Zapadnaya Litsa River
Zapadnaya Litsa River is a river in the north of the Kola Peninsula in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. The area of its basin is 1,190 km², the Zapadnaya Litsa River originates on the Kuchintundra and flows into the Barents Sea. Its biggest tributary is the Lebyazhka River, from 1941 to 1944, the Litsa River formed the Arctic frontline between German and Finnish troops west of the river – trying to capture Murmansk – and Soviet troops on the east, defending the city. During the stalemate that lasted four years, thousands perished in the tundras on both sides of the river, at the time the Litsa valley was called Death Valley by the Soviets, though the expression Valley of Honor became fashionable. The defense of Murmansk succeeded, the Germans never reached the city, see also, Operation Silver Fox and Operation Platinum Fox. The remains of the WW II fighting can be visited with some specialised travel agencies
242nd Training Centre
The 242nd Training Centre of the Airborne Forces is a brigade-sized training formation of the Russian Airborne Troops. The Deputy Commander of the Airborne Troops, Lieutenant-General Vasily Margelov, the formations birthday is 17 September, when the formation of the division was completed and Major General N. G. The vast majority of officers had experience in training units of the regimental schools, among the officers selected to staff the training centre were 131 veterans of the Great Patriotic War. The division consisted of three training Airborne Regiments, 301st and 304th Training Airborne Regiments - Ostrov,302 - Cheryokha, for unclear reasons, the division was soon renamed the 44th. Also the regiment numbering changed, instead of, the 302nd and 304th, the regiments were not Guards units either. In September 1961, available stocks, military equipment, the Divisional Headquarters and the 301st Regiment were established at Gaižiūnai, the 304th Regiment at Rukla, and the 1120th Training Artillery Regiment in the city of Prienai.
Apparently, after the relocation, the division and its regiments were renumbered, the division thus became the 44th Airborne Ovruch Red Banner Order of Suvorov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky Division. This apparently meant the division had inherited the honours of the wartime 4th Guards Airborne Division, which was given the title Ovruch in November 1943. The 4th Guards Airborne Division, formed from the 1st Airborne Corps at Moscow in December 1942, fought at Kursk, Zhitomir, Targul Frumos and Budapest. Of the old division in Cheryokha remained only the 226th Training Airborne Regiment which stayed there until 1969. On 15 May 1972, the 332nd School for Praporshchiks was formed in Gaižiūnai from the 226th Training Airborne Regiment. On 1 December 1987 in accordance with the order of the Ministry of Defence of the Soviet Union of 18 August 1987, the 44th Training Airborne Division was renamed the 242nd Airborne Training Centre. In accordance with the directive of the Defense Ministry on 13 November 1992, shortly after the relocation, the 301st Training Airborne Regiment was disbanded, and the 1120th Training Artillery Regiment was moved to Ishim in Tyumen Oblast.
The training centre headquarters is located in the village of Svetloe in the Omsk Oblast. In the years since its relocation to Omsk the formerly division-sized formation has shrunk to the size of a brigade, in July 2015, a barracks of the centre in the village of Svetloe collapsed, killing 23. Colonel Oleg Ponomarev, who commanded the centre at the time, was arrested, colonel Arkady Furdeyev replaced him in command of the centre in late August. Russian-language source on 242nd Training Centre Bonn, Keith E. ed. Slaughterhouse, slugin, S. A. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны, от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk and Technical Literature Publishing, Carey, The Russian Elite, Inside Spetsnaz and the Airborne Forces, Stackpole/Greenhill,1993
It had 2.4 million men under its service during the Cold War. At the end of World War II the Red Army had over 500 rifle divisions and their experience of war gave the Soviets such faith in tank forces that the infantry force was cut by two-thirds. The Tank Corps of the war period were converted to tank divisions. MRDs had three motorized rifle regiments and a regiment, for a total of ten motor rifle battalions and six tank battalions. The Land Forces Chief Command was created for the first time in March 1946, four years it was disbanded, only to be formed again in 1955. In March 1964 the Chief Command was again disbanded but recreated in November 1967, the personnel strength of the Ground Forces was reduced from 9.8 million to 2.4 million. Elsewhere, they may have assisted the NKVD in suppressing resistance in Western Ukraine. Soviet troops, including the 39th Army, remained at Port Arthur, control was handed over to the new Chinese communist government. Soviet Army forces on USSR territory were apportioned among military districts, there were 32 of them in 1945.
Sixteen districts remained from the mid-1970s to the end of the USSR, the greatest Soviet Army concentration was in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, which suppressed the anti-Soviet Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. East European Groups of Forces were the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, and the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, in 1958, Soviet troops were withdrawn from Romania. The Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia was established after Warsaw Pact intervention against the Prague Spring of 1968. In 1969, at the east end of the Soviet Union, the Sino-Soviet border conflict, prompted establishment of a 16th military district, in 1979, the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan, to support its Communist government, provoking a 10-year Afghan mujahideen guerrilla resistance. Throughout the Cold War, Western intelligence estimates calculated that the Soviet strength remained ca.2.8 million to ca.5.3 million men, by the middle of the 1980s the Ground Forces contained about 210 divisions.
About three-quarters were motor rifle divisions and the tank divisions. There were a number of artillery divisions, separate artillery brigades, engineer formations. However, only relatively few formations were fully war ready, three readiness categories, A, B, and V, after the first three letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, were in force. The Category A divisions were certified combat-ready and were fully equipped, B and V divisions were lower-readiness, 50–75% and 10–33% respectively
Kirov, Kirov Oblast
Kirov, formerly known as Vyatka and Khlynov, is a city and the administrative center of Kirov Oblast, located on the Vyatka River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 473,695, Khlynov was first mentioned in 1374. It was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1489 and it was managed by Khanate of Kazan and was known as Hılın. The towns oldest surviving monument is the Assumption Cathedral, an imposing structure surmounted by five globular domes, in 1780, Catherine the Great renamed the town Vyatka and made it the seat of Vyatka Governorate. The town served as a place of exile, notably for Alexander Herzen, Alexander Vitberg, by the end of the 19th century, it was an important station on the Trans-Siberian railway. In December 1934, it was renamed for the Soviet leader Sergey Kirov, whilst the name Kirov has remained since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, numerous institutions such as the university bear the former name of Vyatka. Kirov is the center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with 134 rural localities, as a municipal division, the City of Kirov is incorporated as Kirov Urban Okrug.
Kirov is a transport hub and river port. It is served by Kirov Pobedilovo airport, during the 1990s this airport was closed and for several years provided only irregular service. During the 2003-2006 summer seasons there were signs of a revival in air transportation as several companies attempted to establish routes from Kirov to Moscow. Since 2006 Kirov airport has been used by a company operating flights to Moscow. The Kirov River port went bankrupt in the late 1990s and all its boats were sold to other regions. Kirov is a center of machine building, light, the trade, biochemical. Kirov Regional Museum Kirov Regional Art Museum in honor V. M. and A. M, Vasnetsov Vyatka Museum of Art, one of the oldest museums in Russia, was founded in 1910 by local artists. The idea of creation belongs to natives of Vyatka land, brothers artists Viktor Vasnetsov, at the core of the collection — works that received the most part in the 1910-1920s from the State Museum Fund, private collections and as gifts — from patrons and artists.
Today the museum has more than fifteen thousand exhibits and is located in four buildings in Kirov downtown, Aviation & Space Vyatka cabinet of curiosities Kirov diorama House-Museum of M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin Museum of A. Green House-Museum of N. According to a report, the city is home to a concentration of red-haired individuals
Order of Lenin
The Order of Lenin, named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was the highest decoration bestowed by the Soviet Union. Those who were awarded the titles Hero of the Soviet Union and it was bestowed on cities, factories, military units and ships. Corporate entities, various institutions and military units who received the said Order applied the full name of the order into their official titles. The order was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6,1930, the first design of the Order of Lenin was sculpted by Pyotr Tayozhny and Ivan Shadr based on sketches by Ivan Dubasov. It was made by Goznak of silver with some lightly gold-plated features and it was a round badge with a central disc featuring Vladimir Lenins profile surrounded by smokestacks, a tractor and a building, possibly a power plant. A thin red-enamelled border and a circle of wheat panicles surrounded the disc, at the top was a gold-plated hammer and sickle emblem, and at the bottom were the Russian initials for USSR in red enamel.
Only about 800 of this design were minted, the second design was awarded from 1934 until 1936. This was a gold badge, featuring an silver plated disc bearing Lenins portrait. The disc is surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat, and a red flag with LENIN in Cyrillic script, a red star is placed on the left and the hammer and sickle emblem at the bottom, both in red enamel. The third design was awarded from 1936 till 1943, design was same as previous, but central disc was gray enamelled and Lenins portrait was separate piece made of platinum fixed by rivets. The fourth design was awarded from 1943 till 1991, design was same as previous, but was worn as a medal suspended from a ribbon. The badge was worn by screwback on the left chest without ribbon. Later it was worn as a suspended from a red ribbon with pairs of yellow stripes at the edges. The ribbon bar is of the same design, the portrait of Lenin was originally a riveted silver piece. For a time it was incorporated into a gold badge. The first Order of Lenin was awarded to the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda on 23 May 1930, among the first ten recipients were five industrial companies, three pilots, and the Secretary to the Central Executive Committee Avel Enukidze.
The first person to be awarded a second Order of Lenin was the pilot Valery Chkalov in 1936, another pilot, Vladimir Kokkinaki, became the first to receive a third Order in 1939. The first five recipients, a German and four Americans, received the award for helping in the reconstruction of Soviet industry
Order of the Red Banner
The Order of the Red Banner was the first Soviet military decoration. The order was established on 16 September 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and it was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism and courage demonstrated on the battlefield, the order was awarded to individuals as well as to military units, ships and social organizations, and state enterprises. In years it was awarded on the twentieth and again on the thirtieth anniversary of military service without requiring participation in combat. The Russian Order of the Red Banner was established during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of September 16,1918, the first recipient was Vasily Blyukher on September 28,1918. The second recipient was Iona Yakir, during the Civil War there existed similarly named orders and decorations established by the Soviet communist governments of several other constituent and nonconstituent republics.
The August 1,1924 decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee established the all-Soviet Order of the Red Banner for deserving personnel of the Red Army, from 1918 till the late 1930s there was a collective variant - the Revolutionary Red Banner of Honor. This was in the form of a military color awarded to distinguished Red Army, Soviet Air Force and it was more older than the order, having been established on August 3, a month and several weeks before. As a military decoration, The Order of the Red Banner recognised heroism in combat or otherwise extraordinary accomplishments of military valour during combat operations. Before the establishment of the Order of Lenin on April 5,1930, during World War II, under various titles, it was presented both to individuals and to units for acts of extreme military heroism. Nearly all well-known Soviet commanders became recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, the order was awarded to individuals as well as whole formations, which added the prefix Red Banner to their official designations.
Naval vessels flew a special ensign, the Order of the Red Banner was used as a long service award between 1944 and 1958 to mark twenty and thirty years of service in the military, state security, or police. This was surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat, at the bottom were the letters SSSR, additional awards of the Order bore a white enamelled shield with a silver sequence number at the bottom of the obverse. A recipient of three Orders of the Red Banner would wear a badge of the order followed by his second award bearing a number 2. The early variants of the Order were screw back badges to wear on clothing. Later variants hung from a standard Soviet pentagonal mount with a ring through the suspension loop, the mount was covered with an overlapping 24mm wide red silk moiré ribbon with 1. 5mm wide white edge stripes and a 7mm wide white central stripe. The Order of the Red Banner was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, pavel Dybenko won 3 Orders of the Red Banner, his first in the 1921 bloody suppression of the naval rebellion in Kronstadt, his 2 others in 1922 in the suppression of peasants uprisings
Despite the name Karelian question, the term may refer to the return of Petsamo, ceded parts of Salla and Kuusamo, and four islands in the Gulf of Finland. Sometimes the phrase debate on the return of the territories is used. The Karelian question remains a matter of debate rather than a political issue. The Karelian question arose when Finland was forced to cede territories to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in the Moscow peace treaty in 1940, most Finnish citizens were evacuated from the ceded areas. Most of them returned during the Continuation War and eventually were evacuated again in 1944, the Soviet Union insisted the ceded areas be completely evacuated in 10 days. The evacuees were partly compensated for their losses, for example, the compensation was about one third of the original farm. Compensation for movable property was much less, all evacuee families had a right to receive a small farm, and/or a plot for a detached house or a flat. The land used for these grants was confiscated by the state from municipalities, financial compensation was funded by a general property tax of 10 to 30%, levied over a period of several years.
Because the vast majority of the evacuees who had to settle in the rest of Finland were from ceded Karelia, after the Winter War, Karelian municipalities and parishes established Karjalan Liitto to defend the rights of Karelians in Finland. During the Cold War, the Karelian-born Finnish politician Johannes Virolainen lobbied for the return of Karelia, President Urho Kekkonen tried to reacquire the territory, especially when the Soviet Union returned the peninsula of Porkkala to Finland in 1956. There was, however, no significant public controversy about the case, because Kekkonen wanted to keep it quiet, the last time Kekkonen tried to raise it was in 1972, but he had no success, and public discussion died out in the 1970s. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Karelian question re-surfaced, according to an article by the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat in August 2007, the Russian president Boris Yeltsin unofficially offered to sell ceded Karelia to Finland in 1991 but was declined.
However, according to many Finnish political leaders and the Russian vice Prime Minister of the time, there were no such offers and this price was set at 15 billion US dollars. According to Fyodorov, Finnish president Mauno Koivisto and Finnish foreign minister Paavo Väyrynen were aware of these unofficial discussions, Karjalan Liitto is an interest group of Karelian evacuees which hopes that Karelia will once again become part of Finland at some point, but does not openly demand it. Some smaller groups, such as ProKarelia, continue to campaign for the return of Karelia. However, no political party has openly supported this goal. There are some politicians who support the return of Karelia, such as MEP Ari Vatanen. Other candidates have stated that Finland has signed a peace treaty, during a debate prior to the 2012 presidential election Timo Soini reiterated his view that, if elected, he would advance the issue
62nd Army (Soviet Union)
The 62nd Order of Lenin Army was a field army established by the Soviet Unions Red Army during the Second World War. Formed as the 7th Reserve Army as part of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command in May 1942, after an epic combat performance in the Battle of Stalingrad, the 62nd Army was granted Guards status and renamed the 8th Guards Army in April 1943. The 7th Reserve Army was formed 28 May 1942 as part of the Stavka Reserve, within one month, this force had been redesignated the 62nd Army. From mid August 1942 until late January 1943, the 62nd Army, under the command of General Vasily Chuikov, 62nd Army conducted an epic defense of the city against repeated and desperate attacks by the German 6th Army. The Army, along with the 64th Army, was operating under the Soviet Stalingrad Front, after the German assault at Stalingrad had come to utter disaster, the 62nd Army was uniquely awarded the Order of Lenin, and granted Guards status as the 8th Guards Army. Many of these formations were burnt-out shells by the end of the Battle of Stalingrad, on 16 April 1943, the 62nd Army became the 8th Guards Army.
Jul 1942 to Aug 1942, Major General V. Ia, kolpakchi Aug 1942 to Sep 1942, Lieutenant General A. I. Lopatin Sep 1942 to Apr 1943, Lieutenant General V. I, Chuikov Bonn, Keith E. ed. Slaughterhouse, The Handbook of the Eastern Front. Glantz, David M. Companion to Colossus Reborn, Robert G. Conner, Albert Z. The Red Army Order of Battle in the Great Patriotic War
In European military tradition, military units may be acknowledged for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign. These honours usually take the form of a place and a date, theatre honours could be listed and displayed on regimental property but not emblazoned on the colours. Since battle honours are emblazoned on colours, artillery units. These honour titles were permitted to be used as part of their official nomenclature, similar honours in the same tenor include unit citations. Battle honours, theatre honours, honour titles and their ilk form a part of the variety of distinctions which serve to distinguish military units from each other. For the British Army, the need to adopt a system to recognise military units battlefield accomplishments was apparent since its formation as an army in the part of the 17th century. Although the granting of battle honours had already been in place at the time, before then, a regiments colours were practical tools for rallying troops in the battlefield and not quite something for displaying the units past distinctions.
The first battle honour to be awarded in the British Army was granted to the 15th Hussars for the Battle of Emsdorf in 1760, other regiments received battle honours for some of their previous engagements. The battle honour is held by the successor regiment, the Princess of Waless Royal Regiment. During these early years of the British standing army, a regiment needed only to engage the enemy with musketry before it was eligible for a battle honour, thus in 1882, a committee was formed to adjudicate applications of battle honour claims. This committee, called the Battles Nomenclature Committee, still maintains its function in the British Army today. A battle honour may be granted to infantry/cavalry regiments or battalions, as well as ships and squadrons, they are granted to sub-units such as companies. Battle honours are presented in the form of a name of a country, region, or city where the units distinguished act took place. Not every battle fought will automatically result in the granting of a battle honour, conversely, a regiment or a battalion might obtain more than one battle honour over the course of a larger operation.
Similarly, while in Korea, Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry earned both Kapyong and Korea 1951–1953, supporting corps/branches such as medical, ordnance, or transport do not currently receive battle honours. However and uniquely the Royal Logistic Corps has five battle honours inherited from its previous transport elements, Commonwealth artillery does not maintain battle honours as they carry neither colours nor guidons—though their guns by tradition are afforded many of the same respects and courtesies. However, both the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers were in 1832 granted by King William IV the right to use the Latin Ubique, meaning everywhere and this is worn on the cap badge of both the Corps of Royal Engineers and the Royal Regiment of Artillery. The practice was extended to these same regiments and corps in the successor Commonwealth armed forces
Odessa or Odesa is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. Odessa is a center of the Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa is sometimes called the pearl of the Black Sea, the South Capital, the predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement, was founded by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea, in 1440 and originally named after him as Hacıbey. After a period of Lithuanian control, it passed into the domain of the Ottoman Sultan in 1529, in 1794, the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Empress Catherine the Great. From 1819 to 1858, Odessa was a free port, during the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port, during the 19th century, it was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw.
Its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having heavily influenced by French. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau, the city of Odessa hosts both the Port of Odessa and Port Yuzhne, a significant oil terminal situated in the citys suburbs. Another notable port, Chornomorsk, is located in the same oblast, together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessas oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and European networks by strategic pipelines, the city was named in compliance with the Greek Plan of Catherine the Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos, which was believed to have been located here. Although Odessa is located in between the ancient Greek cities of Tyras and Olbia, Odessos is believed to be the predecessor of the present day city of Varna, Catherines secretary of state Adrian Gribovsky claimed in his memoirs that the name was his suggestion.
Some expressed doubts about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an honest and modest man, Odessa was the site of a large Greek settlement not than the middle of the 6th century BC. Some scholars believe it to be a settlement established by Histria. Whether the Bay of Odessa is the ancient Port of the Histrians cannot yet be considered a settled question based on the available evidence, archaeological artifacts confirm extensive links between the Odessa area and the eastern Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages successive rulers of the Odessa region included various nomadic tribes, the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Yedisan Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th century. During the reign of Khan Hacı I Giray of Crimea, the Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks and, in search of allies, the site of present-day Odessa was a fortress known as Khadjibey. It was part of the Dykra region, most of the rest of the area remained largely uninhabited in this period
Republic of Karelia
The Republic of Karelia is a federal subject of Russia, located in the northwest of Russia. Its capital is the city of Petrozavodsk and its population in 2010 was 643,548. From 1940 to 1956, it was known as the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, in 1956, it was once again an autonomous republic and remains as part of Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The republic is in the part of Russia, taking intervening position between the White and Baltic Seas. The White Sea has a line of 630 kilometers. It has an area of 172,400 km2 and it shares internal borders with Murmansk Oblast, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Vologda Oblast, and Leningrad Oblast, and it borders Finland, the borders measure 723 km. The main bodies of water next to Karelia are the White Sea to the north-east and Lake Onega and its highest point is the Nuorunen peak at 576 m. This area is the largest contiguous Archaean outcrop in Europe and one of the largest in the world, There are about 27,000 rivers in Karelia.
Major rivers include, Vodla River Kem River Kovda River Shuya River Suna River with Kivach Falls Vyg River There are 60,000 lakes in Karelia, the republics lakes and swamps contain about 2,000 km³ of high-quality fresh water. Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega are the largest lakes in Europe, other lakes include, Nyukozero Pyaozero Segozero Syamozero Topozero Vygozero Lakes Ladoga and Onega are located on the south of the republic. Vodlozero National Park Kalevala National Park Paanajärvi National Park The majority of the territory is composed of state forest stock. The total growing stock of resources in the forests of all categories and ages is 807 million m³. The mature and over mature tree stock amounts to 411.8 million m³, fifty useful minerals are found in Karelia, located in more than 400 deposits and ore bearing layers. Natural resources of the republic include iron ore, vanadium, the Republic of Karelia is located in the Atlantic continental climate zone. Average temperature in January is −8.0 °C and +16.4 °C in July, average annual precipitation is 500–700 mm.
Historically, Karelia was a region to the northwest of Russia, east of present-day Finland, controlled by the Novgorod Republic. From the 13th century and onwards, various parts were conquered by Sweden, in 1920, the province became the Karelian Labour Сommune. In 1923, the became the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Annexed territories were incorporated into Karelo-Finnish SSR, but after the Continuation War the Karelian Isthmus was incorporated into the Leningrad Oblast and its status was changed back to an ASSR in 1956
Murmansk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the northwestern part of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Murmansk, as of the 2010 Census, its population was 795,409. Geographically, Murmansk Oblast is located mainly on the Kola Peninsula almost completely north of the Arctic Circle and is a part of the larger Lapland region that spans four countries. Arkhangelsk Oblast of Russia lies across the White Sea, much of the oblasts relief is hilly, with the Khibiny and Lovozero ranges rising as high as 1,200 meters above sea level and stretching from west to east. The north of the oblast is covered by tundra, forest tundra prevails further south. There are over 100,000 lakes and 18,000 rivers in the oblast, the climate is harsh and unstable, due to the proximity of the Gulf Stream on one side and Arctic cold fronts on the other. Sharp temperature changes, high winds, and abundant precipitation are common throughout the year, the waters of the Murman Coast in the south remain warm enough to remain ice-free even in winter.
The Saami, now a small minority, are the indigenous people of the region. However, Russians started to explore the shores of the White Sea as early as the 12th century, despite these early settlements, the area remained undeveloped for centuries, with the city of Murmansk being founded only in 1916. The oblast was established on May 28,1938 from Murmansk Okrug of Leningrad Oblast, the area of Pechengsky District, which was ceded to Finland by the 1920 Treaty of Tartu and gave Finland access to the Barents Sea, was recaptured by the Soviet Union in 1940. After the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947, the local Saami population was given the choice either of staying in Soviet Russia or resettling in Finland, most of them chose the second option. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, the Charter of Murmansk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Murmansk Oblast is the provinces standing legislative body, the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it.
The indigenous people of the area, the Saami, are only a minority today. As of the 2002 Census,92. 2% of the population live in urban areas. The most populous city is the Oblasts administrative center, other large cities and towns include Severomorsk, Kandalaksha and Kirovsk. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group, according to a 2012 official survey 41. 4% are adherents of Rodnovery and other indigenous folk religions, and 1% are members of the Catholic Church. In addition, 28% of the population declares to be spiritual but not religious, 12% is atheist, the Murmansk Oblast is very rich in natural resources and has deposits of over 700 minerals