Battle of Kursk
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943. The German offensive was code-named Operation Citadel and led to one of the largest armoured clashes in history, the German offensive was countered by two Soviet counter-offensives, Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev and Operation Kutuzov. For the Germans, the battle was the strategic offensive that they were able to launch on the Eastern Front. Their extensive loss of men and tanks ensured that the victorious Soviet Red Army enjoyed the strategic initiative for the remainder of the war. The Germans hoped to weaken the Soviet offensive potential for the summer of 1943 by cutting off a number of forces that they anticipated would be in the Kursk salient. The Kursk salient or bulge was 250 kilometres long north to south and 160 kilometres from east to west. The plan envisioned an envelopment by a pair of breaking through the northern and southern flanks of the salient.
Adolf Hitler believed that a victory here would reassert German strength and improve his prestige with his allies and it was hoped that large numbers of Soviet prisoners would be captured to be used as slave labour in the German armaments industry. The Soviet government had foreknowledge of the German intentions, provided in part by the British intelligence service, aware months in advance that the attack would fall on the neck of the Kursk salient, the Soviets built a defence in depth designed to wear down the German armoured spearhead. The Germans delayed the offensive while they tried to build up their forces and waited for new weapons, mainly the new Panther tank and this gave the Red Army time to construct a series of deep defensive belts. The defensive preparations included minefields, artillery fire zones and anti-tank strong points, Soviet mobile formations were moved out of the salient and a large reserve force was formed for strategic counter-offensives. The Battle of Kursk was the first time in the Second World War that a German strategic offensive was halted before it could break through enemy defences, the maximum depth of the German advance was 8–12 kilometres in the north and 35 kilometres in the south.
Though the Red Army had succeeded in winter offensives previously, their counter-offensives following the German attack at Kursk were their first successful strategic summer offensives of the war. As the Battle of Stalingrad slowly ground to its conclusion the Red Army moved to an offensive in the south. Army Group Center came under significant pressure as well, Kursk fell to the Soviets on 8 February 1943, and Rostov on 14 February. The Soviet Bryansk and newly created Central Fronts prepared for an offensive which envisioned the encirclement of Army Group Center between Bryansk and Smolensk, by February 1943 the southern sector of the German front was in strategic crisis. Since December 1942 Field Marshal Erich von Manstein had been strongly requesting unrestricted operational freedom to him to use his forces in a fluid manner. On 6 February 1943, Manstein met with Hitler at the headquarters in Rasternburg to discuss the proposals he had previously sent and he received an approval from Hitler for a counteroffensive against the Soviet forces advancing in the Donbass region
5th Guards Army
The 5th Guards Army was a Soviet Guards formation which fought in many critical actions during World War II under the command of General Aleksey Semenovich Zhadov. The 5th Guards Army was formed in spring 1943 from the 66th Army in recognition of that armys actions during the Battle of Stalingrad, during the Berlin Offensive elements of the army linked up with American troops at Torgau on the Elbe. Postwar, the army was disbanded as part of the Central Group of Forces, on 5 May 1943, the 66th Army was renamed the 5th Guards Army in accordance with a Stavka directive dated 16 April 1943. It included the 32nd and 33rd Guards Rifle Corps, the 5th Guards Army fought under command of the Steppe, and 2nd and 1st Ukrainian Fronts from 1943 until the end of the war. In 1943, the fought in the Battle of Kursk at Prokhorovka. The Steppe Front formed the reserve for the battle. On 6 July, the army moving up from its reserve positions. On 8 July the army was reassigned to the Voronezh Front, on the night of 10 July the armys 33rd Guards Rifle Corps arrived at Prokhorovka.
On the night of 11 July the armys 32nd Guards Rifle Corps took up positions on the Psel River at Oboyan, Veselyy. On 12 July the armys troops in conjunction with the 5th Guards Tank Army fought in the counterattack of the Voronezh Front, soldiers of the 9th Guards Airborne Division were carried on the hulls of the tanks during the charge down the slopes in front of Prokhorovka. In early August, the fought in the Battle of Belgorod. For the offensive, the army was deployed among other armies on a running from Gertsovka to the northern Donets east of Gostishchevo. On the night of 3 August, the army moved up to its start line, within three hours of the launch of the offensive on the morning of 3 August, the army had broken through the main German positions. From 12 August 1943, the fought in the Belgorod-Kharkhov Offensive Operation. On 7 September the army became part of the Steppe Front, during the Battle of the Dnieper, the army helped capture Poltava on 23 September and Kremenchug on 29 September.
The army crossed the Dnieper and seized a bridgehead on its right bank, on 20 October Steppe Front was renamed 2nd Ukrainian Front. In early January, the 5th Guards Army fought in the Kirovograd Offensive, in March and April, the army fought in the Uman-Botosani Offensive. In early May, the reached the Romanian border
Second Spanish Republic
The Second Spanish Republic was the republican regime that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. Following the Provisional Government between April and December 1931, the 1931 Constitution established the Republic, the Spanish Republic can be divided in three eras, the First Biennium, the Dark Biennium, and the Popular Front government. The Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed when King Alfonso XIII left the following municipal elections where anti-monarchist candidates won the majority of votes. Its government went into exile on 1 April 1939, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered to the rebel nacionales, the government in exile of the Second Spanish Republic had an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. After the restoration of democracy in Spain, the government formally dissolved the following year, on 28 January 1930 the military dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera was overthrown. This led various republican factions from a variety of backgrounds to join forces. The Pact of San Sebastián was the key to the transition from monarchy to republic, Republicans of all tendencies were committed to the Pact of San Sebastian in overthrowing the monarchy and establishing a republic.
The restoration of the royal Bourbons was rejected by large sectors of the populace who vehemently opposed the King, the pact, signed by representatives of the main Republican forces, allowed a joint anti-monarchy political campaign. The 12 April 1931 municipal elections led to a victory for republicans. Two days later, the Second Republic was proclaimed, and King Alfonso XIII went into exile, the kings departure led to a provisional government of the young republic under Niceto Alcalá-Zamora. Catholic churches and establishments in cities like Madrid and Sevilla were set ablaze on 11 May, in June 1931 a Constituent Cortes was elected to draft a new constitution, which came into force in December. The new constitution established freedom of speech and freedom of association, extended suffrage to women in 1933, allowed divorce and it effectively disestablished the Roman Catholic Church, but the disestablishment was somewhat reversed by the Cortes that same year. Its controversial articles 26 and 27 imposed stringent controls on Church property, scholars have described the constitution as hostile to religion, with one scholar characterising it as one of the most hostile of the 20th century.
José Ortega y Gasset stated, the article in which the Constitution legislates the actions of the Church seems highly improper to me, pope Pius XI condemned the Spanish governments deprivation of the civil liberties of Catholics in the encyclical Dilectissima Nobis. The legislative branch was changed to a chamber called the Congress of Deputies. The constitution established legal procedures for the nationalisation of public services and land, the constitution provided generally accorded civil liberties and representation. Catholic churches in cities were again subject to arson in 1932. A Catholic church in Zaragoza saw arson in 1933, and the cathedral in Oviedo was destroyed by flames in 1934, the church of San Lorenzo in Gijon was set ablaze in this year as well
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Operation Winter Storm
In late November 1942, the Red Army completed Operation Uranus, encircling some 300,000 Axis personnel in and around the city of Stalingrad. German forces within the Stalingrad pocket and directly outside were reorganized under Army Group Don, to remedy the situation, the Luftwaffe attempted to supply German forces in Stalingrad through an air bridge. Originally, Manstein was promised four panzer divisions, due to German reluctance to weaken certain sectors by redeploying German units, the task of opening a corridor to the German 6th Army fell to the 4th Panzer Army. The German force was pitted against several Soviet armies tasked with the destruction of the encircled German forces, the German offensive caught the Red Army by surprise and made large gains on the first day. The spearhead forces enjoyed air support and were able to defeat counterattacks by Soviet troops, by 13 December, Soviet resistance slowed the German advance considerably. Although German forces took the area surrounding Verkhne-Kumskiy, the Red Army launched Operation Little Saturn on 16 December, Operation Little Saturn crushed the Italian 8th Army on Army Group Dons left flank, threatening the survival of Mansteins entire group of forces.
The 4th Panzer Army continued its attempt to open a corridor to the 6th Army on 18–19 December, Manstein was forced to call off the assault on 23 December and by Christmas Eve the 4th Panzer Army began to withdraw to its starting position. Due to the failure of the 6th Army to breakout and the attempt to break the Soviet encirclement, on 23 November 1942, the Red Army closed its encirclement of Axis forces in Stalingrad. Nearly 300,000 German and Romanian soldiers, as well as Russian volunteers for the Wehrmacht, were trapped in, amidst the impending disaster, German chancellor Adolf Hitler appointed Field Marshal Erich von Manstein as commander of the newly created Army Group Don. Composed of the German 4th Panzer and 6th Armies, as well as the Third and Fourth Romanian Armies, instead of attempting an immediate breakout, German high command decided that the trapped forces would remain in Stalingrad in a bid to hold out. The encircled German forces were to be resupplied by air, requiring roughly 680 t of supplies per day, the assembled fleet of 500 transport aircraft were insufficient for the task.
Many of the aircraft were serviceable in the rough Soviet winter, in early December. The German 6th Army, for example, was getting less than 20% of its daily needs, the Germans were still threatened by Soviet forces which still held portions of the Volga Rivers west bank in Stalingrad. Given the unexpected size of German forces closed off in Stalingrad, on 23 November Stavka decided to strengthen the outer encirclement preparing to destroy Axis forces in, on 24 November, several Soviet formations began to entrench themselves to defend against possible German incursions originating from the West. The Soviets reinforced the forces in order to prevent a successful breakout operation by the German 6th Army. However, this tied down over ½ of the Red Armys strength in the area, planning began for Operation Koltso, which aimed at reducing German forces in the Stalingrad pocket. As Operation Uranus concluded, German forces inside the encirclement were too weak to attempt a breakout on their own, Manstein proposed a counterstrike to break the Soviet encirclement of Stalingrad, codenamed Operation Winter Storm.
Manstein believed that—due to the inability of the Luftwaffe to supply the Stalingrad pocket—it was becoming important to relieve them at the earliest possible date
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943
The Workers and Peasants Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution, the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. The Red Army is credited as being the land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II. During operations on the Eastern Front, it fought 75%–80% of the German land forces deployed in the war, inflicting the vast majority of all German losses and ultimately capturing the German capital. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote, There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, at the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters,1.8 million dead,5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners and he estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million.
Therefore, the Council of Peoples Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918 and they envisioned a body formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes. All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible, in the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary. Because the Red Army was composed mainly of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations, some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army, along with some women, flooded the recruitment centres. If they were turned away they would collect scrap metal and prepare care-packages, in some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy, Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for war, Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as peoples commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars, at a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked, We have no army.
The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies and we have no power to stay the enemy, only an immediate signing of the peace treaty will save us from destruction. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledins Volunteer Army in the River Don region, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics. The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, a series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. The Whites defeated the Red Army on each front, Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked, the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchaks army in June, and the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-November the White armies were all almost completely exhausted, in January 1920, Budennys First Cavalry Army entered Rostov-on-Don. 1919 to 1923 At the wars start, the Red Army consisted of 299 infantry regiments, Civil war intensified after Lenin dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and the Soviet government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, removing Russia from the Great War
Siberian Military District
The Siberian Military District was a Military district of the Russian Ground Forces. The district was formed as a military district of the Russian Empire in 1864. In 1924 it was reformed in the Red Army, after the end of World War II the district was split into the Western and Eastern Siberian Military Districts. In 1956 the district was reformed, in 2010 it was divided between the two newly formed Central and Eastern Military Districts. The Siberian Military District was originally formed in 1864, being one of the ten original military districts of the Russian Empire. It was recreated in June 1924 with the consolidation of the Western and Eastern Siberian Military Districts, in June 1941 the District was host to the 24th Army, under Lieutenant General Stepan Kalinin, which comprised two Rifle Corps, the 52nd and 53rd. The 52nd, with its HQ in Novosibirsk along with the 133rd Rifle Division, additionally had the 166th Rifle Division at Barabinsk and the 178th Rifle Division at Omsk. The 53rd Rifle Corps at Krasnoyarsk, where the 119th Rifle Division was stationed, included the 107th Rifle Division at Barnaul, among the many, many formations the district raised during the Second World War was the 75th Cavalry Division, formed in September and October 1941.
The Eastern Siberian District was located at Irkutsk and created from HQ 50th Army, the Eastern Siberian District was disbanded in 1953 with its region being split between the Western Siberian District and the Transbaikal Military District. In 1956 the Western Siberian Military District was again renamed the Siberian Military District, in 1968 the 33rd Army Corps was transferred into the district from the Turkestan Military District, establishing its headquarters at Kemerovo. The 13th Motor Rifle Division at Biysk was assigned to it, among the mobilisation divisions formed in the district from the late 1970s was the 167th Motor Rifle Division, whose equipment storage area was co-located with the barracks of the 13th MRD. The 242nd Motor Rifle Division was established at Abakan in 1972, in August 1992, the 21st Motor Rifle Division, withdrawn from the 2nd Guards Tank Army in East Germany, was moved to Omsk. The 41st Army was formed from the headquarters of the former Siberian Military District at Novosibirsk while the new headquarters were established at Chita.
It is likely safe to assume that the 41st Army controls all the formations of the previous Siberian Military District. The IISS listed the district in 2006 as having a total of one tank, the 2nd Guards Tank Division, previously active in Mongolia with the 39th Army, disbanded in 2005 having been stationed at Strugi Mirnaya/Bezrechnaya,5043 25N,11610 35E) in Chita Oblast. The 29th Army at Ulan-Ude was seemingly disbanded in the course of 2007. I, General of the Army Andrei Yeremenko General Colonel N. P. Koplov Nikolai Kormiltsev General Vladimir Boldyrev Nikolai Makarov Alexander Postnikov General Lieutenant Vladimir Chirkin Feskov, the Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War. Greg Austin and Alexey Muraviev, The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia, Tauris,2000 Further reading, V Plameni I Slave, official site of the Siberian Military District in Russian
Colonel general is a four-star rank in the army, equivalent to that of a full general in the US Army. North Korea and Russia are two countries that have used the rank extensively throughout their histories, the rank is closely associated with Germany, where Generaloberst has formerly been a rank above full General and below Generalfeldmarschall. Colonel general was the second-highest rank in the Austro-Hungarian Army, introduced following the German model in 1915, the rank was not used after World War I in the Austrian Army of the Republic. The Peoples Liberation Army had a rank of Da Jiang from 1955 to 1965, Da Jiang corresponded to the Soviet rank of colonel general. The rank system of the Peoples Liberation Army was abolished in 1965, the 1988 system introduced a rank of Yi Ji Shang Jiang. No one had held such rank and it was abolished in 1994, the rank of colonel general was created in the Czechoslovak army in 1950, it was dropped after the 1993 dissolution of the state. The Egyptian Army uses a rank that translates as colonel general and it is equal to the rank of 4-star or full general.
Colonel general is, junior to the rank of marshal and is an honorary distinction usually held only by defense ministers. In the French Army, under the Ancien régime, the officer in command of all the regiments of a particular branch of service was known as the colonel general. This was not a rank, but an office of the Crown, the Bundeswehr does not use the rank. Rank insignia Generaloberst In Hungary, the rank of general was introduced to the Imperial and Royal Army in 1915. The rank replaced the ranks of gyalogsági tábornok, lovassági tábornok, the equivalent rank for Colonel general in Iraq is called Ferik Awwal, in Arabic فريق اول, which is considered the highest rank in Iraqi Army now a days. The North Korean rank of sangjang translates as colonel general, sangjang is senior to that of jungjang and junior to that of daejang. This rank is held by the commanding officer of units along the Korean DMZ. It is the rank held by the KPA Pyongyang Defense Commands commanding general, the rank of colonel general did not exist in Imperial Russia and was first established in the Red Army on 7 May 1940, as a replacement for previously existing командарм второго ранга.
During World War II, about 199 officers were promoted to colonel general, before 1943, Soviet colonel generals wore four stars on their collar patches. Since 1943, they have three stars on their shoulder straps, so Charles Pettibone compares the rank to the US lieutenant general. The rank still exists in the contemporary Russian Army, the combrig rank that corresponded to one-star general only existed in the Soviet Union during 1935–1940
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in an armed forces. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, the use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. These in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command combat, combat support and combat support formations. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work, in most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services, army and air force. Many countries have a variation on the model of three or four basic Armed Services. Some nations organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services, a nations coast guard may be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons, most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question.
Third-world armies tend to consist primarily of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and it is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of power from two or more branches of the military. It is common, at least in the European and North American militaries, to refer to the blocks of a military as commands, formations. In a military context, a command is a collection of units and it is not uncommon for a nations services to each consist of their own command, but this does not preclude the existence of commands which are not service-based. A formation is defined by the US Department of Defense as two or more aircraft, ships, or units proceeding together under a commander. The formations only differ in their ability to achieve different scales of application of force to achieve different strategic and tactical goals and it is a composite military organization that includes a mixture of integrated and operationally attached sub-units, and is usually combat-capable.
Example of formations include, brigades, wings, formation may refer to tactical formation, the physical arrangement or disposition of troops and weapons. Examples of formation in such usage include, panzerkeil, testudo formation, any unit subordinate to another unit is considered its sub-unit or minor unit. It is not uncommon for unit and formation to be used synonymously in the United States, in Commonwealth practice, formation is not used for smaller organizations like battalions which are instead called units, and their constituent platoons or companies are referred to as sub-units. In the Commonwealth, formations are divisions, etc, different armed forces, and even different branches of service of the armed forces, may use the same name to denote different types of organizations
22nd Mechanised Brigade (Ukraine)
The 22nd Mechanised Brigade was a formation of the Ukrainian Ground Forces from 2000 to 2003. However most of its historical traditions stem from the 66th Guards Rifle Division, originally a formation of the Red Army, Major General Akim Yakshin became Divisions new commander after Pavel Lagutin was promoted to Executive officer of the 21st Army. On February 7,1943 most of the Divisions units were renamed, on March 17,1943 the 66th was assigned to 6th Guards Rifle Corps, 1st Guards Army, Southwestern Front, from May 5,1943 the 66th was assigned to 5th Guards Army Steppe Military District. From May 9,1943 the 66th was with 32nd Guards Rifle Corps 5th Guards Army, during Battle of Kursk and Lower Dnepr strategic offensive operation the 66th was with 33rd Guards Rifle Corps 5th Guards Army, she was again assigned to 32nd Guards Corps. On September 23,1943 the 66th was awarded with the honorable name Poltava by Supreme Commander, by the end of October the 66th was with 53rd Army, 2nd Ukrainian Front.
On November 28,1943 Major General Sergey Frolov became new Divisions commander, on November 30,1943 the 66th was with 20th Guards Rifle Corps 4th Guards Army. On January 3,1944 66th was assigned to 48th Rifle Corps 53rd Army, while taking part in Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive Operation, 66th was with 75th Rifle Corps, she was assigned to 26th Guards Rifle Corps. On March 1,1943 66th was with 69th Army reserve of Stavka near Shpola Cherkasy Oblast, on April 11,1944 Division was relocated by rail to Zaporizhia with 1st Ukrainian Front. During Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive 66th was with 95th Rifle Corps 18th Army 1st Ukrainian Front, during the East Carpathian Strategic Offensive Operation the division was assigned to 18th Guards Rifle Corps 18th Army 4th Ukrainian Front. From September 16,1944, Division took part in Carpathian-Uzhgorod Offensive Operation, on November 14,1944 66th with 18th Guards Rifle Corps was assigned to 2nd Ukrainian Front where she took part in Battle of Budapest. On January 23,1943 66th was with 104th Rifle Corps 4th Guards Army 3rd Ukrainian Front, on April 5,1945 the Division was awarded Order of the Red Banner by Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
From April 15,1945 66th was with 21st Guards Rifle Corps 4th Guards Army, Division finished combat operations in Austria on May 8,1945 After Victory Day 66th with 27th Army from June 3 to August 23,1945 was relocating to Ukraine into Carpathian Military District. First base was in Haisyn Vinnytsia Oblast, from October 1946 Division was assigned to 38th Army in Chernivtsi. Division took part in Hungarian Revolution of 1956, on June 15,1957 66th Guards Rifle Division became 66th Guards Motor Rifle Division. On September 15,1960, 66th became 66th Guards Training Motor Rifle Division, in 1987, 66th Guards Training Motor Rifle Division became 110th Guards Separate Training Center for junior specialists of motor rifle troops of the Carpathian Military District. The Training Center became under Ukrainian control after Ukraine declared independence from the Soviet Union, on January 19,1992 the Training Center along with all other units stationed in Ukraine, pledged their allegiance to Ukrainian people.
In May 1992, the 110th Guards Districts Training Center was disbanded by the directive of the Ministry of Defense, on September 1,1992 a new 66th Mechanized Division started forming on the basis of units from the disbanded Training Center. A few units from the 17th Guards Motor Rifle Division were added to the Division, Division was a part of the 38th Army Corps Western Operational Command