Battle of Stalingrad
Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians by air raids, it is often regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses, the German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the German 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble, the fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting, and both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, the Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out, attempts were made to supply the army by air.
Heavy fighting continued for two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition, the remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days, the war had been progressing well, the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been very successful and Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, they had stabilized their front in a running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not particularly threatening, neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been particularly hard pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again, with the initial operations being very successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union. The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the capacity of the city.
The river was a key route from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to central Russia and its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields when they captured Rostov on 23 July, the capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. On 23 July 1942, Hitler personally rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign, both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union. The expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germanys failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence, the Soviets realized that they were under tremendous constraints of time and resources and ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny I must finish this war, Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there
Kupiansk, is a city in the Kharkiv Oblast of eastern Ukraine. Serving as the center of the Kupiansk Raion, the city itself is directly subordinated to the oblast. The current estimated population is around 32,449, the train station is a border station between Ukraine and Russia. Kupyansk-Gorod is about 2 1/2 hours from Kharkiv and you can take the train, a car, the bus, or the electrichka. Media related to Kupiansk at Wikimedia Commons
1st Air Army
The 1st Air Army was an Air Army in the Soviet Air Force which served during World War II. It was formed on May 10,1942, within the Soviet Western Front, after the war, it was reformed on July 1,1957, and was active until 1998. In 1942, the 1st Air Army fought alongside the troops of the Western Front, supporting them near Yukhnov, the Air Army participated in the Rzhev-Sychevka, Rzhev-Vyazma, Smolensk, Belarusian and East Prussian offensive operations. Pronin Major General Ivan M. Belov In 1957, the army was reformed by the amalgamation of the 29th Air Army and it served in the Far Eastern Military District until 1998. 33rd Hinganskaya Fighter-Bomber Aviation Division 229th Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment, Su-17, reequipped with Su-241990 and redesignated a Bomber Aviation Regiment. 83rd Bomber Aviation Division 277th Mlavsky Red Banner Bomber Aviation Regiment, 26th Guards Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment, Su-17. 523rd Orshanskiy Red Banner and Kutuzov Orders Recipient Fighter-Bomber Regiment, Su-17МЗ, regiments reporting directly to Army HQ included, 293rd Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment, Su-17.
799th Separate Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment, Su-24, in 1989 the 1st Air Army disbanded the headquarters of the 33rd Fighter-Bomber Aviation Division, and in 1994 the headquarters of the 303rd Fighter-Bomber Aviation Division. The 1st Air Army was merged with the 11th Air Defence Army in 1998 to form the 11th Air Force and Air Defence Army
Aero L-39 Albatros
The Aero L-39 Albatros is a high-performance jet trainer aircraft developed in Czechoslovakia by Aero Vodochody. It was designed during the 1960s as a replacement for the Aero L-29 Delfín as a training aircraft. The L-39 Albatros has the distinction of being the first of the second-generation jet trainers to be produced, the type was widely exported to a wide range of international operators as a military trainer. The L-39 Albatros served as the basis for the updated L-59 Super Albatros, a further development of the design, designated as the L-159 ALCA, entered production in 1997. To date, more than 2,800 L-39s have served with over 30 air forces around the world. The Albatros is the most widely used jet trainer in the world, in addition to performing basic and advanced pilot training, the design never received a NATO reporting name. At the Farnborough Airshow in July 2014, Aero Vodochody announced the launch of the L-39NG and this aircraft was to serve as a replacement for the Aero L-29 Delfín, an early jet-powered trainer, as a principal training aircraft.
Vlcek envisioned the type, a twin-seat single-engine aircraft, being adopted as the primary trainer throughout the Warsaw Pact nations, on 4 November 1969, the L-39 conducted its maiden flight, for which it was piloted by Rudolf Duchoň, the factorys test pilot. Serial production of the model of the L-39, designated L-39C. In 1974, the first L-39 trainer entered service with the Czechoslovakian Air Force, several specialised variants of the base L-39 design were quickly introduced. In 1972, a target tug variant, the L-39V. In 1975, the first L-39ZO training/light combat model, which was equipped with four underwing hardpoints as well as a wing and modified landing gear. According to aerospace publication Flight International, roughly 200 L-39s were being sold each year upon the jet trainer market during the late 1980s, in 1996, production of the L-39 came to an end. One of the replacements for the L-39 Albatros was the Aero L-159 Alca, Aero Vodochody had intended to develop the L-159 in partnership with Elbit, but the Czech Ministry of Defense instead selected Rockwell Collins to partner on the program.
The L-39NG replaces the AI-25 turbofan with a Williams FJ44 engine, the airframe is modified, the fuel tanks being eliminated. First flight is planned during 2016, with starting in 2018. The L-39 Albatros was designed to be a cost-effective jet-powered trainer aircraft and it could be readily flown from austere airstrips such as frozen lakebeds, enabled through the rugged design of the landing gear and favourable low landing speeds. As a training platform, the L-39 itself comprised part of a system which used flight simulators
Soviet Air Forces
The Soviet Air Forces was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces, the Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Service in 1917, and faced their greatest test during World War II. The groups were involved in the Korean War, and dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991–92. Former Soviet Air Forces assets were divided into several air forces of former Soviet republics. March of the Pilots was its anthem, the All-Russia Collegium for Direction of the Air Forces of the Old Army was formed on 20 December 1917. This was a Bolshevik aerial headquarters initially led by Konstantin Akashev and it became the Directorate of the USSR Air Forces on 28 March 1924, and the Directorate of the Workers-Peasants Red Army Air Forces on 1 January 1925. Gradually its influence on aircraft design became greater, from its earliest days, the force mimicked ground forces organization especially in the 1930s, by which time it was made up of air armies, aviation corps, aviation divisions, and aviation regiments.
At first, the I-16 proved superior to any Luftwaffe fighters, the Soviets refused to supply the plane in adequate numbers, and their aerial victories were soon squandered because of their limited use. Later, Bf-109s delivered to Francos Spanish Nationalist air forces secured air superiority for the Nationalists, on 19 November 1939, VVS headquarters was again titled the Main Directorate of the Red Army Air Forces under the WPRA HQ. Between 1933 and 1938, the Soviet government planned and funded missions to break numerous world aviation records, not only did aviation records and achievements become demonstrations of the USSRs technological progress, they served as legitimization of the socialist system. With each new success, Soviet press trumpeted victories for socialism, Soviet media idolized record-breaking pilots, exalting them not only as role models for Soviet society, but as symbols of progress towards the socialist-utopian future. The early 1930s saw a shift in focus away from collectivist propaganda.
In the case of aviation, the government began glorifying people who utilized aviation technology instead of glorifying the technology itself. Pilots such as Valery Chkalov, Georgy Baydukov, Alexander Belyakov, in May 1937, Stalin charged pilots Chkalov and Belyakov with the mission to navigate the first transpolar flight in history. On 20 June 1937, the aviators landed their ANT-25 in Vancouver, a month later, Stalin ordered the departure of a second crew to push the boundaries of modern aviation technology even further. The public reaction to the flights was euphoric. The media called the pilots Bolshevik knights of culture and progress, Soviet citizens celebrated Aviation Day on 18 August with as much zeal as they celebrated the October Revolution anniversary. Literature including poems, short stories, and novels emerged celebrating the feats of the aviator-celebrities, feature films like Victory, Tales of Heroic Aviators, and Valery Chkalov reinforced the positive hero imagery, celebrating the aviators individuality within the context of a socialist government
Donetsk Oblast is an oblast of eastern Ukraine. It is the most populated oblast, with around 4.5 million residents and its administrative center is Donetsk, its Regional State Administration was relocated to Mariupol, a temporary measure due to the ongoing crisis in Donetsk. Historically, the region is an important part of the Donbas region, until November 1961, it bore the name Stalino Oblast, as its capital Donetsk was named Stalino in honour of Joseph Stalin at that time. The oblast is known for its urban sprawl and is associated with mining industry. Subsequently, the War in Donbass started, after Donetsk was under control of the separatist government, the Donetsk Oblast administration was relocated to Mariupol, and to Kramatorsk. Before the establishment of the first Donetsk Oblast, three districts existed on its territory from 1923 to 1930, the Donetsk Governorate was terminated in 1925. As part of Soviet Ukraine, Donetsk Oblast was established on 2 July 1932 out of Kharkiv Oblast, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, artemivsk served as the oblasts administrative center for two weeks until 16 July 1932, when the city of Stalino took on the role.
Until 1938, Donetsk Oblast included the territories of modern Donetsk Oblast, in June 1938 it was split into Stalino Oblast and Voroshylovhrad Oblast. During the Nazi German occupation from fall 1941 to fall 1943, as part of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union, in 1961 Stalino along with Stalino Oblast were renamed into Donetsk and Donetsk Oblast, respectively. During the dissolution of the Soviet Union,83. 9% of voters in Donetsk Oblast approved Ukraines declaration of independence in the 1991 referendum. In the mid-1990s the region known for its heightened criminal activity, including the killings of high-profile business people such as Akhat Bragin. In late 2004, the Party of Regions was involved in the creation of a project, South-East Ukrainian Autonomous Republic. In 2014 Ukraine lost control over its border with Russia in Donetsk Oblast, portions of the region are being controlled by the Novorossiya Armed Forces and claimed by the self-proclaimed Donetsk Peoples Republic. Donetsk Oblast is located in southeastern Ukraine, the area of the oblast, comprises about 4. 4% of the total area of the country.
Its longitude from north to south is 270 km, from east to west –190 km, the state historic-architectural preserve near the city of Sviatohirsk with the Sviatohirsk Lavra was nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine. The province is divided into 18 raions and 28 municipalities of equal status. These are listed below with their areas and populations, the provinces secondary division consists of various municipalities that are governed by their councils. Those municipalities may consist of one or more populated places, all are administratively subordinate to the raion in which they are located
Samarkand, alternatively Samarqand or Samarcand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Central Asia. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia, by the time of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, it was the capital of the Sogdian satrapy. The city was taken by Alexander the Great in 329 BC, the city was ruled by a succession of Iranian and Turkic peoples until the Mongols under Genghis Khan conquered Samarkand in 1220. Today, Samarkand is the capital of Samarqand Region, and Uzbekistans second largest city, the city is noted for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur and is the site of his mausoleum, the Bibi-Khanym Mosque remains one of the citys most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city, the city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics and painting on wood.
In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures, the name probably originates in the Sogdian words asmara, stone and kand, town. Along with Bukhara, Samarkand is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Central Asia, archeological excavations held within the city limits as well as suburban areas unearthed evidence of human activity as early as 40,000 years old, in the late Paleolithic era. A group of Mesolithic era archeological sites were discovered at Sazagon-1, the Syob and Dargom canals, supplying the city and its suburbs with water, appeared around the 7th to 5th centuries BC. There is no evidence when Samarkand was founded. Researchers of the Institute of Archeology of Samarkand argue for the existence of the city between the 8th and 7th centuries BC, Samarkand has been one of the main centres of Sogdian civilization from its early days. By the time of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia it had become the capital of the Sogdian satrapy, Alexander the Great conquered Samarkand in 329 BC.
The city was known as Maracanda by the Greeks, written sources offer small clues as to the subsequent system of government. They tell of an Orepius who became ruler not from ancestors, while Samarkand suffered significant damage during Alexanders initial conquest, the city recovered rapidly and under the new Hellenic influence flourished. There were major new construction techniques, oblong bricks were replaced with square ones and superior methods of masonry, Alexanders conquests introduced into Central Asia classical Greek culture, at least for a time the Greek models were followed closely by the local artisans. After the Kushan era the city declined, it did not really revive until the 5th century, Samarkand was conquered by the Sassanians around 260 AD. Under Sassanian rule, the became an essential site for Manichaeism. After the Hephtalites conquered Samarkand, they controlled it until the Göktürks, in an alliance with the Sassanid Persians, the Turks ruled over Samarkand until they were defeated by the Sassanids during the Göktürk–Persian Wars
Chuhuiv or Chuguev is a Ukrainian city in the province of Kharkiv. The city is the center of the Chuhuivskyi district. The estimated population is 36438, the Citys founding date is disputed with historical assertions ranging from 1540 to 1627. Some academics purport the city was built upon the orders Russias first Tsar Ivan the Terrible who reigned from 1547 to 1584, a military fort was built adjacent to the city in 1638 by order of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich. This military presence near Chuhuiv has continued throughout history, during the government of the Soviet Union the base became an important military training center. The base has been home to the Soviet Air Force Pilot Academy, presently there is a Ukrainian Air Force base adjacent to the town. The city is most famous for being the home of a major Soviet Air Force base, there is currently a Ukrainian Air Force base in the city. Generally, the city has been an important military point since Cossack times, there was a Soviet Red Army Artillery School in Chuhuyiv before World War II.
There are eight schools in Chuhuiv where several Peace Corps volunteers have served since 2004
Sczyapan Yakimavich Krasuisky was a Soviet Air Force Marshal of the aviation. Born to a peasant family, Krasovsky was drafted into the Imperial Russian Army at 1916, soon after the October Revolution, he joined the Red Guards, and - the Red Army. Joining the Communist party on 1918, Krasovsky became an observation pilot and he took part in the Civil War, fighting in the battles against Admiral Kolchak. After a diverse service in the Air Force, Krasovsky graduated from the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy at 1936, afterwards, he supervised the Leningrad Military Districts air component. During the Soviet-Finnish War, he commanded the 13th Air Army, at 4 June 1940, while supervising the Krasnodar Military Flight Academy, he was promoted to a Major General. On June 1941, he was the chief of the North Caucasus Military District air component, soon after the German Invasion, Krasovsky was appointed commander of the 56th Army Aerial Detachment, on August 1941. He commanded the Bryansk Front aerial units, and from November 1942 - the 17th Air Army, at 20 December that year, he was made a Lieutenant General.
From March 1943, Krasovsky headed the 2nd Air Army, an office he held until the wars end. His forces took part in the battles of Kursk and Western Ukraine, Silesia, on 4 February 1944, he was promoted to Colonel-General. On 29 May 1945, he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, until 1947, Krasovsky remained the commander of the 2nd Air Army. Then, he was assigned as chief of the Air Force in the Far East, in September 1951, he was sent as an advisor to the Chinese Air Force for a year. After a further year as the commander of the Air Forces of the Moscow Military District, from 1956 until retirement at 1968, Krasovsky was the commander of the Gagarin Air Force Academy, receiving his final promotion to Marshal of Aviation on 8 May 1959. He was a member of the Central Auditing Commission from 1961 to 1966, in July 1970 he was called from retirement to serve as an inspector in the Ministry of Defense
The Mil Mi-8 is a medium twin-turbine helicopter, originally designed by the Soviet Union, and now produced by Russia. In addition to its most common role as a helicopter, the Mi-8 is used as an airborne command post, armed gunship. Along with the related, more powerful Mil Mi-17, the Mi-8 is among the worlds most-produced helicopters, as of 2015, it is the third most common operational military aircraft in the world. Due to the position of the engine, this enabled Mikhail Mil to justify redesigning the front half of the aircraft around the single engine. The prototype, which was named V-8, was designed in 1958, powered by an AI-242,010 kW Soloviev turboshaft engine, the single engined V-8 prototype had its maiden flight in June 1961 and was first shown on Soviet Aviation Day parade in July 1961. During an official visit to the United States in September 1959, on Khrushchevs return, he ordered the creation of a similar helicopter, which was to be ready for the return visit by the American president, to save face.
A luxury version of the Mi-4 was quickly created and Khrushchev took an inspection flight, however, it would be necessary to have a second engine for reliability. In May 1960, the order was given for Mikhail Mil to create his twin engine helicopter, the Sergei Isotov Design Bureau accepted the task of creating the engines. The second prototype flew in September 1961, the aircraft completed its factory based testing in February 1963. The fifth and final prototype was a production prototype for the passenger market. In November 1964, all joint testing had completed and the soviet government began mass production. Production started in the Kazan Production Plant, with the first aircraft completed by the end of 1965 and it was only that the Soviet military rushed a troop-carrying variant of the Mil Mi-8 into production. By 1967, it had introduced into the Soviet Air Force as the Mi-8. There are numerous variants, including the Mi-8T, which, in addition to carrying 24 troops, is armed with rockets, the Mil Mi-17 export version is employed by around 20 countries, its equivalent in Russian service in the Mi-8M series.
The only visible difference between the Mi-8 and Mi-17 is that the rotor is on the starboard side of the Mi-8. Also Mi-17 has some improved armour plating for its crew, the naval Mil Mi-14 version is derived from the Mi-8. The Mi-8 is constantly improving and the newest version still remains in production in 2016, the Mi-8 family of helicopters became the main Soviet and Russian helicopter covering a large range of roles in both peace time and war time. Large fleets of Mi-8 and its derivatives are employed by military and civil operators