Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare, Infantry can enter and maneuver in terrain that is inaccessible to military vehicles and employ crew-served infantry weapons that provide greater and more sustained firepower. In English, the 16th-century term Infantry describes soldiers who walk to the battlefield, and there engage, the term arose in Sixteenth-Century Spain, which boasted one of the first professional standing armies seen in Europe since the days of Rome. It was common to appoint royal princes to military commands, and the men under them became known as Infanteria. in the Canadian Army, the role of the infantry is to close with, and destroy the enemy. In the U. S. Army, the closes with the enemy, by means of fire and maneuver, in order to destroy or capture him, or to repel his assault by fire, close combat. In the U. S. Marine Corps, the role of the infantry is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy fire and maneuver.
Beginning with the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, artillery has become a dominant force on the battlefield. Since World War I, combat aircraft and armoured vehicles have become dominant. In 20th and 21st century warfare, infantry functions most effectively as part of a combined arms team including artillery, Infantry relies on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have evolved over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment, until the end of the 19th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close formations up until contact with the enemy. This allowed commanders to control of the unit, especially while maneuvering. The development of guns and other weapons with increased firepower forced infantry units to disperse in order to make them less vulnerable to such weapons. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment, among the various subtypes of infantry is Medium infantry.
This refers to infantry which are heavily armed and armored than heavy infantry. In the early period, medium infantry were largely eliminated due to discontinued use of body armour up until the 20th century. In the United States Army, Stryker Infantry is considered Medium Infantry, since they are heavier than light infantry, Infantry doctrine is the concise expression of how infantry forces contribute to campaigns, major operations and engagements. It is a guide to action, not a set of hard, doctrine provides a very common frame of reference across the military forces, allowing the infantry to function cooperatively in what are now called combined arms operations. Doctrine helps standardise operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing infantry tasks, doctrine links theory, history and practice
133rd Armoured Division Littorio
133rd Armoured Division Littorio or 133° Divisione Corazzata Littorio was an armoured division of the Italian Army during World War II. The division was formed in 1939 from the Infantry Division Littorio that had part in the Spanish Civil War. It was a unit during the invasion of France when it attacked through the Little St Bernard Pass. It took part in the Invasion of Yugoslavia, fighting at Mostar and it was sent to North Africa in the spring of 1942 where it fought until it was destroyed at the Second battle of El Alamein in November 1942. During the Italian invasion of France, the Italian forces numbered about 700,000 troops, while they enjoyed a huge numerical superiority to the French, they had several deficiencies. The Italian armoured regiments from the Littorio had between 150 to 250 L3/35 tanks each, but these vehicles were often classified as tankettes and were little more than lightly armoured machine-gun carriers not suited for modern warfare. On 20 June, the Italian campaign began and on 21 June, one force attempted to advance through the Alps and another force attempted to advance along the Mediterranean coast towards Nice.
Initially, the Italian offensive enjoyed a level of success. The French defensive lines on the Italian border were weakened due to French High Command shuffling forces to fight the Germans, some French mountain units had been sent to Norway. However, the Italian offensive soon stalled at the fortified Alpine Line in the Alps region, the attack through the Little Saint Bernard Pass in the Alps had to stop due to a massive snow storm. The Division was part of the Italian Second Army that faced the Yugoslavian Seventh Army, the Italians encountered limited resistance and occupied parts of Slovenia and the coast of Dalmatia. The Littorio was never intended for operations, but due to the situation in the western desert in Libya. The second Italian armoured division Ariete Division, was already in the desert, the first units of the Littorio arrived in Tripoli, the capital and major port of Libya, in early January 1942, but had to wait until March for the complete division to arrive. Notably the Semovente da 75/18 self-propelled gun had equipped the Littorio a somewhat wider tactical repertoire, by April, the division had reached Benghazi, but the division’s transport had been diverted to carry much needed supplies to combat units at the Gazala line.
Littorio did not participate in the Battle of Gazala, though British accounts usually include its troop, a small battlegroup arrived at the front on 20 June, and participated in the attack on Tobruk. The division was a part of the force at Mersa Matruh. In this advance the division was harassed by the Desert Air Force, as all the Axis formations were, by the time it reached El Alamein its armour had been lost. 90th Light was to north to cut the coastal road and trap the Alamein box defenders
3rd Infantry Division Ravenna
The 3rd Infantry Division was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II. The only difference between line infantry divisions and mountain divisions was that the latters artillery was carried by pack mules instead of the standard horse-drawn carriages. Italys real mountain warfare divisions were the six divisions manned by the Alpini mountain troops. The Ravenna Division was mobilized for war in October 1939 in Alessandria and they were part of the Italian III Corps, First Army during the Italian invasion of France. It reached a village of Fontan by 24 June 1940, in April,1941 the Ravenna division was transferred to Yugoslavian border to Kobarid and Most na Soči. They took part in the Invasion of Yugoslavia as part of the Italian XI Corps and it performed the mop-up duty in city of Škofja Loka from 14 April 1941 until 17 April 1941, before handing it over to German forces. Also, mop-up operations were performed near Mirna village, the Ravenna division was transferred to Pivka in early May,1941 and to Alessandria where it remained until 1942.
The division was one of the divisions that served on the Eastern Front as part of the Italian Army in Russia. First it was assigned positions at rear area of 35th corps, at middle July,1942 Ravenna has arrived to Donetsk. 25 July 1942 it arrived to Luhansk, in August 1942, the Ravenna division took a defensive positions at Don river between Verhny Mamon and Boguchar. On these positions, Ravenna has beat off the Soviet assault from 20 August until 1 September 1942, extending to north, the Ravenna division has repelled another assault by Russian forces on Solonets, south of Voronezh, at 11 September 1942. At 11 December 1942, the Russian forces have started a new offense, under intense pressure, some sub-units of Ravenna division near Verhny Mamon have surrendered, piercing the Axis frontline. The 1st Guards Army and the 3rd Guards Army attacked from the north, encircling 130,000 soldiers of the Italian 8th Army on the Don, by that time, the bulk of Ravenna division forces was back to Luhansk.
The Italian defense continued north of Luhansk at Donets river in Veselaya Gora - Stantsiya Lugansk area from 22 December 1942 until 30 December 1942, elements of Ravenna division were separated at Chertkovo, where it fought along with other German and Italian units until 23 December 1942. That surrounded detachment reached back to the frontline by 15 January 1943, from 1 January until 6 January 1943, the bulk of Ravenna division was defending west bank of Donets river, now subordinated to German army corps. The remnants of Ravenna division were back to Tuscany province of Italy in April,1943 and it performed the role of the mobile reserve of the Italian II Corps. The division was reforming, when Italy surrendered on 8 September 1943, motorized Carabinieri Section III Mortar Battalion 3
The Alpini, are an elite mountain warfare military corps of the Italian Army. They are currently organized in two brigades, which are subordinated to the Alpine Troops Headquarters. Established in 1872, the Alpini are the oldest active mountain infantry in the world and their original mission was to protect Italys northern mountain border with France and Austria. In 1888 the Alpini deployed on their first mission abroad, in Africa, during World War II, the Alpini fought alongside the Axis forces, mainly across the Eastern Front and in the Balkans Campaigns. After the end of the Cold War, the Italian Army was reorganised in the 1990s, three out of five Alpini brigades and many support units were disbanded. Currently, the Alpini are deployed in Afghanistan, in 1872, Captain Giuseppe Perrucchetti published a study in the May edition of the Military Review. In the study, he proposed to assign the defence of mountain borders of the recently established Kingdom of Italy to soldiers recruited locally, thanks to their knowledge of the surroundings and personal attachment to the area, they would be highly capable and better motivated defenders.
Perrucchetti drew heavily on the work of Lieutenant General Agostino Ricci, five months after Perrucchettis article, the first 15 Alpini companies were formed by Royal decree no.1056. The units became active on October 15,1872, making the Alpini the oldest active Mountain Infantry in the world, at first the Alpini were organized as a militia, capable of defending Italy’s northern mountainous borders. Austrias surrender in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 resulted in Italy annexing the province of Venetia, prior to gaining the new northern borders, homeland defence was based on the so-called Quadrilatero strategy. That outdated strategy, ignored the geopolitics of the new Italian Kingdom and it called for primary defence of the Po Valley region farther to the southwest, but left the Alpine region undefended. Recruiting Italys mountain valleys locals and organising them into a corps was indeed an innovative idea. They possessed superior knowledge of mountain territory and greatest adaptability to Alpine conditions, at the beginning, the mountain regions were divided into seven military districts, each commanded by an Officer and home to at least two Alpini companies, each consisting of 120 personnel.
Soldiers were equipped with the Vetterli 1870 rifle, in 1873 nine more companies were added, thus totalling 24. In 1875, the companies doubled in size, having 250 soldiers and 5 officers, on November 1,1882, the Alpini organisation doubled in size to 72 companies and a total of 20 Alpini battalions. The latter plus 8 Alpini mountain artillery batteries were now organized into six numbered Alpini regiments, Special Bn. and Fourth Bn. were issued blue tufts. Soldiers of the Mountain Artillery units were issued a green tuft with a patch in the middle onto which the number of the battery was written in golden numbers. On June 7,1883, the green flames collar patch was introduced, the Cappello Alpino, with its black raven feather, was introduced at that time
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val dOrcia are internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast.
The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art.
The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia
Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, its capital is Genoa. The region is popular with tourists for its beaches, Liguria is bordered by France to the west, Piedmont to the north, and Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany to the east. It lies on the Ligurian Sea, the narrow strip of land is bordered by the sea, the Alps and the Apennines mountains. Some mountains rise above 2,000 m, the line runs at an average altitude of about 1,000 m. The highest point of the region is the summit of Monte Saccarello, the winding arched extension goes from Ventimiglia to La Spezia. Of this,3,524.08 km2 are mountainous and 891.95 km2 are hills, Ligurias natural reserves cover 12% of the entire region, or 600 km2 of land. They are made up of one national reserve, six large parks, the continental shelf is very narrow, and so steep it descends almost immediately to considerable marine depths along its 350-kilometre coastline. Except for the Portovenere and Portofino promontories, it is not very jagged. At the mouths of the biggest watercourses there are small beaches, the ring of hills lying immediately beyond the coast together with the sea account for a mild climate year-round.
Average winter temperatures are 7 to 10 °C and summer temperatures are 23 to 24 °C, rainfall can be abundant at times, as mountains very close to the coast create an orographic effect. Genoa and La Spezia can see up to 2,000 mm of rain in a year, evidence of Neanderthals living in the area was discovered in the region of Loano, whereas in Ventimiglia, in the grotto of Balzi Rossi, numerous remains were found of Cro-Magnon. According to Classical sources, the Ligurians, once lived in a far broader territory than present-day Liguria, for example, the Greek colony of Massalia, modern Marseille was recorded to lie in Ligurian territory. During the first Punic War, the ancient Ligurians were divided, some of them siding with Carthage, under Augustus, Liguria was designated a region of Italy stretching from the coast to the banks of the Po River. The great Roman roads helped strengthen territorial unity and increase communication, important towns developed on the coast, of which evidence is left in the ruins of Albenga and Luni.
Between the 4th and the 10th centuries Liguria was dominated by the Byzantines, the Lombards of King Rothari and it was invaded by Saracen and Norman raiders. In the 10th century, once the danger of pirates decreased, in the 11th and 12th centuries the marches were split into fees, and with the strengthening of the bishops’ power, the feudal structure began to partially weaken. The main Ligurian towns, especially on the coast, became city-states, however, fiefs belonging to noble families survived for a very long time. Between the 11th century and the 15th century, the Republic of Genoa experienced a political and commercial success
Okhtyrka is a small city in Ukraine, a raion centre within Sumy Oblast since 1975. Okhtyrka is a town of Hussar and Cossack Fame and it was once a regional seat of Sloboda Ukraine and the Ukrainian SSR. Since the discovery of oil and gas in 1961 Okhtyrka has become an oil capital of Ukraine and it is home to Okhtyrka air base and religious places of interest. The villages of Velyke Osero, Saluschany and Kosyatyn belong to the Okhtyrka city administration which is designated into a subdivision of the Sumy Oblast. There are many versions of the name origin. According to one of them, the most probable, its name descends from the name of the river with the name that flows through the city. According to some historians, the rivers name in translation from Turkic language means lazy river. In opinion of others, the name from the same Turkic language is translated as the place of ambush. Yet the Russian philologist Oleg Trubachyov considered that there are no grounds to accept the Turkic etymology. The linguist Kostiantyn Tyshchenko points to the Gothic origin of the name Okhtyrka, located in the south of the Sumy region in the center of a triangle created by regional centers – Sumy and Poltava.
The city is situated on the bank of the Vorskla River – the blue pearl of Ukrainian rivers. Okhtyrka was first established by former Ruthenians of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who were escaping Polonization moving from the Right-bank Ukraine to Sloboda Ukraine, next to the new settlement Polish authorities established a border outpost against the Muscovite Belgorod Border Line. The settlement and the outpost were founded on the site of an ancient Ruthenian settlement on Akhtyr Hill and was part of Severian principality, during the Mongol invasion, it was destroyed. The first written mention of Okhtyrka settlement dates to 1641, Polish border guard vacated the outpost destroying the fort. It was rebuilt by the peasants and Cossacks who decided to stay. It was important for Muscovy to have an outpost established in this area, Okhtyrkas outpost served to strengthen the Belgorod defense line skirting the southern border of the Muscovite state in the middle of the 17th century. Being bolstered in this prominent position during the 17th and 18th centuries, the first census of the city was taken in 1655 by governor of Okhtyrka Trofim Khrushchev, listing 1339 residents.
The coat of arms The towns coat of arms celebrates the great number of visiting pilgrims
The Siverskyi Donets or Seversky Donets, usually simply called the Donets, is a river on the south of the East European Plain. It originates in the Central Russian Upland, north of Belgorod, flows south-east through Ukraine and again through Russia to join the Don River, the Donets is the fourth longest river in Ukraine and the biggest in the Eastern Ukraine. It is an important source of water in the east of the country. It gives its name to the Donets Basin, known commonly as the Donbass, the name Don and its diminutive, Donet are derived from Iranic, Sarmatian Dānu the river. According to V. Abaev the name Don derives from Iranic, the Slavic name of Seversky Donets derived from the fact that the river originates from the land of Severians. As the Italian-Polish chronicler Alexander Guagnini wrote, There is another, small Tanais, the Donets is the largest river in eastern Ukraine and the largest tributary of the Don. Its total length is 1,053 km and the area is 98,900 km2. Most of the rivers length 950 km stretches across Ukraine, the average annual flow is 25 m3 near the source and 200 m3 at the confluence to the Don.
The Donets originates on the Central Russian Upland, near Podolkhi village, Prokhorovka area, north of Belgorod, at an elevation of 200 m above sea level. Its basin contains over 3000 rivers, of which 425 are longer than 10 km and 11 are longer than 100 km,1011 of those rivers flow into the Donets. These rivers are fed by melting snow, and thus the water supply is uneven during the year. The spring flood lasts about two months, from February to April - during this period the level rises by 3 to 8 m. Excessive flooding is due to abundant artificial water reservoirs constructed along the river. The width of the river ranges between 30 and 70 m, sometimes reaching 100–200 m and even 4 km in the reservoir area. The river bottom is sandy and uneven, with the depth varying between 0.3 and 10 m and the value of 2.5 m. The river freezes from around mid-December until late March and is covered by 20–50 cm thick ice, the river valley is wide, from 8–10 km in the upper part and up to 20–26 km downstream, and is asymmetrical.
The right bank is high, sometimes with chalk cliffs. The left bank is flat, contains numerous swamps and oxbow lakes
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war that started in October 1935, after a battle on 5 December 1934, and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the forces of the Kingdom of Italy and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire. The war resulted in the occupation of Ethiopia. Politically, like the Mukden Incident in 1931, the Abyssinia Crisis in 1935 is often seen as a demonstration of the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations. Italy and Ethiopia were member nations and yet the League was unable to control Italy or to protect Ethiopia when Italy clearly violated Article X of the Covenant of the League of Nations, the victory brought Mussolini unprecedented popularity within Italy. Shortly after the war, Ethiopia was consolidated with Eritrea and Italian Somaliland into Italian East Africa, the Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1928 stated that the border between Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia was twenty-one leagues parallel to the Benadir coast.
In 1930, Italy built a fort at the Welwel oasis in the Ogaden, the fort at Welwel was well beyond the twenty-one league limit and the Italians were encroaching on Ethiopian territory. In November 1934, Ethiopian territorial troops, escorting the Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission, the British members of the commission soon withdrew to avoid embarrassing Italy. Italian and Ethiopian troops remained encamped in close proximity, in early December 1934, the tensions on both sides erupted into what was known as the Wal Wal incident. The resultant clash left approximately 110 Ethiopians and between 30 and 50 Italians and Somalis dead and led to the Abyssinia Crisis at the League of Nations, on 4 September 1935, the League of Nations exonerated both parties for the Wal Wal incident. The United Kingdom and France, keen to keep Italy as an ally against Germany, Italy soon began to build its forces on the borders of Ethiopia in Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. To this end, on 7 January 1935, France signed an agreement with Italy giving them essentially a hand in Africa to secure Italian co-operation.
Next, in April, Italy was further emboldened by being a member of the Stresa Front, in June, non-interference was further assured by a political rift that had developed between the United Kingdom and France following the Anglo-German Naval Agreement. His comments stirred up a furor inside Japan, where there had been popular affinity for the African Empire, with an attack appearing inevitable, Emperor Haile Selassie ordered a general mobilization of the Army of the Ethiopian Empire. His new recruits consisted of around 500,000 men, some of whom were armed with nothing more than spears, many soldiers carried more modern weapons, including rifles, but many of these were from before 1900 and were outdated. Haile Selassies Mobilization Order stated, All men and boys able to carry a spear go to Addis Ababa, every married man will bring his wife to cook and wash for him. Every unmarried man will bring any unmarried woman he can find to cook, women with babies, the blind, and those too aged and infirm to carry a spear are excused.
Anyone found at home after receiving this order will be hanged, according to Italian estimates, on the eve of hostilities the Ethiopians had an army of 350, 000–760,000 men