2017 Shayrat missile strike
|2017 Shayrat missile strike|
|Part of the Syrian Civil War|
the American-led intervention in Syria
and US attacks against the Syrian government
|Operational scope||Single-site targeted military strike|
|Planned by||United States|
|Commanded by||Donald Trump|
|Date||7 April 2017|
04:40 EEST (UTC+03:00)
|Executed by||United States Navy|
|Casualties||9 civilians, 7 soldiers killed (per Syrian Government)|
9 soldiers killed (per SOHR)
10 aircraft destroyed, and 5 damaged (independent photographic evidence and Syrian government)
5 SAM batteries destroyed or damaged, and 10 ammo storages destroyed (independent satellite imagery)
On the morning of 7 April 2017, the United States launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles from the Mediterranean Sea into Syria, aimed at Shayrat Airbase controlled by the Syrian government. The strike was executed under responsibility of U.S. President Donald Trump, as a direct response to the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack that occurred on 4 April.
The strike was the first unilateral military action by the United States targeting Ba'athist Syrian government forces during the Syrian Civil War. Trump stated shortly thereafter, "It is in this vital national security interest of the United States to prevent and deter the spread and use of deadly chemical weapons."
The Syrian Air Force launched airstrikes against the rebels from the base only hours after the American attack. The ability to continue to use the base for these attacks has been attributed[who?] to the advance warning the US gave to Syria's ally, Russia, prior to the missile strike.
On the evening of 6 April, President Trump notified members of the U.S. Congress of his plan on the missile strike. According to a White House official, more than two dozen members of Congress were briefed at the notification. Internationally, the United States also notified several countries, including Canada, the UK, Australia, and Russia, in advance of the strike. The U.S. military stated it communicated with the Russian military to minimize any chance of Russian casualties. Former White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon had reportedly opposed the strike, and disagreed with Senior Advisor to the President, Jared Kushner, who reportedly favored the strike. The strike was conducted without either U.S. congressional or United Nations Security Council approval. Commodore Tate Westbrook commanded the Navy task force in charge of the missile launch.
The strike targeted Shayrat Airbase in the Homs Governorate, which was believed by American intelligence to be the base for the aircraft that carried out a chemical weapons attack on 4 April, and was intended to destroy air defenses, aircraft, hangars and fuel. The US avoided striking a suspected sarin gas storage facility at the targeted airport. 59 Tomahawk missiles were said to have been launched from two U.S. Navy warships, USS Ross and USS Porter, at around 20:40 EDT (04:40 local time). Reconnaissance was provided by Python 73, a Boeing RC-135 of the 55th Wing.
U.S. Central Command stated in a press release that Tomahawk missiles hit "aircraft, hardened aircraft shelters, petroleum and logistical storage, ammunition supply bunkers, defense systems, and radars". Initial U.S. reports claimed "approximately 20 planes" were destroyed, and that 58 out of the 59 cruise missiles launched "severely degraded or destroyed" their intended target. According to the satellite images the runways and the taxiways have been reportedly undamaged and combat flights from the attacked airbase resumed on 7 April a few hours after the attack, although U.S. officials did not state that the runway was a target. In a later statement on 10 April 2017, the US Secretary of Defense James Mattis claimed that the strike destroyed about 20% of the Syrian government's operational aircraft and the base had lost the ability to refuel or rearm aircraft.
An independent bomb damage assessment conducted by ImageSat International counted hits on 44 targets, with some targets being hit by more than one missile; these figures were determined using satellite images of the airbase 10 hours after the strike. Among the targets struck were 5 SA-6 missile batteries.
According to the claims of Russian defense ministry, the "combat effectiveness" of the attack was "extremely low"; only 23 missiles hit the base destroying six aircraft, and it did not know where the other 36 landed. Russian television news, citing a Syrian source at the airfield, said that nine planes were destroyed by the strikes (5 Su-22M3s, 1 Su-22M4, and 3 Mig-23ML) and that all planes were thought to have been out of action at the time. The Israeli satellite imagery services company ImageSat International, associated with the Israeli defense industry, later released high resolution satellite images of the base taken within 10 hours of the attack showing that at a minimum, 44 strikes had occurred.
Lost Armour's online photographic database, for vehicle losses in the War in Syria, has images of 10 destroyed aircraft at Shayrat airbase.
Seven or nine Syrian soldiers were killed, including a general; Russian military personnel were also present at the airbase at the time it was attacked. According to Syrian state news SANA, nine civilians were also killed in the attack, including four children. SANA also stated that five of the civilians were killed in the village of Shayrat, outside the base, while another four were killed in the village of Al-Hamrat, and that another seven civilians were wounded when a missile hit homes in Al-Manzul, four kilometers (two and a half miles) away from the Shayrat air base. According to Russian defense ministry, four soldiers were killed and two soldiers were missing.
Hours after the U.S. missile strike, Syrian government's warplanes took off from the Shayrat base to attack rebel positions again, including the town of Khan Shaykhun. Commentators attributed the ability of the Syrian government to continue to operate from the base to the fact that the US gave Russia, Syria's ally, an advanced warning regarding the strike, which enabled Syrians to shelter many of its aircraft from the attack.
Within a day of the attack, Russia announced it would strengthen Syria's air defenses and formally notified the Pentagon that as of 21:00 GMT (00:00 Moscow Time, 8 April 2017), Russia had suspended the U.S.–Russia Memorandum of Mutual Understanding, which had established a hotline between the countries′ militaries designed to avoid collisions between their aircraft over Syria. As a result, Belgium suspended its air operations in Syria, and the US began limiting itself to only the most essential air strikes.
According to some local sources, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant took advantage of the attack and absence of the Syrian Air Force in eastern Homs, by launching several attacks on the Syrian Army's defenses in the western Palmyra countryside. It also attacked the checkpoints outside the village of al-Furqalas, but those attacks were repelled. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, the Shayrat airbase remained operational and Syrian warplanes took off from it the following day. The price of oil briefly rose over 2% following the strike.
After both the chemical attack and missile strike, the U.S. administration was in disagreement and contradiction to U.S. policy from 2013 until 30 March 2017, as well the statements by U.S. ambassador to U.N. Nikki Haley, United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer and National Security Advisor H. R. McMaster differed on the change of U.S. military posture toward Syria and prioritization of regime change.
On 7 April 2017, an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council was held: Bolivia′s ambassador Sacha Llorenty requested a closed session to discuss the U.S. strike, but U.S. ambassador Nikki Haley, serving as the council president for April, forced the meeting to be held in public view. United Nations News Centre reported that while some delegates expressed support for the strikes as a response to the Syrian Government's alleged use of chemical weapons, others condemned it as a unilateral act of aggression, underlining that the Council must authorize any such intervention.
On 8 April 2017, the UK Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson issued a statement that announced that, upon consultations with the U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, he had cancelled his trip to Moscow scheduled for 10 April. On 11 April 2017, after the meeting at Lucca in Italy the Group of Seven unanimously blamed the Syrian government's military for the chemical attack and agreed that Assad must step down as part of any peace solution, but European allies rejected the US and UK push for sanctions against Russia and Syria.
Reactions from members of Congress were mixed and not uniform by political party. Paul Ryan (R–WI), the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, said the strike was "appropriate and just". House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R–CA) said, "Assad has made his disregard for innocent human life and long-standing norms against chemical weapons use crystal clear. Tonight's strikes show these evil actions carry consequences." House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D–CA) said, "Tonight's strike in Syria appears to be a proportional response to the regime's use of chemical weapons." Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R–KY) said the strike was "perfectly executed and for the right purpose". Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D–NY) said, "Making sure Assad knows that when he commits such despicable atrocities he will pay a price is the right thing to do." Senator Bill Nelson (D–FL) expressed his support, and said, "I hope this teaches Assad not to use chemical weapons again." Senator Marco Rubio (R–FL) called it an "important decisive step". Quoting the President's statement, Senator Orrin Hatch (R–UT) tweeted, "'No child of God should ever suffer such horror.' Amen." In a joint statement, Senators John McCain (R–AZ) and Lindsey Graham (R–SC) said, "Unlike the previous administration, President Trump confronted a pivotal moment in Syria and took action. For that, he deserves the support of the American people." Their sentiment was shared by fellow Senators Bob Corker (R–TN), Tom Cotton (R–AR), Joni Ernst (R–IA), Cory Gardner (R–CO), David Perdue (R–GA), Ben Sasse (R–NE), and Thom Tillis (R–NC). Many members who supported the action showed lack of worry about the authority issues or did not know the legal and constitutional rationale that supported the action.
Other lawmakers criticized the President's actions, or urged caution. Representative Adam Schiff (D–CA), the Ranking Member of the House Intelligence Committee, was informed of the strike by Dan Coats, the Director of National Intelligence, as it was happening. He urged the administration "not to make this a military effort to change the regime". In a joint statement, Representatives and Iraq War veterans Seth Moulton (D–MA) and Steve Russell (R–OK) said, "We cannot stand by in silence as dictators murder children with chemical weapons, but military action without clear goals and objectives gets us nowhere." Senator Chris Coons (D–DE) said he was "gravely concerned that the United States is engaging further militarily in Syria without a well-thought-out, comprehensive plan". Representative Ted Lieu (D–CA) and Senator Tim Kaine (D–VA) called the strike unconstitutional, with the former tweeting, "This was done with no debate in Congress and no explanation to the American people." Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) tweeted that the strike could lead the U.S. into a new long-term quagmire, and that "such engagements are disastrous for American security, for the American economy, and for the American people". Representative Tulsi Gabbard (D–HI) gave a more critical message, and said, "This escalation is short-sighted and will lead to the death of more civilians, more refugees, the strengthening of al-Qaeda and other terrorists, and a possible nuclear war between the United States and Russia." Other lawmakers expressing criticism included Senators Michael Bennet (D–CO), Ben Cardin (D–MD), Ted Cruz (R–TX), Dick Durbin (D–IL), Ed Markey (D–MA), Jeff Merkley (D–OR), Elizabeth Warren (D–MA), and Representatives Joaquín Castro (D–TX) and Steny Hoyer (D–MD).
A number of Republicans with libertarian leanings also criticized the strike. Senator Mike Lee (R–UT) said, "President Trump should make his case in front of the American people and allow their elected representatives to debate the benefits and risks of further Middle East intervention to our national security interests." Senator Rand Paul (R–KY) tweeted, "While we all condemn the atrocities in Syria, the United States was not attacked." Representatives Justin Amash (R–MI) said, "Airstrikes are an act of war. Atrocities in Syria cannot justify a departure from Constitution, which vests in Congress the power to commence war", and Thomas Massie (R–KY) called it a "big mistake". Former congressman Ron Paul argued that because in Syria "things [had been] going along reasonably well for the conditions", there was "zero chance" that Assad had deliberately used chemical weapons, and called the attack a "false flag".
A poll conducted by The Washington Post and ABC News reported that a "bare majority" of Americans supported the missile strikes and a similarly narrow majority opposed any further military action against the Syrian Government. A poll conducted by The Huffington Post and YouGov reported that around 51% of Americans supported the decision, and slightly more than one-third opposed both the decision and any further military action, with 45% unsure regarding future action. A poll conducted by CBS News reported that a small majority (nearly 6/10) supported the attack, but the appearance of consensus ends regarding future action. A poll conducted by Politico and Morning Consult reported that 66% supported the strikes, which includes 35% who strongly support and 31% who somewhat support them.
Many right-wing/-leaning populist media figures criticized Trump's reversal of policy towards war in Syria and the Middle East. Ann Coulter pointed out that Trump "campaigned on not getting involved in Mideast" and this was one of the reasons many voted for him.
Syria and allies
A joint command center of Russian and Iranian military in Syria, who support the Syrian government, said the strike crossed "red lines" and threatened to "respond with force" to "US aggression".
Syrian state media condemned the strike, calling it an "act of aggression", and claiming it caused unspecified losses. The Syrian Army said that its response will be to continue to "crush terrorism" and restore "peace and security to all Syrians". The Governor of Homs, Talal Barazi, said that the strike proves that the United States is supporting terrorism within Syria. Barazi told the Syrian News Channel that "they are not surprised today to see the supporting parties interfering directly after the failure of terrorists in targeting Syria".
The spokesperson for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad called the missile strikes "unjust and arrogant aggression", and an "outrageous act", and that the attack "does not change the deep policies" of the Syrian Government. The Syrian Ambassador Bashar Jaafari at the UN Security Council session stated that "this act makes America a partner of ISIL, Al-Nusra and other terrorist groups", and it was a violation of the U.N. Charter. President Assad later told the Agence France-Presse that the chemical attack was "100% fabricated" and accused the United States of being "hand-in-glove with the terrorists" over the chemical attack. He also explained that the chemical attack was made up in order to give the United States an excuse to bomb the Shayrat airbase in retaliation.
Najib Ghadbian, a representative of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, welcomed the strikes: "They are first good steps but we would like them to be part of a bigger strategy that would put an end to the mass killing, an end to impunity and eventually we hope that they will lead to a kind of a political transition [in Syria]." The pro-Turkish Kurdish National Council welcomed the missile strikes in Syria. "All Syrian people, including the Kurds, are happy and welcoming such an air campaign by the United States", a leader in the Kurdish Unity Party, part of the KNC, stated.
Salih Muslim Muhammad, co-leader of the Democratic Union Party, stated that the attack "must yield positive results since the parties who did not believe in a political solution" will "reconsider" and "see that there is no military solution", and the US was "forced" to execute the attack. The PYD "hoped" that the US will not only attack the Syrian government, but "other parties have also used it, in Sheikh Maqsood, in Rojava, and Raqqa".
The Russian President′s spokesperson said the U.S. strike was "an act of aggression against a sovereign country violating the norms of international law under a trumped-up pretext", which "substantially impair[ed]" Russia–United States relations. The Russian Government also alleged that the strike was an attempt to distract the world from civilian casualties in Iraq (an apparent reference to U.S. airstrike in Mosul that killed more than 200). The Russian foreign ministry denounced the strike as being based on false intelligence and against international law, suspended the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Prevention of Flight Safety Incidents that had been signed with the U.S., and called an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council. Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov compared the strike to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Russian prime minister Dimitry Medvedev said the attack had placed the U.S. on the cusp of warfare with Russia. Russia has sent the frigate Admiral Grigorovich to the east Mediterranean in response, and warned that the US strike could have "extremely serious" consequences.
Iran's president Hassan Rouhani condemned the U.S. military strike, saying Trump had claimed that "he wanted to fight terrorism, but today, all terrorists in Syria are celebrating the U.S. attack". According to Iranian foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif's tweet, "Not even two decades after 9/11, U.S. military fighting on same side as al-Qaida & ISIS in Yemen & Syria. Time to stop hype and cover-ups." He described U.S. concerns regarding chemical attacks as hypocritical, inasmuch as the United States had supported Iraqi forces under Saddam Hussein as they massively used chemical weapons during the Iran–Iraq War.
During Friday prayers in Tehran, worshipers protesting the strike chanted "Death to America" and "Death to Al Saud" – referring to the Saudi royal family. Ayatollah Mohammad Emami Kashani, who led the Friday prayers, called the United States "crazy" and blasted its "crimes". Ayatollah Kashani said that the Americans "gave chemical weapons and substances to the terrorists, while creating terrorists all over the world".
According to an analyst writing for HuffPost, the 2017 Deir ez-Zor missile strike by Iran suggests that the country has shifted its three decades-long policy of testing, but not using missiles, as a reaction to Donald Trump's escalation in the Middle East, including "needless increase" in America's military involvement in the Syrian proxy war.
The governments of Albania, Australia, Bahrain, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom generally supported the strike, some calling it a just response and strong message against the use of chemical weapons. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the European Union have also expressed support for the attack. During the April 10 European Union summit in Madrid, the leaders of southern EU nations (Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain) said that a US missile strike on a Syrian airbase in retaliation for a suspected chemical attack was "understandable".
Luxembourg's foreign minister, Jean Asselborn, noted that the U.S. and Trump's change in policy toward Assad government was surprising, and considered an international diplomatic effort as a solution. Slovakia and Netherlands said they understood why the strike was carried out, but that it is important to de-escalate the situation as soon as possible. Finland stressed the role of the UN Security Council to work for a ceasefire and political negotiations to achieve sustainable peace. Austria also called for de-escalation of the situation and consider there can be only a political and not military solution for the conflict in Syria. The government of Cyprus believes the strike is not beyond international law if it concerns a serious violation of humanitarian law.
The Chinese, Greek, and Swedish governments offered neutral responses to the attack while the Indonesian government expressed concern over the attack. Trump told Xi Jinping, China's paramount leader and his guest at Mar-a-Lago, that he had ordered the attack; the missiles were near their targets as the Chinese leader left the resort. Xi told Trump that he understood the need of a military operation to respond when children were killed, according to Rex Tillerson. The Egyptian foreign ministry called on the United States and Russia to "contain the conflict" and reach a comprehensive and final resolution to the crisis, as did Hungarian Foreign Minister Péter Szijjártó who said that the civil war "cannot be resolved without an American-Russian accord" and Colombian President and 2016 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Juan Manuel Santos who called for a political solution to the conflict in Syria and dialogue between the United States and Russia to avoid escalating the already complex situation. The government of Switzerland has urged the international community to tackle the escalating Syrian crisis through diplomatic means rather than military confrontation. Taoiseach Enda Kenny of Ireland has described the strike as a "matter of grave concern"
The governments of Belarus, Brazil, Bolivia, Russia and Venezuela criticized the strikes, with Bolivia describing the actions as a violation of international law and Iran arguing that the strike would strengthen terrorists and complicate the war. Bolivian ambassador Sacha Llorenty accused the U.S. for "imperialistic action" and related the current US Security Council situation with the one from 2003 about the Iraq War, when Colin Powell wrongly alleged that Iraq was hiding weapons of mass destruction. President of Venezuela, Nicolás Maduro, "slammed" the missile strike, calling it "illegal" and a "violation of international law", stating that the attack was "based on lies" and that Syria was going through internal conflict to help "U.S. imperial interests". Belarus condemned the attack as "unacceptable", while Venezuela described the attack as a violation of Syria's sovereignty. Brazilian Minister of Foreign Affairs Aloysio Nunes Ferreira condemned the “unilateral use of force” by the United States without authorization from the United Nations. North Korea said that the strikes were an unforgivable act of aggression and that the strikes demonstrate why the country is entitled to its nuclear weapons program.
The U.N. Secretary-General António Guterres appealed "for restraint to avoid any acts that could deepen the suffering of the Syrian people", and that "there is no other way to solve the conflict than through a political solution".
- 2018 missile strikes against Syria
- International reactions to the 2013 Ghouta chemical attack § Military options
- September 2016 Deir ez-Zor air raid
- Shayrat and Tiyas airbase ambush
- Gordon, Michael R.; Cooper, Helene; Shear, Michael D. (6 April 2017). "Dozens of U.S. Missiles Hit Air Base in Syria". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017.
President Trump said Thursday night that the United States had carried out a missile strike in Syria on Thursday night in response to the Syrian government’s chemical weapons attack this week that killed more than 80 civilians ... Mr. Trump authorized the strike with no congressional approval for the use of force.
- Abdulrahim, Raja; Rydan, Noam (7 April 2017). "Syria Says Strike Kills 16, Damages Air Base" – via www.wsj.com. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Human losses rise to 9 of members and officers of regime forces in the US missile strikes on al-Shayrat airbase". Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "Nine Syrian planes destroyed by US strike on airfield". ITV News. 7 April 2017.
- "Latest update from Syrian airbase attacked by US Navy". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "ISI first to analyze Shayrat airfield missile attack". ImageStat International. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- "Statement from Pentagon Spokesman Capt. Jeff Davis on U.S. strike in S" (Press release). U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
...today [6 April 2017] at about 8:40 p.m. EDT (4:40 a.m., April 7, in Syria)...
- Starr, Barbara; Diamond, Jeremy (6 April 2017). "Trump launches military strike against Syria". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Syria war: US launches missile strikes following chemical 'attack'". BBC News. 7 April 2017. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Lamothe, Dan; Ryan, Missy; Gibbons-Neff, Thomas (6 April 2017). "U.S. strikes Syrian military airfield in first direct assault on Bashar al-Assad's government". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- ABC News staff (7 April 2017). "US warships launch cruise missile strike against Syrian airfield in retaliation for chemical attack". ABC News Australia. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- President Trump speaks after ordering attack on Syria VOA, 6 April 2017.
- "Trump calls on 'all civilized nations' to end carnage in Syria after launching missile strike". Dallas News.
- Josie Ensor (8 Apr 2017). "Syrian warplanes take off once again from air base bombed by US Tomahawks". The Guardian.
- "Can the President Attack Another Country Without Congress?". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
The U.S. missile strikes Thursday on a Syrian air base were conducted without formal congressional approval.
- Boutilier, Alex (7 April 2017). "Canada supports 'limited' attack on Syrian airbase, Trudeau says". The Star. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Tingle, Laura (7 April 2017). "Australia briefed beforehand on US strike". The Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Al Jazeera and news agencies" (7 April 2017). "US launches cruise missiles at Syrian air base". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- AFP (7 April 2017). "UN divided over Syria gas attack probe as US launches missile strike". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Karl, Jonathan; Mallin, Alexander (7 April 2017). "Tillerson: Russia 'complicit' or 'incompetent' with Syria". ABC News. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Bannon Lost To Kushner In Syria Strike Debate". Daily Caller. April 7, 2017.
- Allen, Nick (7 April 2017). "Was Donald Trump's missile strike in Syria illegal?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Ackerman, Bruce (7 April 2017). "Trump Must Get Congress's O.K. on Syria". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Siddiqui, Sabrina; Gambino, Lauren (7 April 2017). "Are Donald Trump's missile strikes in Syria legal?". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Cevallos, Danny (8 April 2017). "Were Trump's missile strikes illegal?". CNN. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Epps, Garrett (9 April 2017). "Trump's Unlawful Attack in Syria". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
Trump launched an attack on Bashar al-Assad’s government without the legal authority to do so... Thursday night, without a word to Congress or the public, the Trump Administration impulsively began a third conflict. Neither of the existing authorizations could even remotely be said to authorize Thursday's attack on Syria.
- "On Syria, an Administration in Disagreement With Itself". The New York Time. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Martin, David (April 7, 2017). "U.S. Navy commodore in charge of Syria strike destroyers discusses mission". CBS News. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
- "Syria bombs ISIS after US kills Syrian troops by accident | Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
- Smith-Spark, Laura; Starr, Barbara (7 April 2017). "US investigates possible Russia role in Syria chemical attack". CNN. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- US strikes on Syrian base: what we know – AFP. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Liewer, Steve (February 15, 2019). "Offutt-based fliers who saved Trump-ordered Syria strike mission earn 'recon crew of the year' award". Omaha World-Herald.
- "Statement from Pentagon Spokesman Capt. Jeff Davis on U.S. strike in Syria". U.S. Central Command. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- CNN, Laura Smith-Spark and Barbara Starr. "US investigates possible Russia role in Syria chemical attack".
- CNN, Barbara Starr and Jeremy Diamond. "Trump launches military strike against Syria".
- "Why didn't the US crater Syria's runways? - The National".
- Jaeger, Max (7 April 2017). "Syrian warplanes take off from same air base US bombarded".
- "Syrian warplanes take off once again from air base bombed by US Tomahawks". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Sputnik. "Syrian Air Force Resumes Flights From US-Attacked Airfield - Military Source". sputniknews.com. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Westcott, Ben (11 April 2017). "US missile strike took out 20% of Syria's airforce, Mattis claims". CNN.
- "ISI first to analyze Shayrat airfield missile attack". ImageStat International. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- "The Latest: Group says at least 4 killed in US Syria attack". Idaho Statesman. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Syrian monitor says airbase almost destroyed in strike". Reuters UK. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Latest update from Syrian airbase attacked by US Navy". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Syrian jets take off from air base hit by US". ABC News. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Russia plans to bolster Syrian air defences, and derides US over 'extremely low' effectiveness of bombing". 7 April 2017.
- Hennessy-Fiske, Molly; Bulos, Nabih (7 April 2017). "Syrians report 15 dead in U.S. airstrike". Los Angeles Times. Irbil. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Konashenkov, Igor (7 April 2017). "MoD to hold briefing after US strike in Syria – TAPE FEED". RT. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Nine Syrian planes destroyed by US strike on airfield". ITV News. 7 April 2017.
- "Based on very high resolution imagery captured less than 10 hours after the attack, ISI presents in depth battle damage assessment". ImageSat International. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "4 children among 9 civilians dead in US airstrike on Syria strike: state media - The Express Tribune". tribune.com.pk. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Four children among nine civilians dead in US Syria strike: state media". Yahoo News, AFP. 7 April 2017.
- Dolejší, Karel (7 April 2017). "Pokud Trump nařídí útok na Asada, má v kapse "velkou" dohodu s Putinem" [If Trump orders an attack on Assad, he has "big" deal with Putin]. Britské listy (in Czech). Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Dolejší, Karel (7 April 2017). "Noční útok v Sýrii: Rusové byli varováni, tedy i Asad. Provoz ostřelované základny lze obnovit v řádu týdnů" [Night attack in Syria: The Russians have been warned, including Assad. Operation bombarded bases can be restored in a matter of weeks]. Britské listy. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Lynch, Suzanne (7 April 2017). "United States warns: we're 'prepared to do more' in Syria". The Irish Times. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Russia plans to bolster Syrian air defences, and derides US over 'extremely low' effectiveness of bombing". independent.co.uk. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Минобороны РФ вызвало на ковер военного атташе при посольстве США". newsru.com. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Syria war: US warns of 'more' after missile strikes". BBC. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Syria: Here's what you need to know about Trump's strike on air base". ABC News Australia. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Belgium suspends air operations above Syria after US strike. Ara News.
- U.S.-Led Force Reduces Attacks on ISIS in Syria After Airstrike. The New York Times. 2017-04-08.
- Fadel, Leith (7 April 2017). "ISIL launches offensive near military base targeted by US missiles". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Fadel, Leith (7 April 2017). "ISIL takes advantage of US attack on government to storm western Palmyra". Al-Masdar News. Beirut. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- ISIS used US missile strike to launch new offensive near Palmyra, Homs governor tells RT. RT. 7 April 2017.
- "Syrian jets take off from air base U.S. missiles struck: Syrian Observatory". Reuters. 7 April 2017.
- Sile, Aza Wee; Ming, Cheang (7 April 2017). "Oil jumps, dollar slightly weaker as US fires dozens of missiles at targets in Syria". CNBC. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Schulberg, Jessica (9 April 2017). "Trump Administration Is Contradicting Itself On Regime Change In Syria". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Baker, Peter; Harris, Gardiner (10 April 2017). "On Trump's Syria Strategy, One Voice Is Missing: Trump's". The New York Time. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Cillizza, Chris (10 April 2017). "Nikki Haley says 'regime change' in Syria. Rex Tillerson doesn't. What gives?". CNN. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Ackerman, Spencer (11 April 2017). "What's Trump's plan for Syria? Five different policies in two weeks". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Benjamin, Daniel; Simon, Steven (14 April 2017). "Just What Is Trump Trying to Do in Syria?". Politico. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- Roth, Richard (4 April 2017). "US takes turn atop UN Security Council". CNN. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Roth, Richard (11 April 2017). "Inside the tense closed-door UN Security Council deliberations on Syria". CNN. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
...Haley, serving as council president for the month, was in charge.
- Shaw, Adam (7 April 2017). "Haley forces Bolivia to defend Assad 'atrocities' in 'public view' at UN session". Fox News.
- "Bolivia mercilessly trolls US over Iraq WMD lie in front of UN Security Council (VIDEO)". RT. 7 April 2017.
- "SC/12783: Members Warn That Persistent Deadlock Threatens Security Council's, 'Remaining Credibility', in Meeting on United States Air Strike against Syria". United Nations News. 7 April 2017.
- Johnston, Chris (8 April 2017). "Boris Johnson cancels trip to Moscow after US strikes on Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Luhn, Alec (11 April 2017). "G7 rejects UK call for sanctions against Russia and Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Watts, Joe (11 April 2017). "UK and US push for new Russia sanctions rejected by European allies at G7 meeting". The Independent. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "US officials: Syria moves planes to Russian base for protection". CNN. 19 April 2017.
- "Statement on U.S. Airstrikes in Syria". 6 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- McCaskell, Nolan D. (7 April 2017). "McConnell: Trump's airstrike didn't need congressional authorization". Politico. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Fowler, Tara (6 April 2017). "Strike on Syria gets mixed reaction from lawmakers". ABC News. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- Vavra, Shannon; Savitsky, Shane (7 April 2017). "Reactions to U.S. strikes in Syria". Axios. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Ford, Matt (6 April 2017). "A Polarized Political Response to Trump's Syria Strike". The Atlantic. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Tanner, Courtney (April 7, 2017). "Chaffetz lauds U.S. airstrike on Syria; Stewart commends Trump's swift action; 'Amen,' Hatch says". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Barron-Lopez, Laura; Michael, McAuliff (April 7, 2017). "Congress Loves The Syria Strike. But Senators Can't Say Why Trump Thinks It's Legal". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- Shabad, Rebecca (6 April 2017). "What is Congress saying about the Syria missile strike?". CBS News. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Frizell, Sam (7 April 2017). "Syria Missile Attack Gets Mixed Reaction in Congress". Time. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Labott, Elise; Gaouette, Nicole (April 8, 2017). "After Syria strike, populist supporters abandon Trump at home and abroad". CNN. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
- Carney, Jordain (6 April 2017). "Paul, Lee: Congress needs to vote on Trump's military action in Syria". The Hill. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Prokop, Andrew (6 April 2017). "Syria strike reactions: what top Republicans and Democrats in Congress are saying". Vox. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Blake, Andrew (April 7, 2017). "Ron Paul, former congressman, says 'zero chance' Assad gassed Syrians". The Washington Times. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
- "Out of 47 Major Editorials on Trump's Syria Strikes, Only One Opposed". FAIR. 2017-04-11. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
- "Syrian Airstrikes Rekindle Media's Love Affair With US Violence". FAIR. 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
- Clement, Scott (10 April 2017). "Poll: Narrow support for Trump's strike in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Edwards-Levy, Ariel (9 April 2017). "Poll: 51 Percent Support Strikes In Syria, But Most Don't Think They'll Be Effective". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- Cillizza, Chris (11 April 2017). "Americans back the Syria bombing. They're much more divided on what comes next". CNN. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- Shepard, Steven (12 April 2017). "Poll: Voters back Syria airstrikes". Politico. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- "After Syria strike, some Trump supporters doubt his 'America First' priorities". WJLA-TV. April 7, 2017.
- Anthony, Charles (7 April 2017). "Trump supporters are not happy about missile strikes on Syria". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- Hern, Salvador; Reporter, ez BuzzFeed News. "Alt-Right And White Nationalist Supporters Led Tense Protests Against Trump's Airstrikes on Syria". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
- Papenfuss, Mary (April 8, 2017). "Syria Protest Turns Violent in Florida As Hundreds Hit The Streets In U.S. Cities". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Byfield, Erica (April 7, 2017). "Hundreds in Midtown, Union Square Protest US Airstrike in Syria". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Denis Slattery; Esha Ray (April 7, 2017). "Protesters lash out at President outside Trump Tower in response to Syria airstrikes". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Miller, Steve (April 7, 2017). "Chicago Protesters Blast Trump's Missile Strike On Syria". CBS Chicago. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Al-Khalidi, Suleiman (9 April 2017). "Assad allies say U.S. attack on Syria air base crosses 'red lines'". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Sharman, Jon (9 April 2017). "Russia and Iran warn US they will 'respond with force' if red lines crossed in Syria again". The Independent. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "US 'aggression' causes losses: Syrian state media". World Bulletin. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Donald Trump's Syrian airstrike 'significant blow to US-Russia relations', says Kremlin". The Guardian. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Homs governor: Strike clear sign US backs 'terrorists'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Syria's Assad Calls U.S. Airstrikes an Outrageous Act". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Assad claims Syria chemical attack was 'fabrication', in face of evidence". CNN. 13 April 2017.
- "Syrian National Coalition hails US strike on Homs base". Al Jazeera. 7 April 2017.
- "KNC leader arrested after increasing tensions between rival Kurdish parties in Syria". ARA News. 14 August 2016.
- Wladimir van Wilgenburg (8 April 2017). "Syrian Kurds welcome Trump airstrikes". ARA News.
- "All groups in Syria with chemical weapons should be targeted: PYD co-leader". Kom News. 8 April 2017. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017.
- Robinson, Julian. "Putin calls US strikes against Syria 'aggression against sovereign country'". TASS. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "What We Know About the U.S. Military Strike Against Syria". New York. 7 April 2017.
- "Заявление МИД России в связи с вооруженной акцией США в Сирии 7 апреля 2017 года".
- "TASS: Lavrov compares US strike in Syria to 2003 Iraq invasion". Focus News. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Медведев объявил, что разгромом военной базы в Сирии США поставили себя "на грань боевых столкновений с Россией"".
- "Russia says US air strikes in Syria came 'within an inch' of military clash with their forces". The Independent. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Russia Sends Frigate to Mediterranean Following U.S. Retaliation Strike; U.S. Destroyers Remain On Station". USNI News. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Nich, Michelle; Osborn, Andrew; Perry, Tom (8 April 2017). "Russia warns of serious consequences from U.S. strike in Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Iran's Rouhani says Trump abetting Syria 'terrorists'". SBS News. 8 April 2017.
- "Iran issues threat over US strikes in Syria". Fox News Channel. 7 April 2017.
- "Zarif slams US hypocrisy in siding with terrorists". Mehr News. 7 April 2017.
- "Fears of more chaos in the Middle East after US strike in Syria". Euronews. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- Marashi, Reza (2017-06-19). "Is Iran's Ballistic Missile Use Trump's Fault?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Albania and Kosovo, pro-attack". Top Channel (in Albanian). 7 April 2017. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "'Australian government strongly supports' Syria strike: Turnbull". SBS World News. 7 April 2017. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia, Bahrain voice support for US missile strike on Syria". Arab News. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Bulgaria 'accepts' US air strike on Syrian airport as part of efforts to stop use of chemical weapons – Foreign Ministry". The Sofia Globe. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Canada supports 'limited and focused' U.S. military action against Syria, Trudeau says". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Čeští politici vítají úder USA na Sýrii, Zeman chce vyšetření chemického útoku" (in Czech). Novinky.cz. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Denmark backs US attack on Syrian airbase". The Copenhagen Post. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Mikser: US attack on Syria 'appropriate and necessary'". news.err.ee. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Merkel, Hollande voice support for US strike against Assad". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Netanyahu praises 'message of resolve' in US strike on Syria". The Times of Israel. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Italy Says It Supports US Strikes on Syria". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Japan supports U.S. missile strike in Syria". Japan Today. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Jordan says U.S. strike on Syria was 'necessary response'". The Jerusalem Post. Reuters. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Kuwait, GCC states including Qatar support US strikes". Kuwait News Agency. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Rinkēvičs: Syria strike was an adequate reaction". LSM. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Grybauskaitė: Syrian, Russian leaders must know red lines". DELFI. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Foreign Affairs Minister Murray McCully on US air strikes: 'We can understand why'". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Dette mener Norge om Syria-angrep".
- "Poland Supports US Actions on Syria". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Premierul Grindeanu, dupa atacul din Siria: "Aceste lucruri trebuie pedepsite". Reactia MAE: "Suntem solidari cu Aliatii"". Pro TV. 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia Says Fully Supports US Military Strikes". The Jerusalem Post. 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "'Turkey welcomes 'significant' US strikes on Syria base". Anadolu Agency. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine on Syria". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "UAE backs U.S. air strikes against Syrian regime". Emirates News Agency. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Packham, Colin (7 April 2017). "Iran condemns air strike in Syria; Britain, Australia give support". Sydney. Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Syria war: World reaction to US missile attack". BBC News. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Southern EU leaders defend US strike on Syria". EurActiv. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Syria: Asselborn: US strike not coherent military strategy". 7 April 2017.
- "Koenders: begrip voor VS maar de-escalatie nu belangrijk". NOS. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "State Secretary I. Korčok with US Ambassador on current situation in Syria". Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Chemical attack in Syria and US air strike discussed at the Ministerial Committee on Foreign and Security Policy". Finnish Government Communications Department. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Sebastian Kurz und sein dänischer Amtskollege Anders Samuelsen verurteilten Anschlag in Stockholm" (in German). Austrian Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Cyprus says Trump Syria strike not 'considered to be beyond international law'". Famagusta Gazette. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Onyanga-Omara, Jane (7 April 2017). "U.S. allies praise Trump's strikes on a Syria airbase". USA Today. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Aisch, Gregor. "Which Countries Support and Which Oppose the U.S. Missile Strikes in Syria". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Yosephine, Liza (7 April 2017). "Indonesia 'concerned' over airstrike on Syria". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Source: Greece Warns Against Military Intervention in Syria After Missile Attack". Sputnik News. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Pettypice, Shannon; Sink, Justin; Jacobs, Jennifer (7 April 2017). "From steak dinner to makeshift situation room in Mar-a-Lago: Inside Trump's Syria strike". Tampa Bay Times. Bloomberg News.
- US strikes on Syria: Xi Jinping told Donald Trump he understood the US response 'because of the death of children', Telegraph
- "Egypt urges US, Russia to 'contain conflict' following Syria airstrikes". Al-Ahram Weekly. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "An American-Russian accord is needed, but this is something we are currently very far from". Government of Hungary. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- @JuanManSantos (7 April 2017). ""Hago un llamado a encontrar una solución política en Siria y a que el diálogo entre EE UU y Rusia evite que escale la ya compleja situación" (Tweet) (in Spanish) – via Twitter.
- "Swiss warn against military escalation in Syria". swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Taoiseach 'concerned' by US airstrike on Syria". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "U.S. Airstrikes in Syria: Fallout Around the World". The New York Times. 7 April 2017.
- "US Imperialism Attacks Syria, Venezuela Based on Lies: Maduro". Telesur. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "Belarus describes U.S. missile attack on Syrian airfield as unacceptable". 7 April 2017.
- "Brazil condemns 'unilateral use of force' in the U.S. attack on Syria". Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Ju-min Park; Jack Kim (8 April 2017). "North Korea calls U.S. strikes on Syria 'unforgivable': report". Reuters. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Syria: As US responds militarily to chemical attack, UN urges restraint to avoid escalation". United Nations News Centre. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2017 Shayrat missile strike.|
- U.S. Department of Defense announcement
- Documentation of assessment by Russian experts of the strike, Jamestown Foundation, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol. 14, Issue 50, by Roger McDermott