Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.
In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776.
The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city
Third Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Its southern end is at Astor Place and St and it transitions into Cooper Square, and further south, the Bowery, Chatham Square, and Park Row. The Manhattan side ends at East 128th Street, Third Avenue is two-way from Cooper Square to 24th Street, but since July 17,1960 has carried only northbound traffic while in Manhattan, in the Bronx, it is again two-way. S. It is one of the four streets that form The Hub, like most urban streets, Third Avenue was unpaved until the late 19th century. The business-like air with which they marched rapidly through the mud of the Third-avenue was the more remarkable. Portions of Third Avenue are served by several routes in Manhattan, buses serving Third Avenue include the Third and Lexington Avenues Line. Note that southbound M98, M101, M102, and M103 service operates on Lexington Avenue north of East 24th Street, it was served by the Third Avenue elevated line, which operated from 1878 until 1955 in Manhattan, and 1973 in the Bronx.
The Bx55 replaced the Third Avenue Line in the Bronx in 1973, at the time the El was being torn down in Manhattan, there was a movement to rename the whole of Third Avenue in Manhattan the Bouwerie, although it had never been part of the Bowery. Today, the Third Avenue – 149th Street station, Third Avenue – 138th Street station, and the Third Avenue stations all are served by the New York City Subway
Upper West Side
The Upper West Side is sometimes considered by the real estate industry to include the neighborhood of Morningside Heights. Like the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is an affluent, primarily residential area with many of its residents working in areas of Midtown. Conversely, the Upper East Side is traditionally perceived to be home to commercial, the Upper West Side, along with the Upper East Side, is considered to be among New York Citys wealthiest neighborhoods. Upper West Side is bounded on the south by 59th Street, Central Park to the east, and its northern boundary is somewhat less obvious. Although it has historically been cited as 110th Street, which fixes the neighborhood alongside Central Park, it is now considered to be 125th Street. The area north of West 96th Street and east of Broadway is identified as Manhattan Valley, the overlapping area west of Amsterdam Avenue to Riverside Park was once known as the Bloomingdale District. From west to east, the avenues of the Upper West Side are Riverside Drive, West End Avenue, Amsterdam Avenue, Columbus Avenue, with the building of Lincoln Center, its name, though perhaps not the reality, was stretched south to 58th Street.
This is a reversion to the historical name. The long high bluff above useful sandy coves along the North River was little used or traversed by the Lenape people, in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the Upper West Side-to-be contained some of colonial New Yorks most ambitious houses, spaced along Bloomingdale Road. It became increasingly infilled with smaller, more villas in the first half of the nineteenth century. Its name was a derivation of the given to the area by Dutch settlers to New Netherland, likely from Bloemendaal. The Dutch Anglicized the name to Bloomingdale or the Bloomingdale District and it consisted of farms and villages along a road known as the Bloomingdale Road. Bloomingdale Road was renamed The Boulevard in 1868, as the farms and villages were divided into building lots, by the 18th century it contained numerous farms and country residences of many of the citys well-off, a major parcel of which was the Apthorp Farm. Within the confines of the modern-day Upper West Side, the road passed through areas known as Harsenville, Stryckers Bay, Bloomingdale, in the latter half of the 19th century, was the name of a village that occupied the area just south of 110th street.
Much of the riverfront of the Upper West Side was a shipping, the Hudson River Railroad line right-of-way was granted in the late 1830s to connect New York City to Albany, and soon ran along the riverbank. One major non-industrial development, the creation of Central Park in the 1850s and 60s, parts of the neighborhood became a ragtag collection of squatters housing, boarding houses, and rowdy taverns. In 1868, the city began straightening and grading the section of the Bloomingdale Road from Harsenville north and it retained that name until the end of the century, when the name Broadway finally supplanted it. Development of the neighborhood lagged even while Central Park was being out in the 1860s and 70s
In practice, a diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the office of a countrys diplomatic representatives in the capital city of another country. As well as being a mission to the country in which it is situated. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies, a permanent diplomatic mission is typically known as an Embassy, and the head of the mission is known as an Ambassador, or High Commissioner. Therefore, the Embassy operates in the Chancery, European Union missions abroad are known as EU delegations. Some countries have more particular naming for their missions and staff, under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, Libyas missions used the name peoples bureau and the head of the mission was a secretary. Missions between Commonwealth countries are known as commissions and their heads are High Commissioners. This is because Ambassadors are exchanged between foreign countries, but since the beginning of the Commonwealth, member countries have maintained that they are not foreign to one another.
An ambassador represents one head of state to another and a letters of credence are addressed by one head of state to another. Until India became a republic on 26 January 1950, all members of the Commonwealth had the head of state. In the past a diplomatic mission headed by an official was known as a legation. Since the ranks of envoy and minister resident are effectively obsolete, a consulate is similar to, but not the same as a diplomatic office, but with focus on dealing with individual persons and businesses, as defined by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. A consulate or consulate general is generally a representative of the embassy in locales outside of the capital city. For instance, the United Kingdom has its Embassy of the United Kingdom in Washington, D. C. but maintains seven consulates-general, the person in charge of a consulate or consulate-general is known as a consul or consul-general, respectively. Similar services may be provided at the embassy in what is called a consular section.
In cases of dispute, it is common for a country to recall its head of mission as a sign of its displeasure, a chargé daffaires ad interim heads the mission during the interim between the end of one chief of missions term and the beginning of another. Contrary to popular belief, most diplomatic missions do not enjoy full extraterritorial status, the premises of diplomatic missions usually remain under the jurisdiction of the host state while being afforded special privileges by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Diplomats themselves still retain full diplomatic immunity, and the host country may not enter the premises of the mission without permission of the represented country, international rules designate an attack on an embassy as an attack on the country it represents. The term extraterritoriality is often applied to missions, but normally only in this broader sense
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Park Avenue is a wide New York City boulevard which carries north and southbound traffic in the borough of Manhattan, and is a wide one-way pair in the Bronx. For most of the length in Manhattan, it runs parallel to Madison Avenue to the west. Park Avenues entire length was formerly called Fourth Avenue, the title applies to the section between the Bowery and 14th Street. Meanwhile, the section between 14th and 17th Street is called Union Square East, and between 17th and 32nd Streets, the name Park Avenue South is used, in the Bronx, Park Avenue runs in several segments between the Major Deegan Expressway and Fordham Road. Park Avenue was originally known as Fourth Avenue and carried the tracks of the New York, the railroad originally ran through an open cut through Murray Hill, which was covered with grates and grass between 34th and 40th Street in the early 1850s. A section of park was renamed Park Avenue in 1860. When Grand Central Depot was opened in the 1870s, the tracks between 56th and 93rd Streets were sunk out of sight and, in 1888, Park Avenue was extended to north of Grand Central.
In 1936 the elevated Park Avenue Viaduct was built around the station to allow traffic to pass unimpeded. In October 1937, a part of the Murray Hill Tunnel was reopened for road traffic, efforts to promote a Grand Park Avenue Expressway to Grand Concourse in the Bronx were unavailing. A tradition was introduced in 1945 as a memorial to American soldiers killed in action, on May 5,1959, the New York City Council voted 20–1 to change the name of Fourth Avenue between 17th and 32nd Streets to Park Avenue South. In 1963, the Pan Am Building, straddling Park Avenue atop Grand Central Terminal, was built between the automotive viaducts, on March 12,2014, two apartment buildings near 116th Street,1644 and 1646 Park Avenue, were destroyed in a gas explosion. Eight people were killed and many others were injured, the road that becomes Park Avenue originates as the Bowery. From Cooper Square at 8th Street to Union Square at 14th Street, it is known as Fourth Avenue, at 14th Street, it turns slightly northeast to align with other avenues drawn up in the Commissioners Plan of 1811.
From 17th Street to 32nd Street, it is known as Park Avenue South, above 32nd Street, for the remainder of its distance, it is known as Park Avenue, a 140-foot-wide boulevard. Between 33rd Street and 40th Street, the northbound lane descends into the Murray Hill Tunnel. The bridge, one of two structures in Manhattan known as the Park Avenue Viaduct, returns to level at 46th Street after going through the Helmsley Building. The IRT Lexington Avenue Line runs under this portion of the street, once the line reaches Grand Central – 42nd Street, it shifts east to Lexington Avenue. From 47th to 97th Streets, Metro-North Railroad tracks run in a tunnel underneath Park Avenue, in the 1920s the portion of Park Avenue from Grand Central Terminal to 96th Street saw extensive apartment building construction
77th Street (IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
77th Street is a local station on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, located at the intersection of Lexington Avenue and 77th Street on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. It is served by the 6 at all times, the <6> during weekdays in peak direction, and this station has two local tracks and two side platforms. The express tracks of the Lexington Avenue Line, used by the 4 and 5 trains during daytime hours, both platforms has a fare control, and both areas have a turnstile bank, and four staircases to the street. The northbound side leads to the east side of Lexington Avenue while the side leads to the west side. There are no crossovers or crossunders to allow transfers between directions. The downtown platform is the platform in the station to house a token booth. The uptown platform token booth was closed by the MTA after making a series of layoffs and has been removed, some old wall lights exist after the stations renovation in 2003, but most are gone or falling off the walls.
Both platforms have emergency exits from the lower level express tracks, the 2004 artwork here is called 4 Seasons Seasoned by Robert Kushner. It is installed on the ceiling above the fare control staircases and features related to the four seasons of the year. Lenox Hill Hospital Hunter College School of Social Work Media related to 77th Street at Wikimedia Commons nycsubway. org – IRT East Side Line, 77th Street nycsubway
IRT Lexington Avenue Line
The Lexington Avenue Line is one of the lines of the IRT division of the New York City Subway, stretching from Downtown Brooklyn or Lower Manhattan north to 125th Street in East Harlem. The portion in Lower and Midtown Manhattan was part of the citys first subway line, the line is served by the 456 <6> trains. Its average of 1.3 million daily riders is more than the total riderships of the systems of San Francisco, Chicago. Four stations along this line have been abandoned, when platforms were lengthened to fit ten cars, it was deemed most beneficial to close these stations and open new entrances for adjacent stations. The 18th Street station was abandoned because of the proximity to both 14th Street–Union Square and 23rd Street. In addition, the City Hall and Worth Street stations were very close to the Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall stations Brooklyn Bridge and Duane Street exits, respectively. Finally, South Ferry is within walking distance of Bowling Green, services that use the Lexington Avenue Line are colored apple green.
The following services use part or all of the Lexington Avenue Line, north of the station is a merge with the tracks of the Joralemon Street Tunnel from Brooklyn, which become the express tracks. These run north under Broadway and Park Row to Centre Street, at the south end of Centre Street, directly under New York City Hall, is the City Hall Loop and its abandoned station, which was the southern terminus of the original IRT subway line. The loop is used to turn 6 and <6> service, the Lexington Avenue local tracks. From Brooklyn Bridge, the continues northward in a four-across track layout under Centre Street, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue. Just south of Grand Central, a single track connects the IRT 42nd Street Shuttle to the southbound local track. 125th Street returns to this layout, although here the upper level is used by all northbound trains. This is because Lexington Avenue is too narrow to have a four-across layout, construction started on the first IRT line in 1900. A1902 explosion during construction seriously damaged properties just above the line, the part of the line from City Hall to just south of 42nd Street was part of the original IRT line, opened on October 27,1904.
A0.3 mile extension to Fulton Street opened at 12,01 a. m. on January 16,1905. Only the northbound platform opened at this time The next station, Wall Street, was opened on June 12,1905 as well as the southbound platform at Fulton Street. The first revenue train on the South Ferry extension left South Ferry at 11,59 p. m. on July 9,1905, the first train ran through the Joralemon Street Tunnel to Brooklyn about 12,45 a. m. on January 9,1908
Robert Indiana, born Robert Clark, is an American artist associated with the pop art movement. His LOVE print, first created for the Museum of Modern Arts Christmas card in 1965, was the basis for the widely distributed 1973 United States Postal Service LOVE stamp and his media include paper and Cor-ten steel sculpture. Robert Indiana was born Robert Clark in New Castle, Indiana and he spent the first 17 years of his life living in Indiana moving frequently between cities and eventually lived in 21 different homes. After his parents divorced, he relocated to Indianapolis to live with his father so he could attend Arsenal Technical High School and he returned to America in 1954 and settled in New York City. There he began making art with his hard edge style. Indianas work often consists of bold, iconic images, especially numbers and short words like EAT, HUG, in his EAT series, the word blares in paint or light bulbs against a neutral background, he regularly paired “EAT” with “DIE”. In a major milestone, the architect Philip Johnson commissioned an EAT sign for the New York State Pavilion at the 1964 New York Worlds Fair.
The sign was turned off one day after the opening of the fair because visitors believed it to mark a restaurant, Andy Warhols contribution to the fair was removed that day. Between 1989 and 1994, Indiana painted a series of 18 canvases inspired by the shapes and numbers in the war motifs paintings that Marsden Hartley did in Berlin between 1913–15. Indiana has been a set and costume designer, such as the 1976 production by the Santa Fe Opera of Virgil Thomsons The Mother of Us All. He was the star of Andy Warhols film Eat, which is a 45-minute film of Indiana eating a mushroom, warhol made the brief silent film Bob Indiana Etc. a portrait of the artist with appearances by Wynn Chamberlain and John Giorno. In 1964, Indiana moved from Coenties Slip to a building at Spring Street. Half a century earlier, Marsden Hartley had made his escape to the same island, when Elisofon died in 1973, Indiana bought the lodge for $10,000 from his estate. He moved in full-time when he lost his lease on the Bowery in 1978, since 1978, he has lived as a resident of Vinalhaven.
Indianas best known image is the word Love in upper-case letters, the iconography first appeared in a series of poems originally written in 1958, in which Indiana stacked LO and VE on top of one another. Then in a painting with the words Love is God, the red/green/blue image was created for a Christmas card for the Museum of Modern Art in 1964. It was put on an eight-cent U. S. Postal Service postage stamp in 1973, the first serigraph/silk screen of Love was printed as part of an exhibition poster for Stable Gallery in 1966. A few examples of the image, in bold blue
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery