Michael B. Donley
Michael Bruce Donley is a former senior United States government official, who served as the 22nd Secretary of the United States Air Force, amongst other positions. Donley has 30 years of experience in the security community, including service on the staff of the United States Senate, White House. Donley previously served as the Director of Administration and Management in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Donley was born in Novato, California. He earned his B. A. and M. A. in international relations from the University of Southern California and he attended the Program for Senior Executives in National Security at Harvard University. Donley served in the United States Army and he attended the Army’s Intelligence School, Airborne school, and Defense Language Institute. He served in the 18th Airborne Corps and 5th Special Forces Group, Donley was editor of the National Security Record for the Heritage Foundation in 1978 and part of 1979. He was a Legislative Assistant in the United States Senate from 1979 to 1981, Donley served as director of defense programs and Deputy Executive Secretary at the National Security Council from 1984 through 1989.
As Deputy Executive Secretary, he oversaw the White House Situation Room and chaired committees on crisis management procedures. Earlier, as Director of Defense Programs, Mr. Donley was the NSC representative to the Defense Resources Board, in 1989, Donley was appointed as the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force. In this position, he was responsible for preparing the Air Force budget, cost estimating of weapon systems, economic analysis and he served as Assistant Secretary until 1993, when he became Acting Secretary of the Air Force. Donley served as Acting Secretary for seven months until July 1993, after leaving the Air Force, Donley became a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Defense Analyses. He stayed at the Institute until 1996 when he became a Senior Vice President at Hicks and Associates, while there, he served as a Special Advisor to the United States Department of State for affairs in Bosnia-Herzegovina. On May 9,2005, United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld appointed Donley Director of Administration, in this position, he oversaw 1,300 employees who provide administrative and support services to the Department of Defenses Washington headquarters which includes The Pentagon.
He was responsible for the $5.5 billion Pentagon Renovation and Construction Program, on June 9,2008, Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates recommended that President George W. Bush nominate Donley to become the Secretary of the Air Force. Gates announced Donley would become the Acting Secretary of the Air Force effective on June 21,2008, the U. S. Senate confirmed his nomination as the 22nd Secretary of the Air Force on October 2,2008. Donley was reappointed as the Secretary of the Air Force by President Barack Obama in January 2009. S. Air Force and their families, the 180,000 members of the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve, Donley oversaw the annual budget of the Department of the Air Force, about $110 billion. Donley stated the requirements for fighter inventories have declined and F-22 program costs have risen, on April 26,2013, Donley announced plans to step down as the Secretary of the Air Force on June 21,2013
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel.
According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner.
Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source
Missing in action
Missing in action is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire. They may have killed, captured, or deserted. If deceased, neither their remains nor grave has been positively identified, becoming MIA has been an occupational risk for as long as there has been warfare or ceasefire. Until around 1912, service personnel in most countries were not routinely issued with ID tags, as a result, if someone was killed in action and his body was not recovered until much later, there was little or no chance of identifying the remains. Starting around the time of the First World War, nations began to issue their service personnel with purpose-made ID tags and these were usually made of some form of lightweight metal such as aluminium. However, in the case of the British Army the material chosen was compressed fiber, there could be administrative errors e. g. g. The forgotten mass grave at Fromelles, as a result, the remains of missing combatants might not be found for many years, if ever.
When missing combatants are recovered and cannot be identified after a thorough forensic examination the remains are interred with a tombstone which indicates their unknown status. Although it is possible to take samples from a close relative of the missing person. It is a fact of warfare that some combatants are likely to go missing in action, however, by wearing ID tags and using modern technology the numbers involved can be considerably reduced. In addition to the military advantages, conclusively identifying the remains of missing service personnel is highly beneficial to the surviving relatives. Having positive identification makes it easier to come to terms with their loss. Otherwise, some relatives may suspect that the person is still alive somewhere. However, many of these procedures are not typically used for combatants who are members of militias, mercenary armies, insurrections. It is possible some of the combatants who took part of the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC went missing in action.
Certainly, the wars which followed over successive centuries created many MIAs. The list is long and includes most battles which have ever fought by any nation. This made the difficult task of identification even harder
Charles G. Boyd
Charles Graham Boyd is a retired four-star general of the United States Air Force. Boyd is a decorated combat pilot who served in Vietnam and is the only Vietnam War prisoner of war to reach the four-star rank. His final Air Force assignment was as deputy commander in chief and he is a member of the guiding coalition of the Project on National Security Reform. Charles Graham Boyd was born on April 15,1938 near Rockwell City and he entered the United States Air Force in April 1959. Boyd received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Kansas in 1975 and his military education included attending the Air War College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama in 1977. In 1986, he participated in the Program for Senior Executives in National and International Security at Harvard University. Boyd was commissioned as a second lieutenant through the cadet program in July 1960 and served in a variety of assignments in Europe, the Pacific. A command pilot, with over 2,400 flight hours, he flew F-100s and he was shot down on April 22,1966 while on his 105th mission.
From 1966 to 1973, he was a prisoner of war and he was released on February 12,1973 as a part of Operation Homecoming. European Command, Stuttgart-Vaihingen, which was his final assignment. S, september 1980–June 1982, deputy assistant director for Joint and National Security Council matters, Headquarters U. S. Air Force, Washington, D. C. August 1989–January 1990, assistant deputy chief of staff for plans and operations, Headquarters U. S. Air Force, January 1990–October 1992, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama October 1992–August 1995, deputy commander in chief, U. S. He was promoted to major while a prisoner of war in Vietnam. Lieutenant Colonel, May 1,1975 Colonel, December 1,1979 Brigadier General, April 1,1985 Major General, November 1,1987 Lieutenant General, January 3,1990 General, General Boyd is the only Vietnam War POW to reach the four-star rank. From July 1998 he was director of the U. S. Commission on National Security for the 21st Century, whose report in January 2001 predicted a growing threat to the United States from terrorism.
He has served as vice president and Washington program director of the Council on Foreign Relations. From May 1,2002 until December 31,2009, he was the president and CEO of Business Executives for National Security, a national security public interest group. From December 14–17,2009, Boyd led a delegation from BENS to Pyongyang, North Korea, Boyd remains involved with BENS as a member of the Board of Directors
Medal of Honor
The medal is normally awarded by the President of the United States in the name of the U. S. Congress. There are three versions of the medal, one for the Army, one for the Navy, personnel of the Marine Corps and Coast Guard receive the Navy version. U. S. awards including the Medal of Honor do not have titles and while there is no official abbreviation. The Medal of Honor is the oldest continuously issued combat decoration of the United States armed forces, because the medal is presented in the name of Congress, it is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. However, the name is Medal of Honor, which began with the U. S. Armys version. Within United States Code the medal is referred to as the Medal of Honor, in 1990, Congress designated March 25 annually as National Medal of Honor Day. The capture saved the fort of West Point from the British Army, although the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse after the American Revolutionary War, the concept of a military award for individual gallantry by members of the U. S.
539 Certificates were approved for this period and this medal was replaced by the Army Distinguished Service Medal which was established on January 2,1918. Those Army members who held the Distinguished Service Medal in place of the Certificate of Merit could apply for the Army Distinguished Service Cross effective March 5,1934. There were no awards or medals at the beginning of the Civil War except for the Certificate of Merit which was awarded for the Mexican-American War. Scott however, was strictly against medals being awarded which was the European tradition, after Scott retired in October 1861, the Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, adopted the idea of a decoration to recognize and honor distinguished naval service. Senator James W. Secretary Wells directed the Philadelphia Mint to design the new military decoration, on May 15,1862, the United States Navy Department ordered 175 medals with the words Personal Valor on the back from the U. S. Mint in Philadelphia. Senator Henry Wilson, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, the resolution was approved by Congress and signed into law on July 12,1862.
During the war, Townsend would have some medals delivered to recipients with a letter requesting acknowledgement of the Medal of Honor. By mid-November the War Department contracted with Philadelphia silversmith William Wilson and Son, the Army version had The Congress to written on the back of the medal. Both versions were made of copper and coated with bronze, which gave them a reddish tint,1863, Congress made the Medal of Honor a permanent decoration. On March 3, Medals of Honor were authorized for officers of the Army, the Secretary of War first presented the Medal of Honor to six Union Army volunteers on March 25,1863 in his office. 1890, On April 23, the Medal of Honor Legion is established in Washington,1896, The ribbon of the Army version Medal of Honor was redesigned with all stripes being vertical
Day was a recipient of the Medal of Honor and the Air Force Cross. As of 2016, he is the person to be awarded both medals. Day was born in Sioux City, Iowa, on 24 February 1925, in 1942 he dropped out of Central High School and enlisted in the United States Marine Corps. After the war, Day attended Morningside College on the G. I, earning a bachelor of science degree, followed by law school at the University of South Dakota, receiving a Juris Doctor. Day passed the bar exam in 1949 and was admitted to the bar in South Dakota. In life, Day was awarded a Master of Arts degree from Saint Louis University, a doctor of letters from Morningside. Day was admitted to the Florida Bar in 1977 and he was discharged on 24 November 1945. On 11 December 1946, Day joined the Army Reserve, serving until 10 December 1949, on 17 May 1950, Day received a direct commission as a second lieutenant in the Iowa Air National Guard. He was called to duty on 15 March 1951 for undergraduate pilot training in the U. S. Air Force.
He was awarded his wings at Webb Air Force Base, Texas, in September 1952, continuing through December 1952 in All-Weather Interceptor School. From February 1953 to August 1955 during the Korean War, Day served two tours as a pilot, flying the Republic F-84 Thunderjet in the 559th Strategic Fighter Squadron. Promoted to captain, he decided to make the Air Force a career and was augmented into the Regular Air Force and he was assigned to the 55th Fighter Bomber Squadron. He trained to fly the F-100 Super Sabre in 1957 while stationed at Royal Air Force Wethersfield in the United Kingdom through June 1959. It was during this time that he had to bail out of a jet fighter without a parachute, Day was assistant professor of aerospace science at the Air Force ROTC detachment at Saint Louis University in St. Louis, from June 1959 to August 1963. Anticipating retirement in 1968 and now a major, Day volunteered for a tour in Vietnam and was assigned to the 31st Tactical Fighter Wing at Tuy Hoa Air Base in April 1967.
At that time, he had more than 5,000 flying hours, using the call sign Misty, the name of Days favorite song, his detachment of four two-seat F-100Fs and 16 pilots became pioneer Fast FACs over Laos and North Vietnam. All Misty FAC crews were volunteers with at least 100 combat missions in Vietnam and 1,000 minimum flight hours, tours in Commando Sabre were temporary and normally limited to four months or about 60 missions. On 26 August 1967, Major Day was flying F-100F-15-NA, AF Serial No, Day was on his 65th mission into North Vietnam and acting as check pilot for Captain Corwin M. Kipp Kippenhan, who was upgrading to aircraft commander
It was the last official battle of the Vietnam War. The names of the Americans killed, as well as those of three U. S, Marines who were left behind on the island of Koh Tang after the battle and were subsequently executed by the Khmer Rouge, are the last names on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The merchant ships crew, whose seizure at sea had prompted the U. S. attack, had released in good health. Marines or the U. S. command of the operation before they attacked, the Marines boarded and recaptured the ship anchored offshore a Cambodian island, finding it empty. The U. S. did not recognize 12 nautical miles territorial waters claims at that time, recognizing only 3 nautical miles, at 14,18, a Khmer Rouge naval forces Swift Boat was sighted approaching the Mayaguez. Captain Miller ordered the transmission of an SOS and stopped the ship, seven Khmer Rouge soldiers boarded the Mayaguez and their leader, Battalion Commander Sa Mean, pointed at a map indicating that the ship should proceed to the east of Poulo Wai.
One of the crew members broadcast a Mayday which was picked up by an Australian vessel, the Mayaguez arrived off Poulo Wai at approximately 16,00 and a further 20 Khmer Rouge boarded the vessel. Sa Mean indicated that the Mayaguez should proceed to Ream on the Cambodian mainland, Sa Mean radioed his superiors and was apparently instructed to stay at Poulo Wai, dropping anchor at 16,55. The Mayaguez was carrying 107 containers of cargo,77 containers of government and military cargo. The Khmer Rouge never inspected the containers, and exact contents have not been disclosed, the captain had a U. S. government envelope only to be opened in special circumstances, which he destroyed. The Mayaguezs SOS and Mayday signals were picked up by a number of listeners including an employee of Delta Exploration Company in Jakarta, Indonesia, by 05,12 Eastern Daylight Time the first news of the incident reached the National Military Command Center in Washington D. C. President Gerald Ford was informed of the seizure of the Mayaguez at his morning briefing with his deputy assistant for security affairs.
At 12,05 EDT, a meeting of the National Security Council was convened to discuss the situation, the NMCC ordered Admiral Noel Gayler, Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Command, to launch reconnaissance aircraft to locate the Mayaguez. S. s reputation. It was determined that keeping the Mayaguez and its crew away from the Cambodian mainland was essential, following the NSC meeting the White House issued a press release stating that President Ford considered the seizure an act of piracy, though this claim did not have foundation in maritime law. Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger ordered the military to locate the Mayaguez and prevent its movement to the Cambodian mainland, Kissinger instructed George H. W. Bush, head of the U. S. If that release does not immediately take place, the authorities in Phnom Penh will be responsible for the consequences, the aircraft carrier USS Coral Sea, en route to Australia, was ordered into the area. The destroyer escort Harold E. Holt and the missile destroyer Henry B.
Wilson were both ordered to proceed at high speed from the Philippine Sea towards the Mayaguezs last known location. An alert order was sent to 1st Battalion 4th Marines at Subic Bay, a reinforced company from 1/4 Marines was ordered to assemble at Naval Air Station Cubi Point for airlift to Thailand, while an 1100-man Battalion Landing Team assembled in Okinawa
Leland T. Kennedy
Leland Thornton Lee Kennedy was a career officer and pilot in the United States Air Force, and a highly decorated veteran of the Vietnam War. Kennedy flew the EC-121 Warning Star during the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy is one of only four airmen to receive multiple awards of the Air Force Cross. Kennedy received the Silver Star, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal with five oak leaf clusters, after 30 years of service, Kennedy retired at Langley AFB, Virginia, in 1985. From Kennedys obituary, Leland Thornton Kennedy, age 69, of Yorktown, died peacefully Sunday, December 28,2003, Kennedy was born January 1,1934, in Louisville, Kentucky, to Edith and William Kennedy. He graduated from the University of Kentucky, Lexington, in 1955, after retirement, Kennedy served his community as a member of the York/Poquoson Social Service Board, and served as Chairman of that organization for three years. In addition, he incorporated his interest in woodworking and miniature ship building into his own business, Why Knot, in recent years, Kennedy joined his love of family and his interest in history by researching the genealogical history of his family.
He leaves to cherish his memory his loving bride of almost 50 years, Harriet June, after completing Undergraduate Pilot Training at Vance Air Force Base, Kennedy entered helicopter training and completed it in March 1957. He was next assigned to the 963rd Airborne Early Warning and Control Squadron, 552nd AEWC Wing at McClellan Air Force Base, standard operating procedures dispatched an airborne controller aircraft, two helicopters, and two to four A-1H Sandys tasked as rescue escort on recovery missions. The force was divided into two elements, with the initial recovery helicopter designated as Jolly Low and the backup as Jolly High. The ResCAP flight was divided as Sandy Low and Sandy High. His crew consisted of copilot 1st Lt. Donald R. Harris, Donald J. Hall, and pararescueman A2C Robert B. The rescue location was 300 miles distant inside North Vietnam, in a box canyon 20 miles northeast of Nà Sản, the F-4 had been an escort fighter for a pair of EB-66 electronic countermeasures aircraft, and had been shot down by a MiG-21.
Kennedy had not yet performed a rescue and so received assignment as Jolly High, while Jolly Green 36, piloted by Capt. Oliver E. OMara. In the rescue area two A-1 Sandys, after several strafing runs to drive off approaching troops, drew no fire on a low pass over the area. OMara crested a ridgeline into the canyon and lowered his hoist to pick up the F-4s aircraft commander, Tempest 03A and his helicopter was immediately hit from above by small arms fire, forcing OMara to pull out. Tempest 03A on his last transmission radioed that he had hit in the chest. OMara made two rescue attempts in the badly damaged HH-3E before his hoist was knocked out, forcing him to return to base. OMara was awarded the Air Force Cross in 1969 for his efforts, on the first try, his aircraft was hit and both enlisted men slightly wounded
Duane D. Hackney
He served in the Air Force from 1965 to 1991, retiring as a Chief Master Sergeant. A recipient of the Air Force Cross, he was the first living enlisted man to receive the medal, three days after reporting for duty, Hackney flew his first combat mission. Somewhere on that mission, a. 30-caliber slug buried itself in his leg, to avoid being grounded by the medics, he had one of his PJ friends remove the slug with a probe. That incident set the tone for the more than 200 combat missions he was to fly during his three and a years of Vietnam duty, all as a volunteer. Five times in the months ahead, his helicopter was shot down and he doesnt recall how often he went down into the jungle looking for survivors or how many lives his medical training helped him save. Then came the Air Force Cross, for which he was the first living recipient, the Silver Star, the Airmans Medal, the Purple Heart, and several foreign decorations. Hackneys most celebrated mission was on February 6,1967, when two HH-3 helicopters, Jolly Green 05 and Jolly Green 36, launched from the 37th ARRS at Da Nang Air Base, Republic of Vietnam.
They were attempting the recovery of a downed O-1F pilot, Nail 65, near the Mu Gia Pass, after Airman Hackney made one unsuccessful trip to the ground in search of the pilot, both Jollys returned to base due to foul weather. Later in the day, the helicopters launched again and located the survivor, Airman Hackney was lowered to the ground, and after securing the survivor into the Stokes litter, both were lifted out. No sooner did they reach Jolly 05s door when ground fire erupted, as they raced to exit the area, the helicopter was hit with a 37 mm anti-aircraft round and caught fire. With complete disregard for his own welfare, Airman Hackney removed his parachute and he lunged to grab another one from storage as the helicopter, a growing, blazing fireball, arched across the sky. In an instant, it exploded, just as Airman Hackney slipped his arms through the harness and he was blown out of Jolly 05 by the explosion. Dangling from the harness, he managed to pull the ripcord and the chute opened just as he hit the trees and he narrowly avoided capture while enemy troops jumped across the crevasse, mere feet above.
Jolly 36 immediately made a run in to any survivors, and. Hackney went on to more than 70 individual awards becoming the most decorated enlisted man in Air Force history. He was the winner of the Cheney Award for 1967, the Cheney award is given annually to a member of USAF for an act of valor, extreme fortitude, or self-sacrifice in a humanitarian interest performed in conjunction with aircraft. Upon his return from Vietnam in 1967, Hackney was deployed to the 41st Aerospace Rescue & Recovery Squadron at Hamilton Air Force Base, in Marin County, California. Shortly after the awarding of his Air Force Cross on September 9,1967, in 1991 he retired as a Chief Master Sergeant