforts. In doing so, the endeavour was taken out of the hands of the enthusiastic and devoted amateurs at Lulworth who had initiated it. The first thing Kilbourn had to fix was the lack of a recoil system for the 17-pounder
The 75mm Pack Howitzer M1 was an artillery piece used by the United States. It was designed in the 1920s to meet a need for a howitzer that could be moved across difficult terrain, the gun and carriage was designed so that it could be broken down into several pieces to be carried by pack animals. The gun saw combat in World War II with the United States Army, with US Marine Corps, in addition to the pack / air portable configuration, the gun was mounted on a conventional carriage to serve as a field artillery piece. The M2 and M3 are derived vehicle mounted howitzers used in the 75mm HMC M8, in addition, the M1 in its original version was mated to a number of other self-propelled carriages, though only one of those – 75mm HMC T30 – reached mass production. The 75 mm pack howitzer was designed in the United States in the 1920s to meet a need for a piece that could be moved across difficult terrain. In August 1927, the weapon was standardized as Howitzer, due to meager funding, production rates were low, by 1940, only 91 pieces were manufactured.
It was not until September 1940 that the howitzer was put into mass production, by then, the M1 had been succeeded by the slightly modified M1A1. The only significant changes during the production period were carriage improvements. The original carriage M1 was of box type, with wooden wheels. The requirement for a lightweight howitzer for airborne troops led to the introduction of the M8 carriage, another requirement, from the cavalry branch of the US Army, resulted in a completely different family of field howitzer split trail carriages M3A1 / M3A2 / M3A3. However, only limited numbers of the M1 field howitzer variant were built, the howitzer M1 or M1A1 consisted of tube and breech, which were joined together by interrupted threads, allowing for quick assembly and disassembly. One eighth of a turn was required to connect or disconnect tube, the tube had uniform, right hand rifling with one turn in 20 calibers. The breech was of horizontal sliding type, with continuous-pull firing mechanism.
Both recoil buffer and recuperator were located under the barrel, the pack howitzer carriage M1 had dismantling construction. The carriage was of box type, with steel-rimmed wooden wheels. The carriage M8 was identical, except for axle arms and wheels, the howitzer on carriage M8 could be broken down into seven mule loads or into nine parachute loads. It could be towed by vehicle such as 1/4 ton jeep, the field howitzer carriages of the M3 family were non-dismantling, split trail. All these were fitted with metal wheels with pneumatic tires, all had an additional retractable support, in firing position, the firing base could be lowered and wheels raised, leaving the weapon to rest on the firing base and trails
A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion. This broad definition includes airbreathing jet engines and non-airbreathing jet engines, in general, jet engines are combustion engines. In common parlance, the jet engine loosely refers to an internal combustion airbreathing jet engine. These typically feature an air compressor powered by a turbine. Jet aircraft use such engines for long-distance travel, early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use more complex high-bypass turbofan engines and these engines offer high speed and greater fuel efficiency than piston and propeller aeroengines over long distances. Jet engines date back to the invention of the aeolipile before the first century AD and this device directed steam power through two nozzles to cause a sphere to spin rapidly on its axis. So far as is known, it did not supply mechanical power, instead, it was seen as a curiosity.
However, although powerful, at reasonable flight speeds rockets are very inefficient. The earliest attempts at airbreathing jet engines were hybrid designs in which a power source first compressed air. In one such system, called a thermojet by Secondo Campini but more commonly, examples of this type of design were the Caproni Campini N.1, and the Japanese Tsu-11 engine intended to power Ohka kamikaze planes towards the end of World War II. None were entirely successful and the N.1 ended up being slower than the design with a traditional engine. If aircraft performance were ever to increase beyond such a barrier and this was the motivation behind the development of the gas turbine engine, commonly called a jet engine. The key to a jet engine was the gas turbine. The gas turbine was not an idea developed in the 1930s, the first gas turbine to successfully run self-sustaining was built in 1903 by Norwegian engineer Ægidius Elling. Limitations in design and practical engineering and metallurgy prevented such engines reaching manufacture, the main problems were safety, weight and, sustained operation.
The first patent for using a gas turbine to power an aircraft was filed in 1921 by Frenchman Maxime Guillaume and his engine was an axial-flow turbojet. Alan Arnold Griffith published An Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design in 1926 leading to work at the RAE
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom. As of 2017 the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained Regular, or full-time and just over 26,500 trained Reserve, or part-time personnel. Therefore, the UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, day to day the Army comes under administration of the Ministry of Defence and is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. Repeatedly emerging victorious from these decisive wars allowed Britain to influence world events with its policies and establish itself as one of the leading military. In 1660 the English and Irish monarchies were restored under Charles II, Charles favoured the foundation of a new army under royal control and began work towards its establishment by August 1660. The Royal Scots Army and the Irish Army were financed by the Parliament of Scotland, the order of seniority of the most senior line regiments in the British Army is based on the order of seniority in the English army.
At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, after William and Marys accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring Marys father, James II. Spain, in the two centuries, had been the dominant global power, and the chief threat to Englands early transatlantic ambitions. The territorial ambitions of the French, led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. From the time of the end of the Seven Years War in 1763, Great Britain was the naval power. As had its predecessor, the English Army, the British Army fought the Kingdoms of Spain and the Netherlands for supremacy in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the Army conquered New France in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War, the British Army suffered defeat in the American War of Independence, losing the Thirteen Colonies but holding on to Canada. The British Army was heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars and served in campaigns across Europe.
The war between the British and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte stretched around the world and at its peak, in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A Coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian Armies under the Duke of Wellington, the English had been involved, both politically and militarily, in Ireland since being given the Lordship of Ireland by the Pope in 1171. The campaign of the English republican Protector, Oliver Cromwell, involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns that had supported the Royalists during the English Civil War, the English Army stayed in Ireland primarily to suppress numerous Irish revolts and campaigns for independence. Having learnt from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution, the British Army found itself fighting Irish rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, primarily in Ulster and Leinster in the 1798 rebellion. The Haldane Reforms of 1907 formally created the Territorial Force as the Armys volunteer reserve component by merging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Great Britains dominance of the world had been challenged by numerous other powers, in the 20th century, most notably Germany
Numerically, it was the main rifle used by the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I. The Danish Slædepatruljen Sirius still use the M1917 as their service weapon, before World War I, the British had the Short Magazine Lee–Enfield as their main rifle. Compared to the German Mausers or U. S.1903 Springfield, the starting point was to copy many of the features of the Mauser system. The rifle was developed at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield in the United Kingdom. This development, named the Pattern 1913 Enfield or P13, included a front locking, dual lug bolt action with Mauser type claw extractor as well as a new, powerful rimless.276 Enfield cartridge. The design carried over a Lee–Enfield type safety at the rear of the action, an advanced design of aperture rearsight and a long sight radius were incorporated to maximize accuracy potential. Ease of manufacture was an important criterion, the onset of World War I came too quickly for the UK to put it into production before the new cartridge could be perfected, as it suffered from overheating in rapid fire and bore fouling.
As it entered World War I, the UK had an urgent need for rifles and they decided to ask these companies to produce the new rifle design in the old.303 British chambering for convenience of ammunition logistics. The new rifle was termed the Pattern 14, in the case of the P14 rifle and Remington were selected. A third manufacturer, Eddystone Arsenal – a subsidiary of Remington – was tooled up at the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Eddystone, three variations of the P14 and M1917 exist, labeled Winchester and Eddystone. When the U. S. entered the war, it had a similar need for rifles, the Enfield design was well-suited to the. 30-06 Springfield, it was a big, strong action and was originally intended to employ a long, rimless bottlenecked cartridge. Eddystone made 1,181,908 rifles – more than the production of Remington, the standardized production effort regarding parts interchangeability did not work out as intended. Winchester produced slightly differing parts, leading to interchangeability issues with the Remington, the markings were changed to reflect the model and caliber change. A16.
5-inch blade bayonet, the M1917 bayonet was produced for use on the rifle and it would be used on several other small arms like the M97 and M12 trench shotguns and early M1 Garands. The new rifle was used alongside the M1903 Springfield and quickly surpassed the Springfield design in numbers produced, by November 11,1918 about 75% of the AEF in France were armed with M1917s. An M1917 Enfield rifle may have used by Sergeant Alvin C. York on October 8,1918, during the event that would see him awarded the Medal of Honor, according to his diary, Sergeant York used a Colt M1911 semi-automatic pistol on that day. After the armistice, the M1917 rifles were placed in storage for the most part, during the 1920s and 1930s a large number of M1917 rifles were released for civilian use through the NRA or were sold as surplus
Ordnance QF 6-pounder
It was first used in North Africa in April 1942, and quickly replaced the 2 pounder in the anti-tank role, allowing the 25 pounder to revert to its intended artillery role. The United States Army adopted the 6 pounder as their primary anti-tank gun under the designation 57 mm Gun M1. Limitations of the existing 2-pounders were apparent even as the gun was first entering service, the Woolwich Arsenal was entrusted with the development of a new gun with a calibre of 57 mm calibre. Guns of this calibre had been employed by the Royal Navy from the late 19th century, the design was complete by 1940, but the carriage design was not completed until 1941. The production was delayed by the defeat in the Battle of France. It was estimated that 100 6-pounders would displace the production of 600 2-pounders and this had the effect of delaying production of the 6-pounder until November 1941 and its entry into service until May 1942. Unlike the 2-pounder, the new gun was mounted on a conventional two-wheeled split trail carriage, the first mass production variant—the Mk II—differed from the pre-production Mk I in having a shorter L/43 barrel, because of shortage of suitable lathes.
The subsequent Mk IV was fitted with a L/50 barrel, with muzzle brake, optional side shields were issued to give the crew better protection, but were apparently rarely used. The Churchill Marks III and IV, Valentine Mark IX and Crusader Mark III all began to service during 1942. The Valentine and Crusader both needed to lose a member from the turret. Those tanks designed to take the 6-pounder from the outset were the problematic Cavalier, the Cromwell, the 6-pounder was fitted to the AEC Armoured Car Mark II. Although the 6-pounder was kept at least somewhat competitive through the war, the aim was to produce a gun with the same general dimensions and weight as the 6-pounder, but with improved performance. The first attempt was an 8-pounder of 59 calibre length, a second attempt was made with a shorter 48 calibre barrel, but this proved to have only marginally better performance than the 6-pounder. The program was cancelled in January 1943. Instead, the 6-pounder was followed into production and service by the next generation British anti-tank gun, the 17 pounder, which came into use from February 1943.
As a smaller and more gun, the 6-pounder continued to be used by the British Army not only for the rest of World War II. A 57/42.6 mm squeeze bore adaptor was developed for the gun but was never adopted, in addition to the UK, the gun was produced in both South Africa, where the Combined Ordnance Factories produced 300, and Canada. The idea of manufacturing the 6 pounder in the US was expressed by the US Army Ordnance in February 1941, at that time, the US Army still favoured the 37mm Gun M3 and production was planned solely for lend lease