England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father and he captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of Æthelflæd, his sister. All but two of his charters give his title as Anglorum Saxonum rex, a title first used by his father, Alfred. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde and the rulers of Northumbria chose as father and lord in 920, Edwards cognomen the Elder was first used in Wulfstans Life of St Æthelwold to distinguish him from the King Edward the Martyr. Mercia was the dominant kingdom in southern England in the eighth century, thereafter the two kingdoms became allies, which was to be an important factor in English resistance to the Vikings. In 865 the Danish Viking Great Heathen Army landed in East Anglia, the East Anglians were forced to buy peace and the following year the Vikings invaded Northumbria, where they appointed a puppet king in 867.
They moved on Mercia, where spent the winter of 867–868. The following year, the Danes conquered East Anglia, and in 874 they expelled King Burgred, in 877 the Vikings partitioned Mercia, taking the eastern regions for themselves and allowing Ceolwulf to keep the western ones. The situation was transformed the following year when Alfred won a victory over the Danes at the Battle of Edington. He was thus able to prevent the Vikings from taking Wessex and western Mercia, although they still occupied Northumbria, East Anglia, Alfred the Great married his Mercian queen Ealhswith in 868. Her father was Æthelred Mucel, Ealdorman of the Gaini, and her mother and Ealhswith had five children who survived childhood. Their first child was Æthelflæd, who married Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, Edward was next, and the second daughter, Æthelgifu, became abbess of Shaftesbury. The third daughter, Ælfthryth, married Baldwin, Count of Flanders, and this would usually suggest that he was intended for the church, but it is unlikely in Æthelweards case as he had sons.
There were a number of children who died young. Æthelflæd was probably born about a year after her parents marriage, yorke argues that he was therefore probably nearer in age to Ælfthryth than Æthelflæd. However, he led troops in battle in 893, and he must have been of age in that year as his oldest son Æthelstan was born about 894. They were taught the courtly qualities of gentleness and humility, and Asser wrote that they were obedient to their father and this is the only known case of an Anglo-Saxon prince and princess receiving the same upbringing. As a son of a king, Edward was an ætheling, even though he had the advantage of being the eldest son of the reigning king, his accession was not assured, as he had cousins who had a strong claim to the throne
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Penda of Mercia
Penda was a 7th-century King of Mercia, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is today the English Midlands. He repeatedly defeated the East Angles and drove Cenwalh the king of Wessex into exile for three years and he continued to wage war against the Bernicians of Northumbria. The etymology of the name Penda is unknown, Penda of Mercia is the only monarch with this name, but a number of Mercian commoners with the same name are on record. Suggestions for etymologies of the name are divided between a Celtic and a Germanic origin. The names of members of a Northumbrian brotherhood are recorded in the ninth century Liber vitae Dunelmensis, the name Penda occurs in this list and is categorised as a British name. John T. Koch noted that, Penda and a number of royal names from early Anglian Mercia have more obvious Brythonic than German explanations. These royal names include those of Pendas father Pybba, and of his son Peada and it has been suggested that the firm alliance between Penda and various British princes might be the result of a racial cause.
Continental Germanic comparanda for the name include a feminine Penta and a toponym Penti-lingen, Penda was a son of Pybba of Mercia and said to be an Icling, with a lineage purportedly extending back to Wōden. The Historia Brittonum says that Pybba had 12 sons, including Penda, besides Eowa, the pedigrees give Penda a brother named Coenwalh from whom two kings were said to descend, although this may instead represent his brother-in-law Cenwalh of Wessex. The time at which Penda became king is uncertain, as are the circumstances, another Mercian king, Cearl, is mentioned by Bede as ruling at the same time as the Northumbrian king Æthelfrith, in the early part of the 7th century. It is possible that Cearl and Penda were dynastic rivals, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Penda became king in 626, ruled for 30 years, and was 50 years old at the time of his accession. Furthermore, that Penda was truly 50 years old at the beginning of his reign is generally doubted by historians, the idea that Penda, at about 80 years of age, would have left behind children who were still young has been widely considered implausible.
The possibility has been suggested that the Chronicle actually meant to say that Penda was 50 years old at the time of his death, the noted 20th-century historian Frank Stenton was of the opinion that the language used by Bede leaves no doubt that. Penda, though descended from the family of the Mercians. Given the apparent problems with the dates given by the Chronicle, on the other hand, he might have been one of multiple rulers among the Mercians at the time, ruling only a part of their territory. The Chronicle says that after the battle and the West Saxons came to an agreement and it has been speculated that this agreement marked a victory for Penda, ceding to him Cirencester and the areas along the lower River Severn. These lands to the southwest of Mercia had apparently taken by the West Saxons from the Britons in 577. In the late 620s or early 630s, Cadwallon ap Cadfan, the British king of Gwynedd, became involved in a war with Edwin of Northumbria, the most powerful king in Britain at the time
Ealhswith or Ealswitha was the wife of King Alfred the Great. Her father was a Mercian nobleman, Æthelred Mucil, Ealdorman of the Gaini and her mother was Eadburh, a member of the Mercian royal family, and according to the historian Cyril Hart she was a descendant of King Coenwulf of Mercia. She was married to Alfred in 868 and his elder brother Æthelred was king, and Alfred was regarded as heir apparent. The Danes occupied the Mercian town of Nottingham in that year, Alfred became king on his brothers death in 871. Ealhswith is very obscure in contemporary sources and she did not witness any known charters, and Asser did not even mention her name in his life of King Alfred. In accordance with ninth century West Saxon custom, she was not given the title of queen, according to King Alfred, this was because of the infamous conduct of a former queen of Wessex called Eadburh, who had accidentally poisoned her husband. These were all part of his bookland, and they stayed in possession after her death.
It was probably after Alfreds death in 899 that Ealhswith founded the convent of St Marys Abbey and she died on 5 December 902, and was buried in her son Edwards new Benedictine abbey, the New Minster, Winchester. She is commemorated in two early tenth century manuscripts as the true and dear lady of the English, Ealhswith had a brother called Æthelwulf, who was ealdorman of western and possibly central Mercia under his nieces husband, Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, in the 890s. Alfred and Ealhswith had five children who survived to adulthood, consort of Alfred, king of the West Saxons. Athelstan Half King and his family, Alfred the Great, Assers Life of King Alfred & Other Contemporary Sources. Ealhswith wife of King Alfred d.902, in Ann Williams, Alfred P. Smyth and D. P. Kirby eds. A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain, cS1 maint, Uses editors parameter Ealhswith 1 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England Ealhswith at Find a Grave St. Marys Abbey
A son is a male offspring, a boy or man in relation to his parents. The female counterpart is a daughter, in China, a One-child Policy is in effect in order to address rapid population growth. Official birth records have shown a rise in the level of male births since the policy was brought into law and this has been attributed to a number of factors, including the illegal practice of sex-selective abortion and widespread under-reporting of female births. In patrilineal societies, sons will customarily inherit an estate before daughters, in some cultures, the eldest son has special privileges. For example, in Biblical times, the male was bequeathed the most goods from their father. Among Christians, the Son or Son of God refers to Jesus Christ, trinitarian Christians view Jesus as the human incarnation of God the second person of the Trinity, known as God the Son. In the Gospels, Jesus sometimes refers to himself as the Son of Man, the Arabic word for son is ibn. Because family and ancestry are important cultural values in the Arab World and Islam and most Muslims often use bin, the bin here means son of.
For example, the Arab name Saleh bin Tarif bin Khaled Al-Fulani translates as Saleh, son of Tarif, son of Khaled, the opposite of ibn/bin is abu, meaning the father of. It is a retronym, given upon the birth of ones first-born son, for example, if Mahmouds first-born son is named Abdullah, from that point on Mahmoud can be called Abu Abdullah. This is cognate with the Hebrew language ben, as in Judah ben Abram HaLevi, which means Judah, son of Abram, ben is a standalone name. In many cultures, the surname of the family son of. It may vary between the beginning or the termination of the surname, Ibn Sina, Ibn Khaldun, etc. Examples, N ayt Ndir, Naït Zerrad, danish Sen. Example, Jensen, etc. Dutch Sen. Example, Petersen, Pietersen Zoon, Janszoon, Pieterszoon English s. Example, Wilson, Anderson, Hebrew ben or bin before 1300 BC. Also, the Hebrew word for person is ben Adam, meaning son of Adam, Example, di Stefano, di Giovanni, di Giuseppe, etc. de. Example, de Paolo, de Mauro, de Giorgio etc. d, Example, dAntonio, dAdriano, dAgostino etc.
-i, which comes from Latin ending for Genitive
It is catalogued as Rochester Cathedral Library, MS A.3.5 and is currently on display in a new exhibition at Rochester Cathedral, Kent. It is thought that the text of both manuscripts was written by a single scribe, although the glosses to a Latin entry were made by a second hand. A textus was a book with a decorated cover suitable to be kept in the church by the high altar, the term does not mean a text concerning Rochester Cathedral. A liber was a less decorated book, suitable only for the cloister and it is rare that a secular book is a textus, and the name given to the Textus Roffensis by the cathedral is considered indicative of the books importance during the Middle Ages. The two manuscripts were bound together in around 1300, the first part is a collection of documents which includes the Law of Æthelberht, attributed to Æthelberht of Kent, and the 1100 coronation charter of Henry I of England. The Law of Æthelberht is the oldest surviving English law code, the second part of the Textus Roffensis is the oldest of the Rochester Cathedral registers.
The entire volume consists of 235 vellum leaves, the book was named Britains Hidden Treasure by the British Library, was the subject of a conference at the University of Kent in 2010. It has been digitised and published on line by The University of Manchesters Centre for Heritage Imaging, the Production and Use of English Manuscripts 1060 to 1220. Englands Hidden Treasure is the focus of Kent conference and exhibition, preliminary Account of Notes on the Textus Roffensis, by Dr. F. Liebermann. OBrien, Bruce R, Barbara, Textus Roffensis, law and libraries in early medieval England. Their Hands Before Our Eyes, A Closer Look at Scribes and Their Traditions in the Medieval Library Rochester Cathedral Priory. Textus Roffensis, Parts I and II, medway Council City Ark The Textus Roffensis - scanned images of each of the pages of the Textus Roffensis
New Minster, Winchester
The New Minster in Winchester was a royal Benedictine abbey founded in 901 in Winchester in the English county of Hampshire. Alfred the Great had intended to build the monastery, but only got around to buying the land and his son, Edward the Elder, finished the project according to Alfreds wishes, with the help of Saint Grimbald who became its first abbot. It stood so close to the Old Minster that the voices of the two merged with chaotic results. The body of King Alfred was transferred to the New Minster, Saint Grimbald joined him and it was given the body of the Breton Saint Judoc. Queen Emma added the head of Saint Valentine in 1041 and it became a Benedictine house in 963. Victoria County History of Hampshire, New Minster, or the Abbey of Hyde
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With an estimated 2015 population of 168,270, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, the city is situated 57 miles from London,69 miles from Bristol,65 miles from both Southampton and Birmingham and 25 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as the city of dreaming spires, a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold, Oxford has a broad economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a number of information technology and science-based businesses. Oxford was first settled in Saxon times and was known as Oxenaforda, meaning Ford of the Oxen. It began with the establishment of a crossing for oxen around AD900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes, Oxford was heavily damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066.
Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert DOyly, the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. DOyly set up a community in the castle consisting of a chapel. The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britains oldest places of formal education and it was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place and we have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this concession and confirmation, a grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order, and friars of various orders all had houses of varying importance at Oxford. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century, the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort, these documents are often regarded as Englands first written constitution.
Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events, the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, what put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxfords earliest colleges were University College and Merton and these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers