Qurghonteppa or Kurganteppa, formerly known as Kurgan-Tyube, is a city in southwestern Tajikistan. It is the capital of the Khatlon region and it is located 100 km from Dushanbe and it is estimated that the population of the city is close to 102,000 people, making it the third-largest city in the country. The population fluctuates depending on season, along with the capital Dushanbe, Qurghonteppa is demographically much more diverse than other major Tajik cities such as Khujand, Kulob or Istaravshan. Ethnicities include Tajiks, Russians, Ukrainians, Greeks, the city had a large number of ethnic Russians who were actively employed by the industrial and agricultural complexes in and around the city. The political opposition in Tajikistan primarily comes from Qurghonteppa, Qurghonteppa was seriously damaged during the civil war in 1992-1997, during and after that war 85% of the Russians left the city. Qurghonteppa International Airport serves a handful of cities in Tajikistan, the city is considered to be the heart of cotton cultivation in Tajikistan.
Qurghonteppa and Kulob are the cities of south Tajikistan. Qurghonteppa is a hub, especially for banking and telecommunications industries. Tajik immigrant workers have contributed to the local economy since early 2000s. Qurghonteppa has a climate, with cool winters and very hot summers. Precipitation is quite low, and peaks in spring, while summers are very dry, sergei Mandreko - football coach Nurudin N. Mukhitdinov - politician Finnish electronic duo Pan Sonic have a track entitled Radio Qurghonteppa on their 2010 farewell album Gravitoni. List of cities in Tajikistan Vakhsh Qurghonteppa football club Kurgan Tepe in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online
The Workers and Peasants Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution, the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. The Red Army is credited as being the land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II. During operations on the Eastern Front, it fought 75%–80% of the German land forces deployed in the war, inflicting the vast majority of all German losses and ultimately capturing the German capital. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote, There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, at the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters,1.8 million dead,5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners and he estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million.
Therefore, the Council of Peoples Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918 and they envisioned a body formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes. All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible, in the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary. Because the Red Army was composed mainly of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations, some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army, along with some women, flooded the recruitment centres. If they were turned away they would collect scrap metal and prepare care-packages, in some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy, Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for war, Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as peoples commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars, at a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked, We have no army.
The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies and we have no power to stay the enemy, only an immediate signing of the peace treaty will save us from destruction. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledins Volunteer Army in the River Don region, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics. The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, a series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. The Whites defeated the Red Army on each front, Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked, the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchaks army in June, and the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-November the White armies were all almost completely exhausted, in January 1920, Budennys First Cavalry Army entered Rostov-on-Don. 1919 to 1923 At the wars start, the Red Army consisted of 299 infantry regiments, Civil war intensified after Lenin dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and the Soviet government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, removing Russia from the Great War
It had 2.4 million men under its service during the Cold War. At the end of World War II the Red Army had over 500 rifle divisions and their experience of war gave the Soviets such faith in tank forces that the infantry force was cut by two-thirds. The Tank Corps of the war period were converted to tank divisions. MRDs had three motorized rifle regiments and a regiment, for a total of ten motor rifle battalions and six tank battalions. The Land Forces Chief Command was created for the first time in March 1946, four years it was disbanded, only to be formed again in 1955. In March 1964 the Chief Command was again disbanded but recreated in November 1967, the personnel strength of the Ground Forces was reduced from 9.8 million to 2.4 million. Elsewhere, they may have assisted the NKVD in suppressing resistance in Western Ukraine. Soviet troops, including the 39th Army, remained at Port Arthur, control was handed over to the new Chinese communist government. Soviet Army forces on USSR territory were apportioned among military districts, there were 32 of them in 1945.
Sixteen districts remained from the mid-1970s to the end of the USSR, the greatest Soviet Army concentration was in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, which suppressed the anti-Soviet Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. East European Groups of Forces were the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, and the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, in 1958, Soviet troops were withdrawn from Romania. The Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia was established after Warsaw Pact intervention against the Prague Spring of 1968. In 1969, at the east end of the Soviet Union, the Sino-Soviet border conflict, prompted establishment of a 16th military district, in 1979, the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan, to support its Communist government, provoking a 10-year Afghan mujahideen guerrilla resistance. Throughout the Cold War, Western intelligence estimates calculated that the Soviet strength remained ca.2.8 million to ca.5.3 million men, by the middle of the 1980s the Ground Forces contained about 210 divisions.
About three-quarters were motor rifle divisions and the tank divisions. There were a number of artillery divisions, separate artillery brigades, engineer formations. However, only relatively few formations were fully war ready, three readiness categories, A, B, and V, after the first three letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, were in force. The Category A divisions were certified combat-ready and were fully equipped, B and V divisions were lower-readiness, 50–75% and 10–33% respectively
Turkestan Military District
The Turkestan Military District was a military district of both the Imperial Russian Army and the Soviet Armed Forces, with its headquarters at Tashkent. The District was first created during the 1874 Russian military reform when by order of Minister D. A. Milyutinym the territory of Russia was divided into fourteen military districts and its first commander was Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman, who was Governor-General of Russian Turkestan at the time. From 1918 to 1926 the District was referred to as the Turkestani Front as its forces were conducting operations against the Basmachi Revolt throughout practically all the Districts territory. In October 1919, Gleb Bokii was sent by Cheka head Felix Dzerzhinsky to Tashkent to head the operations of the Cheka in the Turkestan Front, the District was re-created on 9 July 1945 after the division of the Central Asian Military District into the Turkestan and Steppe Military Districts. The new Turkestan and Steppe District were formed from the headquarters of the 1st, in July 1946 the Steppe Military District was dissolved and its responsibilities transferred back to the Turkestan Military District.
In January 1958 from the abolished South Ural Military District the Turkestan District gained the territories of Aktyubinsk and the West-Kazakhstan areas of the Kazakh SSR. In 1957 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division, the former 5th Guards Mechanised Corps that had ended the war in Germany with 4th Tank Army, SAVO eventually was merged back into the TurkVO. 73rd Air Army was reestablished to provide air support for the Central Asian Military District, the 32nd Army initially combined a former Ukraine-based division, the Тurkmenistan-based 155th MRD and 78th Тank Division, and the 203rd Motor Rifle Division. To replace the 1st Army Corps which had moved up to Semipalatinsk. The corps was created in 1982 and it comprised two divisions - the 88th and the 58th Motor Rifle Division. Thus the Turkestan Military District covered only the Uzbek SSR and the Turkmen SSR, in the 1980s the District became part of the Southern Strategic Direction alongside the North Caucasus and Transcaucasus Military Districts.
General Igor Rodionov commanded the District in 1985-6, aviation support for the district was provided by the 49th Air Army, and air defence by the 12th Army of the Air Defence Forces. After the withdrawal from Afghanistan 40th Army was disbanded, but in June 1991 it was reformed at Semipalatinsk from 32nd Army. The Museum of history of The Turkestan Military District is on Gorki Avenue in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. David Glantz, Companion to Colossus Reborn, University Press of Kansas,2005 William E Odom, The Collapse of the Soviet Military, The Soviet Ground Forces in the last years of the USSR, St Petersburg, B&K,2001 V. I. Golikov, The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945-91, Tomsk University Publishing House, Tomsk,2004
The Basmachi movement or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia. The movements roots lay in the violence of 1916 that erupted when the Russian Empire began to draft Muslims for army service during World War I. In the months following the October 1917 Revolution the Bolsheviks seized power in parts of the Russian Empire. Turkestani Muslim political movements attempted to form a government in the city of Kokand. The Bolsheviks launched an assault on Kokand in February 1918 and carried out a massacre of up to 25,000 people. The massacre rallied support to the Basmachi movements who waged a guerrilla and conventional war that seized control of parts of the Fergana Valley. The fortunes of the decentralized movement fluctuated throughout the early 1920s, after major Red Army campaigns and concessions regarding economic and Islamic practices in the mid-1920s, the military fortunes and popular support of the Basmachi declined. Resistance to Russian rule and Soviet leadership did flare up again, to a lesser extent, prior to World War I, Russian Turkestan was ruled from Tashkent as a Krai or Governor-Generalship.
To the east of Tashkent, the Ferghana Valley was an ethnically diverse, under Russian rule, it was converted into a major cotton-growing region. On the whole, living standards did not improve, and many farmers became indebted, many criminals organized into bands, forming the basis for the early Basmachi movement when it began in the Ferghana Valley. Cotton price-fixing during the First World War made matters worse, Muslim clergy decried the gambling and alcoholism that became commonplace, and crime rose considerably. Major violence in Russian Turkestan broke out in 1916, when the Tsarist government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service, the result was a general revolt, centered in modern-day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, which was only put down by martial law. Tensions between Central Asians and Russian settlers led to large-scale massacres on both sides, thousands died, and hundreds of thousands more fled, often into neighboring Republic of China. The 1916 rebellion was the first anti-Russian incident on a scale in Central Asia.
The suppression of the rebellion was a campaign of annihilation against the Kazakh. Hundreds of thousands of Kazakh and Kyrgyz people were killed or expelled, the ethnic clensing had its roots in the Tsarist government policy of ethnic homogenization. In the aftermath of the February Revolution of 1917, Muslim political forces began to organize, members of the All-Russian Muslim council formed the Shura-i Islam, a Jadidist body that sought a federated, democratic state with autonomy for Muslims. More conservative religious scholars formed the Ulema Jemyeti, more concerned with safeguarding Islamic institutions, these Muslim nationalists formed a coalition, but it fell apart after the October Revolution, when the Jadids lent their support to the Bolsheviks who had seized power
Order of the Red Banner of Labour
It is the labour counterpart of the military Order of the Red Banner. A few institutions and factories, being the pride of Soviet Union, the Order of the Red Banner of Labour began solely as an award of the Russian SFSR on December 28,1920. The all-Union equivalent was established by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on September 7,1928, the Order of the Red Banner of Labour could be awarded multiple times to the same recipient for successive deeds and long time merit. The Order of the Red Banner of Labour was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the design of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour evolved over the years. Its original design, called type 1 was amended in 1936, the type 1 Order consisted of a 38 mm wide by 43 mm high silver badge in the shape of a cogwheel, at center, a disc bordered along its entire outer diameter by panicles of wheat. Protruding from under the half of the central disc, a red enamelled triangle pointing downwards.
On the central disc in the background, an electric dam, at center, a gilded hammer and sickle, at the top. At the very bottom of the cogwheel, the relief inscription USSR on a stylised horizontal shield bisected by a smaller cogwheel meshing into the larger one, the Order was secured to clothing with a threaded screw and nut arrangement. The earlier nuts were 28 mm in diameter, ones measured 32 mm, the type 2 Order consisted of a silver badge in the shape of a cogwheel, it measured 38 mm wide by 44 mm high. On the lower circumference of the cogwheel, the relief inscription Proletarians of the World, below the cogwheel, a red enamelled relief five pointed star superimposed on a shield from which four short panicles of wheat protrude left and right. Along the outer circumference of the central wreath, white enamelled slots spaced equally on the cogwheel. The individuals listed below were recipients of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour, the first recipient of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour of the RSFSR was Nikita Menchukov for saving an important bridge from being destroyed by flowing ice.
Order of the Red Banner of Labour of the USSR number 1 was presented to the Putilov Works in Leningrad, the first individual awardees were V. Fedetov, A. Shelagin and M. Kyatkovsky for the rescue of a polar expedition. Mikhail Gorbachev received the Order of the Red Banner of Labour for harvesting a crop on his familys collective farm in 1949 at age 17. He is one of the Orders youngest recipients
Central Group of Forces
After the end of the Second World War, the Soviet High Command reorganized its troops on the territories it liberated from the Nazi occupation and now occupied. Stavka Directive Nr 11097 on 10 June 1945 created several new formations, known as Groups of Forces, equivalent to military districts and its first commander was Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Konev. Headquarters was at Baden bei Wien, during the summer of 1945, 7th and 9th Guards Armies were withdrawn back to the Soviet Union. By the end of the summer, the corps directly subordinated to the group had been withdrawn, Army General Vladimir Kurasov commanded the Group from 12 June 1946 to 20 April 1949. In August 1946, the 4th Guards Army was withdrawn to the Odessa Military District, on 20 March 1947, the 5th Guards Army was disbanded. In May 1947, the 3rd and 4th Guards Mechanized Armies, in February 1949, the 2nd Air Army was renumbered as the 59th. On 20 April 1949, Kurasov was replaced by Lieutenant General Vladimir Svirivdov, on 14 May 1953, Colonel General Sergey Biryuzov replaced Sviridov in command.
Colonel General Aleksey Semenovich Zhadov took command on 31 May 1954, in June 1955 the group included the following units. The dispositions of the group did not change between and its disbandment in September, the group was disbanded in September 1955 due to the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Austria. The 2nd and 17th Guards Mechanized Division became part of a newly formed Special Corps on Hungarian territory, the 13th Guards Mechanized Division and 95th Guards Rifle Division were moved to the Carpathian Military District. The remaining units, including the headquarters of the 59th Air Army, were disbanded, the Central Group of Forces was reinstituted as a legacy of the 1968 Prague Spring events. Till that time, no Soviet troops were garrisoned within Czechoslovakian territory. The Central Group of forces had a strength of about 85,000 and included 28th Army Corps headquarters. Forces included two divisions, three mechanized infantry divisions, three missile brigades, an artillery brigade, and an airborne assault brigade.
Four of the five Soviet ground divisions in Czechoslovakia were stationed in the Czech lands, Group headquarters was located in Milovice. Also at Milovice was the 131st Mixed Aviation Division, which arrived from Ivano-Frankovsk in the Ukrainian SSR in August 1968,1996 Janes Intelligence Review information indicated the division had been moved to Smolensk in the Moscow Military District where it was disbanded. Russian forum information indicates that it was withdrawn to Chuguev in Ukraine using the same garrison as the disbanded 75th Guards Tank Division. It appears that there wasn’t enough space for the entire Division, the remainder of the division departed for Ukraine, with the last arriving by May 1991
1st Ukrainian Front
The 1st Ukrainian Front was a front—a force the size of a Western Army group—of the Soviet Unions Red Army during the Second World War. On October 20,1943 the Voronezh Front was renamed to the 1st Ukrainian Front and this name change reflected the westward advance of the Red Army in its campaign against the German Wehrmacht, leaving Russia behind and moving into Ukraine. The front participated or conducted battles in Ukraine, Germany, during 1944, the front participated with other fronts in the battles of Korsun-Shevchenkivskyy, and the battle of Hubes Pocket in Ukraine. It took part in the battle for Ternopil, in 1945 the front participated in the Vistula-Oder offensive, and conducted the Silesian and Prague Operations, and the siege of Breslau. It participated in the Berlin operations in Germany and Poland, the front conducted the major part of the Halbe Encirclement, in which most of the German 9th Army was destroyed south of Berlin. By this time the Polish Second Army was operating as part of the Front, finally 1st Ukrainian Front provided the defence against the counter-attacks by Armee Wenck which aimed to relieve Berlin and the 9th Army.
The Prague Offensive was the battle of World War II in Europe. Following the war, the Front headquarters formed the Central Group of Forces of the Red Army in Austria and Hungary, 5th Guards Army 2nd Polish Army 52nd Army 4th Guards Tank Army 28th Army 31st Army 3rd Guards Army Konev, I. S. Das Jahr 1945 Ziemke, E. F. Stalingrad to Berlin Tissier, Tony Slaughter at Halbe Duffy, Christopher Red Storm on the Reich Antill, battle for Berlin, April – May 1945
Order of the Red Banner
The Order of the Red Banner was the first Soviet military decoration. The order was established on 16 September 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and it was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism and courage demonstrated on the battlefield, the order was awarded to individuals as well as to military units, ships and social organizations, and state enterprises. In years it was awarded on the twentieth and again on the thirtieth anniversary of military service without requiring participation in combat. The Russian Order of the Red Banner was established during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of September 16,1918, the first recipient was Vasily Blyukher on September 28,1918. The second recipient was Iona Yakir, during the Civil War there existed similarly named orders and decorations established by the Soviet communist governments of several other constituent and nonconstituent republics.
The August 1,1924 decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee established the all-Soviet Order of the Red Banner for deserving personnel of the Red Army, from 1918 till the late 1930s there was a collective variant - the Revolutionary Red Banner of Honor. This was in the form of a military color awarded to distinguished Red Army, Soviet Air Force and it was more older than the order, having been established on August 3, a month and several weeks before. As a military decoration, The Order of the Red Banner recognised heroism in combat or otherwise extraordinary accomplishments of military valour during combat operations. Before the establishment of the Order of Lenin on April 5,1930, during World War II, under various titles, it was presented both to individuals and to units for acts of extreme military heroism. Nearly all well-known Soviet commanders became recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, the order was awarded to individuals as well as whole formations, which added the prefix Red Banner to their official designations.
Naval vessels flew a special ensign, the Order of the Red Banner was used as a long service award between 1944 and 1958 to mark twenty and thirty years of service in the military, state security, or police. This was surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat, at the bottom were the letters SSSR, additional awards of the Order bore a white enamelled shield with a silver sequence number at the bottom of the obverse. A recipient of three Orders of the Red Banner would wear a badge of the order followed by his second award bearing a number 2. The early variants of the Order were screw back badges to wear on clothing. Later variants hung from a standard Soviet pentagonal mount with a ring through the suspension loop, the mount was covered with an overlapping 24mm wide red silk moiré ribbon with 1. 5mm wide white edge stripes and a 7mm wide white central stripe. The Order of the Red Banner was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, pavel Dybenko won 3 Orders of the Red Banner, his first in the 1921 bloody suppression of the naval rebellion in Kronstadt, his 2 others in 1922 in the suppression of peasants uprisings
In European military tradition, military units may be acknowledged for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign. These honours usually take the form of a place and a date, theatre honours could be listed and displayed on regimental property but not emblazoned on the colours. Since battle honours are emblazoned on colours, artillery units. These honour titles were permitted to be used as part of their official nomenclature, similar honours in the same tenor include unit citations. Battle honours, theatre honours, honour titles and their ilk form a part of the variety of distinctions which serve to distinguish military units from each other. For the British Army, the need to adopt a system to recognise military units battlefield accomplishments was apparent since its formation as an army in the part of the 17th century. Although the granting of battle honours had already been in place at the time, before then, a regiments colours were practical tools for rallying troops in the battlefield and not quite something for displaying the units past distinctions.
The first battle honour to be awarded in the British Army was granted to the 15th Hussars for the Battle of Emsdorf in 1760, other regiments received battle honours for some of their previous engagements. The battle honour is held by the successor regiment, the Princess of Waless Royal Regiment. During these early years of the British standing army, a regiment needed only to engage the enemy with musketry before it was eligible for a battle honour, thus in 1882, a committee was formed to adjudicate applications of battle honour claims. This committee, called the Battles Nomenclature Committee, still maintains its function in the British Army today. A battle honour may be granted to infantry/cavalry regiments or battalions, as well as ships and squadrons, they are granted to sub-units such as companies. Battle honours are presented in the form of a name of a country, region, or city where the units distinguished act took place. Not every battle fought will automatically result in the granting of a battle honour, conversely, a regiment or a battalion might obtain more than one battle honour over the course of a larger operation.
Similarly, while in Korea, Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry earned both Kapyong and Korea 1951–1953, supporting corps/branches such as medical, ordnance, or transport do not currently receive battle honours. However and uniquely the Royal Logistic Corps has five battle honours inherited from its previous transport elements, Commonwealth artillery does not maintain battle honours as they carry neither colours nor guidons—though their guns by tradition are afforded many of the same respects and courtesies. However, both the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers were in 1832 granted by King William IV the right to use the Latin Ubique, meaning everywhere and this is worn on the cap badge of both the Corps of Royal Engineers and the Royal Regiment of Artillery. The practice was extended to these same regiments and corps in the successor Commonwealth armed forces
Osh is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred to as the capital of the south. It is the oldest city in the country, and has served as the center of Osh Region since 1939. The city has a mixed population of about 255,800 in 2012, comprising Kyrgyz, Russians, Tajiks. The citys industrial base, established during the Soviet period, largely collapsed after the break-up of the Soviet Union and has only started to revive. Daily flights from Osh Airport link Osh - and hence the part of Kyrgyzstan - to Bishkek. Osh has two stations and a railway connection to Andijan in neighbouring Uzbekistan, but no passenger traffic. The recent upgrading of the long and arduous road through the mountains to Bishkek has greatly improved communications, the city has several monuments, including one to the southern Kyrgyz queen Kurmanjan Datka and one of the few remaining statues of Lenin. A Russian Orthodox church, reopened after the demise of the Soviet Union, the largest mosque in the country, the only World Heritage Site in Kyrgyzstan, the Sulayman Mountain, offers a splendid view of Osh and its environs.
This mountain is thought by researchers and historians to be the famous landmark of antiquity known as the “Stone Tower”. It marked the midpoint on the ancient Silk Road, the trade route taken by caravans between Europe and Asia. Its first western-style supermarket Narodnyj opened in March 2007, Osh city covers 182.5 square kilometres and like the capital city Bishkek, is administered separately and not part of any region, although it is the seat of Osh Region. Besides the city proper,11 villages are administered by the city, Arek, Gulbaar-Toloykon, Kengesh, Kerme-Too, Pyatiletka and parts of Ozgur, Osh is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan after the capital city of Bishkek. At the census of 2009 the city amounted to 258,111. Of the total population,47. 9% were Kyrgyz,44. 2% Uzbeks,2. 5% Russians,2. 2% Turks,1. 1% Tatars and 2. 1% other nationalities. The population of the city with its suburbs in the surrounding Kara-Suu District is estimated at about 500,000 inhabitants, the city is among the oldest settlements in Central Asia.
Osh was known as early as the 8th century as a center for production along the Silk Road. The famous trading route crossed Alay Mountains to reach Kashgar to the east, in modern times, Osh has become the starting point of the Pamir Highway crossing the Pamir Mountains to end in Khorog, Tajikistan. Babur somehow concludes that the confines of the Fergana would cramp his aspirations as a descendant of famous conquering warrior princes and he wrote of the city, There are many sayings about the excellence of Osh