The operation formed part of the ongoing Battle of Stalingrad, and was aimed at destroying German forces in and around Stalingrad. Planning for Operation Uranus had commenced in September 1942, and was developed simultaneously with plans to envelop and destroy German Army Group Center and these Axis armies lacked heavy equipment to deal with Soviet armor. The situation was exacerbated by the German decision to relocate several mechanized divisions from the Soviet Union to Western Europe, units in the area were depleted after months of fighting, especially those which took part in the fighting in Stalingrad. In comparison, the Red Army deployed over one million personnel for the purpose of beginning the offensive in, Soviet troop movements were not without problems, due to the difficulties of concealing their build-up, and to Soviet units commonly arriving late due to logistical issues. Operation Uranus was first postponed from 8 to 17 November, to 19 November, at 07,20 Moscow time on 19 November, Soviet forces on the northern flank of the Axis forces at Stalingrad began their offensive, forces in the south began on 20 November.
By late 22 November Soviet forces linked up at the town of Kalach, instead of attempting to break out of the encirclement, German dictator Adolf Hitler decided to keep Axis forces in Stalingrad and resupply them by air. In the meantime and German commanders began to plan their next movements, on 28 June 1942, the Wehrmacht began its offensive against Soviet forces opposite of Army Group South, codenamed Case Blue. After breaking through Red Army forces by 13 July, German forces encircled and captured the city of Rostov. The responsibility to take Stalingrad was given to the Sixth Army, the following day, the Battle of Stalingrad began when vanguards of the Sixth Army penetrated the suburbs of the city. By November the Sixth Army had occupied most of Stalingrad, pushing the defending Red Army to the banks of the Volga River, the German command was intent upon finalizing its capture of Stalingrad. Ultimately, command of Soviet efforts to relieve Stalingrad was put under the leadership of General Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Operation Uranus involved the use of large Soviet mechanized and infantry forces to encircle German and other Axis forces directly around Stalingrad.
For example, in early July the Sixth Army was defending a 160-kilometer line, Army Group B had the 48th Panzer Corps, which had the strength of a weakened panzer division, and a single infantry division as reserves. For the most part the German flanks were held by arriving non-German Axis armies, while German forces were used to spearhead continued operations in Stalingrad, their 37-millimeter PaK anti-tank guns were antiquated and they were largely short of ammunition. Only after repeated requests did the Germans send the Romanian units 75-millimeter PaK guns, the Italians and Hungarians were positioned at the Don west of the Third Romanian Army, but the German commanders did not hold in high regard the capability of those units to fight. The Sixth Army had suffered casualties during the fighting in the city of Stalingrad proper. In some cases, such as that of the 22nd Panzer Division, German formations were overextended along large stretches of front, the XI Army Corps, for example, had to defend a front around 100 kilometers long.
The Red Army allocated an estimated 1,100,000 personnel,804 tanks,13,400 artillery pieces and over 1,000 aircraft for the upcoming offensive. Across the Third Romanian Army, the Soviets placed the redeployed 5th Tank Army, as well as the 21st and 65th Armies, in order to penetrate, in total, the Soviets had amassed 11 armies and various independent tank brigades and corps
Aleksey Semenovich Zhadov
For his leadership of the army, Zhadov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Postwar, Zhadov commanded the Central Group of Forces and was deputy commander of the Soviet Ground Forces, aleksey Zhadov was born on 30 March 1901 in the village of Nikolskoye in what is now Sverdlovsk district of Orel Oblast. He joined the Red Army in 1919 and fought in the Russian Civil War and he graduated from the Frunze Military Academy in 1934, and in 1940 he took command of a cavalry division. Having primarily served in the Red Armys cavalry branch for 21 years, the next day on 25 June, he left on train for Minsk, the capital of Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. On the train, he met Colonel Nikolai Naumenko, who was en route to the headquarters of the Western Fronts Air Force, after a German air raid while the train was in Orsha, further transportation on the railway was cancelled. He and Naumenko at night continued in a car to Borisov. They often got slowed down by heavy traffic moving in the opposite direction, on 27 June, the panzer groups of the German Army Group Center reached the outskirts of Minsk.
Zhadov and Naumenko, instead of continuing to Minsk from Borisov, the forces of the Western Front were being mauled by German forces of Army Group Center in the Battle of Białystok–Minsk. Minsk fell to the German panzer groups of Army Group Center on 28 June, at first, he couldnt locate his unit, but after a few more trials, he made contact and joined the unit on the night of 29 June. In Zhadovs absence, the corps Chief of Staff Colonel Alexander Fedorovich Kazankin had been commanding the unit, on 30 June, the 214th Airborne Brigade began their attack, but since its paratroopers lacked the aircraft necessary to launch the airborne assault they deployed on trucks. The brigade failed to link up with the 20th Mechanized Corps, the remnants of the brigade fought on for 3 months in the German rear and in the frontlines alongside other Soviet units. Throughout the first week of July, the 7th and 8th Airborne Brigades of the 4th Airborne Corps dug-in and defended along the banks of Berezina River.
But by 7 July, the German 3rd and 4th Panzer Divisions had reached the Dnieper River far to the rear of Zhadovs two airborne brigades, which still held their positions along the Berezina River. Therefore, Zhadovs units withdrew towards the Dnieper River to avoid being cut off. On 28 September the survivors reunited with their parent corps at Engel Air Base near Moscow, starting on 2 August 1941, he served as the Chief of Staff of the 3rd Army, which was commanded by Lieutenant General Vasily Kuznetsov. He participated in the Battle of Moscow, in May 1942 he took command of the 8th Cavalry Corps of the Bryansk Front. In October 1942 he took command of the 66th Army of the Don Front and his army took part in the Battle of Stalingrad, during which on 25 November 1942 he changed his surname from Zhidov to Zhadov on Joseph Stalins request, because the name sounded Jewish. Aleksey Zhadov was in reality ethnically Slav, Zhadovs 66th Army was renamed the 5th Guards Army for its bravery and tenacity displayed at Stalingrad
Volgograd, formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometers long, north to south and is situated on the bank of the Volga River, after which the city was named. The city became famous for its resistance during the Battle of Stalingrad against the German Army in World War II and it is often regarded as the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare. Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn located at the confluence of the Tsaritsa, grigori Zasekin established the fortress Sary Su as part of the defences of the unstable southern border of the Tsardom of Russia. The structure stood slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank and it soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement. In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled against the troops of Tsar Vasili Shuisky for six months, in 1608 the city acquired its first stone church, St.
John the Baptist. At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350 to 400 people, in 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress, they left after a month. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin held the fortress, in 1717 in the Kuban pogrom, raiders from the Kuban under the command of the Crimean Tatar Bakhti Gerai blockaded the town and enslaved thousands in the area. In August 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city, in 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan Governorate, in 1719 to the Astrakhan Governorate. According to the census in 1720, the city had a population of 408 people, in 1773 the city became the provincial and district town. From 1779 it belonged to the Saratov Viceroyalty, in 1780 the city came under the newly established Saratov Governorate. In the 19th century Tsaritsyn became an important river-port and commercial center, the population expanded rapidly, increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900.
The first railroad reached the town in 1862, the first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsyn got its first tram-line, and the citys first electric lights were installed in the city center, during the Russian Civil War of 1917-1923, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918 White troops under the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, Pyotr Krasnov, the Reds repulsed three assaults by the Whites. However, in June 1919 the White Armed Forces of South Russia under the command of General Denikin captured Tsaritsyn, the fighting from July 1918 to January 1920 became known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn. The city was renamed Stalingrad after Joseph Stalin on April 10,1925 and this was officially to recognize the citys and Stalins role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920. In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta became a district of Stalingrad, renamed Krasnoarmeysky Rayon, it became the largest area of the city
A field army is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Likewise, air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces, a field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are named or numbered to distinguish them from army in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as First Army, whereas corps are usually distinguished by Roman numerals. A field army may be given a name in addition to or as an alternative to a numerical name, such as the British Army of the Rhine. The term is derived from the fact that they were commanded by Roman emperors, while the Roman comitatensis is sometimes translated as field army, it may be translated as the more generic field force or mobile force. In some armed forces, an army is or has been equivalent to a corps-level unit, prior to 1945, this was the case with a gun within the Imperial Japanese Army, for which the formation equivalent in size to a field army was an area army.
In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Forces, an army was subordinate in wartime to a front and it contained at least three to five divisions along with artillery, air defense and other supporting units. In peacetime, a Soviet army was subordinate to a military district. Modern field armies are large formations which vary significantly between armed forces in size and scope of responsibility. For instance, within NATO a field army is composed of a headquarters, a battle is influenced at the field army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. NATO armies are controlled by a general or lieutenant general, Military unit Military history List of numbered armies
22nd Army (Russia)
The 22nd Army was a field army of the Russian Ground Forces, part of the Moscow Military District. It was active from 1941 to 1945 and from 1990 to 2009, the order for the formations dissolution was signed by the Minister of Defence on 1 June 2009. The 22nd Army was first formed in June 1941 after the German invasion of the Soviet Union and it was reformed in 1990 as the 22nd Guards Army from a rifle corps. Headquarters was at Velikiye Luki by 22 June 1941, and General Lieutenant F. A. Yershakov took command, lenski notes that it was made part of the Group of armies of the Reserve of the Main Command. On July 16,1941, the Germans managed to surround the 51st Rifle Corps, 48th Tank Division joined the Army by August 1,1941. General Major V. A. Yushkevich again took command in April 1942, 3rd Mechanised Corps under General Major M. Ye. Katukov joined the Army in September 1942 when it was formed, the Armys task as part of Operation Mars was as part of what in Soviet parlance was the Bely Offensive Operation in conjunction with 39th Army.
Early on 25 November, 22nd Army, with over 50,000 men and 270 tanks of 3rd Mechanised Corps, attacking along a narrow corridor flanked by forests and frozen swamps, Soviet forces tore a gaping hole through German defences and drove German forces eastward up the valley. The combined force routed a regiment of the German 86th Infantry Division, in 1943, the Army fought as part of the North-Western Front since April 21, from October 13 as part of the Baltic Front, which became 2nd Baltic Front on October 20,1943. 22nd Army defended the river Lovat, and participated in operations at Kholm, Velikiye Luki, Leningrad-Novgorod, Staraya Russa–Novorzhev and it took part in the Riga Offensive Operation, part of the Baltic Offensive. Since October 1944, together with the armies of the Front it carried out the blockade of the German Army Group Courland in the Courland Pocket. Immediately after the war ended, its HQ along with the 109th Rifle Division arrived in the South Ukraine in May 1945. In the Northern summer of 1945, together with the headquarters of the Separate Coastal Army, located in the Crimea, it was reorganised as the new and it arrived in the Odessa/Tavria area with the 83rd Rifle Corps, the 100th Rifle Corps, and the 110th Rifle Corps.
Seemingly all these forces, except the 48th Rifle Division, were disestablished rather quickly in 1945-46, Major General, D. M. Seleznev, Major General, G. P. Korotkov, Lieutenant General. However, manpower levels were low, the divisions were reported to be at an establishment of 2,193 each. Also, the 166th Motor Rifle Brigade has now reduced to a storage base as the 70th Base for Storage of Weapons
7th Army (Soviet Union)
The Soviet Red Armys 7th Army first saw action in the 1939–40 Winter War against Finland. In November 1939, just before the initial Soviet attack, it consisted of the 19th Rifle Corps, 50th Rifle Corps, 10th Tank Corps, 138th Rifle Division, and an independent tank brigade. The Army was first under Commander Yakovlev, but he was removed from command of his army, command of the war operation Kirill Meretskov was called-off due to extensive failures and heavy casualties, and he replaced Yakovlev as the commander of the Seventh Army. 7th Army was reformed in Autumn 1940 in the Leningrad Military District, before the German Operation Barbarossa began it covered the Soviet frontier to the north of Lake Ladoga. Since 24 June 1941 the army included the 54th, 71st, 168th and 237th Rifle Divisions, the 26th Fortified Region, the 55th Composite Aviation Division, and some artillery and engineering formations. It became part of the Northern Front, the Karelian Front, on 25 September 1941 it was renamed the 7th Separate Army, directly subordinate to Stavka, and it remained in that status until February 1944.
In the middle of October 1941 – June 1944 it defended the Svir River line between Lakes Onega and Ladoga and it was disbanded in the beginning of January 1945. On the basis of its headquarters the 9th Guards Army of the Airborne Forces was created on 18 December 1944, the armys second formation was commanded by the following officers. White Death, Russias War on Finland 1939–40