Battle of Debrecen
The Battle of Debrecen, called by the Red Army the Debrecen Offensive Operation, was a battle taking place 6–29 October 1944 on the Eastern Front during World War II. The offensive was conducted by the 2nd Ukrainian Front under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, on 23 August 1944, Germanys former ally, Romania had declared war on Germany and its ally Hungary. The subsequent drive of Soviet General Fedor Tolbukhins 3rd Ukrainian Front into Romania destroyed any semblance of a defensive line. On 8 September, another former German ally, declared war on Germany, by this time, aided by the 2nd Ukrainian Front under Malinovsky had destroyed thirteen Axis divisions, taking over 100,000 prisoners. Both Malinovsky and Tolbukhin were promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union for this on 10 and 12 September respectively and these developments had opened up a 650 kilometer gap in Friessners Army Group. On 24 September 1944, Friessners Army Group South Ukraine was redesignated Army Group South, General Fretter-Picos Sixth Army formed the nucleus of Friessners force, along with the Hungarian Second Army.
The German-Hungarian force was designated Armeegruppe Fretter-Pico, fearing encirclement, commander of Army Group South Ukraine Generaloberst Johannes Friessner requested Hitlers permission to withdraw. Hitler refused to authorize it but promised additional forces for Friessners army group, hitler ordered Friessner to start a new offensive with the goal of a destruction of two of Malinovskys Armies, the 27th Army and the 6th Guards Tank Army. In addition, he was ordered to retake two vital passes in the Southern Carpathians, on 14 September 1944, Malinovsky, in conjunction with the 3rd Ukrainian Front, launched the Belgrade Offensive. Friessner had been concentrating troops for his own planned offensive, by the end of September 1944, both Malinovsky and Friessner had received new orders. Malinovsky was now ordered to attack towards Budapest from the salient to the south around Arad and he was to use the 46th and 1st Romanian Armies with the Cavalry Mechanized Group Pliyev as the exploitation force in case of a successful breakthrough.
The remainder of Malinovskys forces, including the 6th Guards Tank Army, 53rd Army, the plan was for the two spearheads to link up and encircle the German forces. Meanwhile, Friessners orders included an attack from Oradea with Armeegruppe Fretter-Pico, the 2nd Ukrainian Front operation began on 6 October 1944, with Malinovskys southern pincer attacking near Arad, and slicing through the Hungarian Third Army. The spearhead of the southern 2nd Ukrainian Front pincer, followed by the Cavalry Mechanized Group Pliyev, had advanced almost sixty kilometres within the first 24 hours. The attack by the northern 2nd Ukrainian Front pincer ran into difficulty quickly, by the end of the day, the northern pincer had advanced only ten kilometres. Reacting quickly, Fretter-Pico ordered the 76th Infantry Division into the line near Oradea. This freed up the 23rd Panzer Division to move south to counter the breakthrough near Arad, the German Panzer Division Feldherrnhalle 1, refitting at Mezőkövesd, was moved into action to guard potential crossing points on the Tisza River against the advancing 2nd Ukrainian Front units.
By the evening of 7 October 1944, the 2nd Ukrainian Front southern pincer had advanced further towards the Tisza River, the northern pincer was still stalled near Oradea
99th Guards Rifle Division
The 99th Guards Rifle Division was a Red Army division of World War II. It was formed from the 14th Guards Airborne Division in January 1944 and it fought in the Svir-Petrozavodsk Offensive between June and August 1944. It became the 99th Guards Airborne Division in August but was converted into infantry again in December 1944, the division fought in the Budapest Offensive and in the defense against Operation Spring Awakening. At the end of the war it participated in the Vienna Offensive, in August 1945 it transferred to the Far East and was converted into an airborne division in 1946. The division served in the Far East for the decade and was disbanded in 1956. The 99th Guards Rifle Division was formed from the 14th Guards Airborne Division on 19 January 1944, the 14th Guards Airborne Division had been formed on 23 December 1943 from the 6th Guards Airborne Brigade, the 13th Guards Airborne Brigade and the 15th Guards Airborne Brigade. Prior to June 1944, it was stationed in the Moscow Military District, on 21 June 1944, the division crossed the Svir and breaking through the Finnish defences, seized its objectives.
On 25 June, it captured the strongpoint of Kuytezha, on the same day, the division captured the strongholds of Pirkinichi and Semenovschinu. The division advanced to the north to Svirstroy and prevented the Finnish from blowing up a dam, on 15 July 1944, the division, supported by the 29th Tank Brigade, attacked. After the Finnish troops were routed,460 soldiers from the division were surrounded after advancing too far. On 9 August, the division was put in reserve near Orsha, on 9 August it became the 99th Guards Airborne Division. In January 1945, the division was transferred to Hungary and was positioned southeast of Budapest, on 13 March 1945, it repulsed the German counterattack during Operation Spring Awakening. During the Vienna Offensive, it broke through the German defences north of Székesfehérvár, into the 6th SS Panzer Armys rear area, on 29 March it fought in the capture of Szombathely. In early April, in conjunction with the 6th Guards Tank Army, it advanced to the Danube, on 1 April 1945 it was on the outskirts of Wiener Neustadt, on 2 April in Baden bei Wien.
The division fought in the Vienna Offensive until 13 April, on 8 May, it captured Znojmo. The division advanced to the Elbe and in May was in the area of Mlaka in Czechoslovakia, in August 1945, the division was transferred to the Transbaikal Military District. In 1953 the 196th Guards Airborne Regiment was formed as part of the division, the 99th Guards Airborne Division was disbanded on 4 May 1956. Its 300th Guards Airborne Regiment and 74th Guards Artillery Regiment transferred to the 98th Guards Airborne Division
5th Guards Tank Division
The 5th Guards Tank Division was a tank division of the Soviet Ground Forces and Russian Ground Forces, active from around 1945 to 2009. It drew its heritage from an illustrious Soviet World War II cavalry formation, the 5th Guards Cavalry Corps. 5 Guards Cavalry Corps was reorganised as 5 Guards Cavalry Division in July 1946, becoming 5 Guards Heavy Tank Division, 18 Guards Heavy Tank Division. )With the beginning of the Nikita Khrushchev era, the Strategic Rocket Forces were increasingly emphasised at the expense of the Ground Forces, and the Ground Forces were reduced and reorganized. The division was located in Mongolia under the 39th Army and the 57th Army Corps for many years before being withdrawn in 1991–92, one source reports that it was disbanded from 1984–89 and was incorporated into the 48 Guards Independent Army Corps during that time. The 29th Army was subsequently disbanded, adam Geibel wrote that 5th Don Guards Tank Division, stationed in Buryatia, had received ‘a few’ T-90s.
Divisions honorifics seem to include Don and Budapest, in 2009, the division became the 37th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade. 108th Tank Regiment, 140th Guards Tank Regiment, 160th Guards Tank Regiment, 311th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, 861st SP Artillery Regiment, 940th Anti-aircraft Missile Regiment, the Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War
106th Guards Airborne Division
The 106th Guards Tula Red Banner Order of Kutuzov Airborne Division, more generally referred to as the Tula Division, is one of the four airborne divisions of the Russian Airborne Troops, the VDV. Based in the city of Tula, to the south of Moscow and it became the 106th Guards Rifle Division in December 1944, as all the original VDV divisions and brigades were being reconstituted as Guards Rifle formations. The Divisions honorifics are Red Banner, Order of Kutuzov, though an early Western writer reported them as Dneipr-Transbaikal seemingly incorrectly, on 7 June 1946, the 106th Guards Rifle Division was converted to an airborne division at Tula, part of the new 38th Guards Airborne Corps. On 1 October 1948, the divisions 347th Guards Air Landing Regiment was used to form the 11th Guards Airborne Division and it was replaced by the new 51st Guards Air Landing Regiment, which became an airborne unit in 1949. On 5 May 1955, the 137th Guards Airborne Regiment joined the division from the disbanded 11th Guards Airborne Division, on 6 January 1959, the 110th Separate Military-Transport Aviation Squadron was formed with the division, equipped with ten Antonov An-2 transports.
On 15 August 1960, the 205th Guards Artillery Regiment became the 845th Separate Guards Artillery Battalion, at the same time, the 351st Guards Airborne Regiment transferred to the 105th Guards Airborne Division and was replaced by the 105ths 331st Guards Airborne Regiment. On 27 April 1962, the 845th Separate Guards Artillery Battalion became the 1182nd Guards Artillery Regiment, the Tula Division, from that point until the present day, was to be one of the most frequently-used elements of it. Two of its regiments took part in the Soviet war in Afghanistan, as nationalist unrest grew in the southern republics of the USSR throughout the end of the 1980s, the division was deployed to Baku, Azerbaijan, in 1988 and to Fergana, Uzbekistan, in 1990. Throughout this time the division was commanded by General Alexander Lebed, in 1991, an attempted coup against the Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev took place in Moscow. When they arrived, Lebed stated that he had orders to secure the Parliament building and he did not, give the order for his men, equipped with BMD armoured vehicles, to launch an attack.
Following the failure of the coup and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, in 1992, battalions of the Tula Division were attached to Group West. In March 1995, the battalions were transferred to the command of Group North and continued fighting, in May, they withdrew from Chechnya. The divisions losses in the first war are unclear,36 of its soldiers have been confirmed killed in action, the Second Chechen War began in 1999. With Moscow determined to avoid a repeat of the quagmire that the first war had become, the Tula Divisions contribution to that force was the 51st and 119th Parachute Landing Regiments. Its losses in war were still considerable but less than in the first,67 of its soldiers were reported either killed or missing in action. For its actions in the campaign, the Tula Division was awarded the MoD Pennant. On 26 April 2004, the Tula Division celebrated its 60th anniversary, in August 2014 the divisions 137th Guards Airborne Regiment had participated in the War in Donbass. On 13 August 2015, the division was given the honorific name Tula, modern Russian airborne divisions are relatively smaller formations, in manpower terms, they number around over 5,000 men
30th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)
The 30th Mechanized Brigade is a formation of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. The full name of the unit is 30th Separate Mechanized Novohrad-Volynskyi Rivne Brigade, between September 1 and October 1,1941, the 83rd Cavalry Division was formed in the city of Samarkand, Uzbekistan. On November 7,1941, the division was sent to the Volga Military District where it was assigned to the newly forming Cavalry mechanized group of the 61st Army, until December 28,1941, the division was fortifying near the station of Lysi Gory Saratov Oblast. In January 1942 the division was assigned to the 7th Cavalry Corps and was assigned to be a Mobile Group in the Moscow Defense Zone for the 61st Army, the division was under the command of General Major Pyotr Zubov. The 13th Guards Cavalry Division fought at Dubno in 1944, as well as at the Battle of Debrecen and was with 6th Guards Cavalry Corps of the 2nd Ukrainian Front in May 1945, feskov et al. trace the units history as follows. At the beginning of June, the relocated to Novohrad-Volynskyi.
On 1 August 1945, the division was converted into the 11th Guards Mechanized Division, during November and December 1956, the division fought in the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. 44 soldiers of the division were killed during the campaign in Hungary, the division moved back to Novohrad-Volynskyi in January 1957. On 4 June 1957 it became the 30th Guards Tank Division, in 1960, the divisions 58th Separate Tank Training Battalion was disbanded. On 19 February 1962 the 335th Separate Missile Battalion and the 108th Separate Equipment Maintenance, in 1968 the 151st Separate Guards Sapper Battalion became the 151st Separate Guards Engineer-Sapper Battalion. The 1043rd Separate Material Supply Battalion was created from the motor transport battalion in 1980, during the Cold War, the division was maintained at 25% strength. In November 1990, the division was equipped with 224 T-72 main battle tanks, in February 1992, all units of the division pledged their allegiance to Ukraine. It was still designated a division as of Decree N 350/93.
On October 20,1999, the division was awarded the Novohrad-Volynskyi designation, on July 30,2004, the division was reformed into a brigade. Currently the brigade is the only mechanized brigade that does not have any conscripts and it is a part of Joint Rapid Reaction Forces. Over a hundred soldiers from the brigade have served in peacekeeping missions in Sierra Leone, Iraq, a battalion of the brigade was part of POLUKRBAT in the 2006 rotation. As of October 12,2007, the 2nd Mechanized Battalion of the brigade is deployed in Kosovo as part of the POLUKRBAT, the current commander of the brigade served as a commander of the 5th Separate Mechanized brigade in Iraq. In 2015 the brigade took part in the Battle of Debaltseve during the War in Donbass, on 18 November 2015 the Soviet decorations of brigades full name were removed, leaving the full name of 30th Separate Guards Mechanized Novohrad-Volynskyi Rivne Brigade
Alexander Ilyich Dutov, one of the leaders of the Cossack counterrevolution in the Urals, Lieutenant General. Dutov was born in Kazalinsk in Syr-Darya Oblast and he graduated from Nikolayev cavalry School, and Nikolayev Engineering Institute, now Military engineering-technical university, and General Staff Academy. He was Assistant Commander of the Cossack regiment during World War I, in November, Dutov raised a revolt against the Soviet authorities in Orenburg. In June 1918, Dutov with the help of the Czech Legion organized a struggle for complete termination of the Soviet authority in the Urals and he was in charge of the Detached Orenburg Army in Aleksandr Kolchaks army. In 1919 he tried to convince General Grigory Semyonov to join him as a force to fight the Red Army. Semyonov refused despite a significant diplomatic effort from Governor Vasile Balabanov claiming he was only since the provisional government in St Petersburg collapsed in the revolution. In 1920 General Dutov helped a number of Russian leaders including Vasile Balabanov, after his armys defeat by Red Army, Dutov escaped to China, where he was assassinated in Suiding by a Bolshevik agent Мahmud Khadzhamirov in February 1921
Kutaisi is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city. Situated 221 kilometres west of Tbilisi, it is the capital of the region of Imereti. Kutaisi is located along banks of the Rioni River. The city lies at an elevation of 125–300 metres above sea level, to the east and northeast, Kutaisi is bounded by the Northern Imereti Foothills, to the north by the Samgurali Range, and to the west and the south by the Colchis Plain. Kutaisi is surrounded by deciduous forests to the northeast and the northwest, the low-lying outskirts of the city have a largely agricultural landscape. The city centre has many gardens its streets are lined with high, in the springtime, when the snow starts to melt in the nearby mountains, the storming Rioni River in the middle of the city is heard far beyond its banks. Kutaisi has a subtropical climate with a well-defined on-shore/monsoonal flow during the Autumn. The summers are hot and relatively dry while the winters are wet. Average annual temperature in the city is 14.5 degrees Celsius, january is the coldest month with an average temperature of 5.3 degrees Celsius while July is the hottest month with an average temperature of 23.2 degrees Celsius.
The absolute minimum recorded temperature is −17 degrees Celsius and the maximum is 44 degrees Celsius. Average annual precipitation is around 1,530 mm, rain may fall in every season of the year. The city often experiences heavy, wet snowfall in the winter, Kutaisi experiences powerful easterly winds in the summer which descend from the nearby mountains. Kutaisi was the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Colchis, archaeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the kingdom of Colchis in the sixth to fifth centuries BC. From 978 to 1122 CE, Kutaisi was the capital of the united Kingdom of Georgia, in 1508, the city was captured by Selim I, who was the son of Bayezid II, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. During the seventeenth century, Imeretian kings made many appeals to Russia to help them in their struggle for independence from the Ottomans, all these appeals were ignored as Russia did not want to spoil relations with Turkey. Totleben helped King Solomon I of Imereti to recover his capital, finally, the Russian-Turkish wars ended in 1810 with the annexation of the Imeretian Kingdom by the Russian Empire.
The city was the capital of the Gubernia of Kutaisi, which included much of west Georgia, in March 1879, the city was the site of a blood- libel trial that attracted attention all over Russia, the ten accused Jews were acquitted. Kutaisi was an industrial center before Georgias independence in 1991