Stavka is the term used to refer to the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. It was used in Imperial Russia to refer to the administrative staff, in western literature it is sometimes written in uppercase, which is incorrect since the term is not an acronym. The term may be used to refer to its members, as well as to the headquarters location, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army at the beginning of World War I was Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaievitch, a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. Appointed at the last minute in August 1914, he played no part in formulating the military plans in use at the beginning of the war, Nikolai Yanushkevich was his chief of staff. In the summer of 1915 the Tsar himself took personal command, in the years 1915–1917 Stavka was based in Mogilev and the Tsar, Nicholas II, spent long periods there as Commander-in-Chief. In August 1915, after the German advance, the Stavka re-located to Mogilev, very soon afterwards the deputy defence minister army Meretskov was arrested following the false charges by Beria and Merkulov.
Meretskov was subsequently released from the jail and on the day at the end of the first week of September 1941 was called for by Stalin. Stavka of the Main Command was reorganised into the Stavka of the Supreme Command on 10 July 1941 after Stalin was named Supreme Commander, on 8 August 1941 it was again reorganised into Stavka of the Supreme Main Command. On the same day Strategic Directions commands were instituted, a 17 February 1945 decree set out the membership of Stavka as Stalin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Aleksei Antonov, Nikolai Bulganin and Kuznetsov. Creation of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the Union of USSR
193rd Tank Division
The 193rd Tank Division was originally a Red Army infantry division that was reorganised after World War II as a mechanised and a tank division of the Soviet Army. The original 193rd Rifle Division was established in the Kharkov Military District on March 14,1941. K, joined with the 195th and 200th Rifle Divisions to form the 31st Rifle Corps. On June 28 the Corps was assigned to 5th Army and the 193rd went into battle at Rozhits, by July 8 it was down to 3,500 men and less than 35 guns and mortars of all types. In September the 193rd was surrounded with 5th Army in the Kiev Pocket, the divisions number was officially stricken from the Soviet order of battle on Dec.27. The division was reformed at Sorochinsk, in the South Urals Military District and it comprised, 685th Rifle Regiment 883rd Rifle Regiment 895th Rifle Regiment 384th Artillery Regiment 50th Antitank Battalion 4th Sapper Battalion 320th Reconnaissance Company. In June the division went to the Voronezh Front reserves, but was far from complete at that time.
On 17 September the division, commanded by Col. F. N. Smekhotvorov, was assigned to the 62nd Army and fought during the Battle of Stalingrad. On 22 Sept. the 685th Regiment was ferried from the east to the west bank of the Volga into central Stalingrad and five nights later, on the 27th, the 883rd and 895th were deployed in the Red October factory complex. The following day, the 883rd was attacked by German tanks, anti-tank rifleman Mikhail Panikakha was attempting to defend his position with Molotov cocktails. A German bullet ignited one of his bombs, setting him alight and he threw himself against a tank with his remaining bomb and destroyed it, at the cost of his own life. Panikakha was posthumously made a Hero of the Soviet Union in 1990, the division was mauled and pushed back in a fierce German attack on 1 Oct. A day later, it was defending the western part of the Red October Factory, which included the kitchens, the regiments, down to 200 men, were unequal to the task and were pushed back by German tanks and infantry.
Chuikov, writing in 1963, said that between 13 and 20 Nov. the survivors of the 193rd Rifle Division were consolidated into the 685th Rifle Regiment - the grand total was 250 soldiers. However the historian John Erickson says that by 11 Nov. the division was reduced to 1,000 personnel, on 27 December 1942 the 193rd recrossed the Volga to be rebuilt. The division was assigned to the 65th Army in February 1943, it was under the command of Lieutenant General Pavel Batov, the 193rd would remain under these commanders for the duration of the war. The 193rd remained in the Kursk salient through the following months, at this time the division was part of the 27th Rifle Corps, and was commanded by Major General F. N. Zhobrev. Zhobrev was replaced by Colonel A. G. Frolenkov on Aug.28, Frolenkov was eventually promoted to Maj. Gen. and named a Hero of the Soviet Union, he remained in command for the rest of the war. After the German defeat at Kursk, the Red Army launched its first summer offensive, the 193rd staged a successful assault crossing of the Dnepr River on October 15, with divisional and army artillery firing 1,000 shells per minute in support
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Order No. 227
Order No.227 issued on July 28,1942 was an order issued by Joseph Stalin who was acting as the Peoples Commissar of Defence. It is famous for its line Not one step back, which became a slogan of Soviet resistance against the German invasion. During the first part of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviets experienced heavy losses along with mass retreat, combat goes on in region Voronej, near Don, in the south, and at the gates of the Northern Caucasus. The German invaders penetrate toward Stalingrad, to Volga and want at any cost to trap Kuban, the enemy already has captured Vorochilovgrad, Rossosh, Valuyki, Rostov on Don, half Voronej. Part of the troops of the Southern front, following the panic-mongers, have left Rostov and Novochercassk without severe resistance and without orders from Moscow and they want to justify the infamous behavior at the front. But such talk is falsehood, helpful only to our enemies, each commander, Red Army soldier and political commissar should understand that our means are not limitless.
The territory of the Soviet state is not a desert, but people - workers, intelligentsia, our fathers, wives, children. After the loss of Ukraine, Baltic republics, Donetzk and we have lost more than 70 million people, more than 800 million pounds of bread annually and more than 10 million tons of metal annually. Now we do not have predominance over the Germans in human reserves, to retreat further - means to waste ourselves and to waste at the same time our Motherland. This leads to the conclusion, it is time to finish retreating, such should now be our main slogan. It goes on to state that The Supreme General Headquarters of the Red Army commands,1 and this order is to be read in all companies, cavalry squadrons, squadrons and headquarters. No commander had the right to retreat without an order, anyone who did so was subject to a military tribunal of the corresponding seniority level. Order No.227 established that each front must create one to three battalions of up to 800 middle-ranking commanders and high-ranking commanders accused of disciplinary problems.
Penal battalions were sent to the most dangerous sections of the front lines, each front had to create penal companies for privates and NCOs. By the end of 1942 there were 24,993 troops serving in penal battalions, which increased to 177,694 in 1943. The number decreased over the two years to 143,457 and 81,766 soldiers in 1944 and 1945, respectively. The total of Red Army personnel sentenced by court was 994,300, Not included are 212,400 deserters, who were not found and escaped the custody of the military districts. The order directed that each army must create blocking detachments that would capture or shoot cowards, both measures were cited in the preamble of the order as having been successfully used by the Germans during their winter retreat
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Battle of Stalingrad
Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians by air raids, it is often regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses, the German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the German 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble, the fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting, and both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, the Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out, attempts were made to supply the army by air.
Heavy fighting continued for two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition, the remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days, the war had been progressing well, the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been very successful and Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, they had stabilized their front in a running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not particularly threatening, neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been particularly hard pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again, with the initial operations being very successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union. The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the capacity of the city.
The river was a key route from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to central Russia and its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields when they captured Rostov on 23 July, the capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. On 23 July 1942, Hitler personally rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign, both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union. The expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germanys failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence, the Soviets realized that they were under tremendous constraints of time and resources and ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny I must finish this war, Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there
Guards or Guards units were elite military units of Imperial Russia prior to 1917-18. The designation of Guards was subsequently adopted as a distinction for various units and formations of the Soviet Union, the tradition goes back to the a chieftains druzhina of medieval Kievan Rus and the Marksman Troops, the Muscovite harquebusiers formed by Ivan the Terrible by 1550. The exact meaning of the term Guards varied over time, in the Russian Empire, Imperial Russian Guard units, derived from German Leibgarde, were intended to ensure the security of the sovereign, that of Peter the Great in the 1690s. These were based on the Prussian Royal Life Guards, during the 19th century the Imperial Russian Guard regiments were not exclusively composed of Russian troops, but included Lithuanian and Ukrainian units. During the Brusilov Offensive the 1st and 2nd Guards numbers were supplemented with line army corp, in February–March 1917 the defection of reserve battalions of the Imperial Guard based in Petrograd was a major factor in the overthrow of the Tsarist government.
The service units of the Guard at the front disintegrated along with the remainder of the Imperial Army, the Red Guards were armed groups of workers formed during the Russian Revolution of 1917, although the designation and concept dates back to Moscow during the Revolution of 1905. In 1917 the volunteers of the Red Guard and their leaders formed the main strike force of the Bolsheviks. In October 1917 the Red Guards of Petrograd played a role in the capture of the Winter Palace. When the Soviet Red Army was formed in 1918, the Red Guards became the Army Reserve, the Guards badge was not introduced until 21 May 1943. Zhukov states the first period of the war gave birth to the Soviet Guards, for mass heroism and success in the battles of 1941-1942 the Guards title was awarded to 789 groups, separate units, and fighting ships of the Soviet Armed Forces. List of guards units of Ukraine
13th Guards Rifle Division
The 13th Guards Rifle Division was a Soviet Union Red Army infantry division that served with distinction during the Second World War. The 13th Guards Rifle Division was formed on 19 January 1942, the 87th Rifle Division itself had seen action fighting against the Second Polish Republic in the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939. Later that year, the division was sent northwards to Finland to serve as reinforcements in the Winter War against the Finnish defences, as the division was transferred to the Finnish Front, it escaped the fate of many Red Army units during the conflict. After the Soviets conquered the areas demanded from Finland, the unit was transferred to Soviet Ukraine in early 1940, on 22 June 1941, the German Wehrmacht launched Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union from the German–Soviet frontier in occupied Poland. During the opening hours of the German offensive, the 87th Rifle Division, a part of the 5th Army, at least a portion of the division was encircled during the opening day of the war.
Their involvement in heavy fighting seems to have continued as their recently appointed commander, three months later, in the fighting that ended with the encirclement of Kiev, the 87th Rifle Division was still a component of the 5th Army. Amongst the survivors of the encirclement of Kiev was Colonel Alexander Rodimtsev, the commander of the 5th Army Brigade, on 6 November, the 87th Rifle Division was re-formed around the survivors of the 3rd Airborne corps and placed under the command of Col. Rodimtsev. On 19 January 1942, the 87th Rifle was officially awarded Guards status and was re-designated as the 13th Guards, during this offensive, the division suffered more than fifty-percent casualties, most of which were sustained in the repelling of fierce German counter-attacks. It was during one of these attacks that an Artillery Captain of the 13th earned the first Order of the Great Patriotic War 1st Class to be awarded, following his units success during this offensive, Colonel Rodimtsev was subsequently promoted to Major General.
After the Kharkov operation, the 13th Guards were pulled from the line to be refitted, resupplied, by the end of the day the German 71st Infantry Division had reached the city center, north of the Tsaritsa Gorge. A Stavka directive ordered the 13th Guards Division to the Volga River, due to being in the midst of re-fit and resupply, one thousand of the divisions men were unarmed, and nearly all of the rest were short of ammunition. After being briefed by Lieutenant General Vasily Chuikov, the commander of the 62nd Army, on his assignment, Rodimtsev famously and determinedly declared, I have no intention of abandoning the city. Immediately, Chuikov decided to send this poorly armed yet determined unit straight into the midst of the battle, Major General Rodimtsev thanks to his experience fighting in the Spanish Civil War was well versed in urban warfare. At 17.00,14 September, the elements of the 13th Guards swiftly crossed the river to reinforce a line that was being held by a mere 15 tanks.
It is estimated more than half of the first wave perished during the river crossing. Ultimately, after heavy losses on both sides, the German advance was repelled. Rodimtsevs soldiers recaptured the Mill and secured the river crossing for other regiments of the 13th Guards. Dragan proceeded to gather a platoon of less than fifty men, the small but determined force prepared itself for the German attack
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states